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Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front. Agric. China    2007, Vol. 1 Issue (1) : 85-89     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-007-0016-9
Research article |
Effects of Cd and Pb pollution on soil enzymatic activities and soil microbiota
Shuqing LIU(),Zhixin YANG,Xiaomin WANG,Xiaogui ZHANG,Rutai GAO,Xia LIU
College of Resources and Environmental Science, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071001, China
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Abstract

Based on a representative sampling method and pot experiment with different concentrations of Cd and Pd, the enzymatic activities (urease, phosphatase, catalase, invertase), population of bacteria, fungus and actinomycete in the soil, the Cd and Pd pollution status of soil samples (from the wastewater-irrigated area of Baoding suburb) were appraised. Unitary linear and nonlinear curve-fitting optimization models were applied in the research, and the relationship between Pb and Cd causing pollution and enzymatic activities of the tested soils were discussed. The research may provide a theoretical basis for protecting the environment in the region of Baiyangdian Lake, Hebei province, prevent soil pollution, and ascertain biochemical indexes, which reflect soil heavy metal pollution levels.

The research results indicated that: (1) there was obvious accumulation of Pb and Cd in the wastewater-irrigated area, also the accumulation in wastewater-irrigated soil is more than that in fresh water-irrigated soil, and accumulation on surface layer was more than that in the lower layer. Pb and Cd contents in the tested soils exceeded the standards of soil background values for some major cities at home and abroad and the world soil Cd and Pb contents range. This means that the tested soil had reached a lightly polluted level; (2) there existed an obvious negative correlation between soil enzymatic activities and Pb and Cd contents in wastewater-irrigated soil, where the soil urease and catalase activities decreased obviously with the increase of Pb and Cd contents in soil. Therefore, the urease and catalase can be considered as biochemical indexes that reflect the degree of soil Pb and Cd pollution; (3) the pot experiments indicated that the influence of Cd on soil enzymatic activities was greater than that of Pb. Generally, the effect of Cd on soil phosphatase, urease, catalase is more obvious than that on invertase, while Pb has a more obvious effect on invertase than Cd; (4) pot experiments of triple cropping showed that, Cd and Pb had an obvious inhi biting effect on microbes. The influence sensitivity of Cd and Pb on different microbes was ordered as bacteria >actinomycete> fungus. Cd had a greater inhibiting effect on microbes than Pb, the influence of Cd and Pb on actinomycete and fungus was relatively smaller, therefore, bacteria can be chosen as an important index that reflects the effect of Cd and Pb on microbe sensitivity.

Keywords soil enzymatic activity      wastewater-irrigated soil      heavy metal pollution      microbial effect     
Issue Date: 22 February 2016
 Cite this article:   
Shuqing LIU,Zhixin YANG,Xiaomin WANG, et al. Effects of Cd and Pb pollution on soil enzymatic activities and soil microbiota[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2007, 1(1): 85-89.
 URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/10.1007/s11703-007-0016-9
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/Y2007/V1/I1/85
Soil No.* Irrigation type** Depth/cm O.M./g · kg-1 Total N/g · kg-1 Total P/g · kg-1 Available N/mg · kg-1 Available P/mg · kg-1 Physical clay/g · kg-1
1 Wa 0-20 29.3 1.150 1.432 99.7 28.9 322
2 Wa 20-40 18.7 0.839 1.295 68.0 15.5 364
3 Fa 0-20 17.1 0.581 1.469 63.9 24.7 319
4 Fa 20-40 10.0 0.424 1.188 42.3 12.6 316
5 Wb 0-20 29.2 1.166 1.429 100.8 29.3 310
6 Wb 0-20 21.9 0.899 1.174 110.8 19.6 327
7 Wb 20-40 14.3 0.509 0.840 53.1 4.1 328
8 Fb 0-20 17.7 0.789 1.162 45.6 11.5 364
9 Fb 20-40 12.4 0.715 1.027 58.0 4.3 443
10 Wc 0-20 22.1 0.892 1.181 110.0 19.4 321
11 Fc 0-20 17.8 0.830 1.169 79.6 11.6 365
12 Wd 0-20 35.0 1.028 1.705 72.6 31.0 347
13 Fd 0-20 15.6 0.617 1.388 42.7 10.5 335
14 We 0-20 13.9 0.706 1.813 86.8 19.5 330
15 Fe 0-20 15.8 0.624 1.393 43.0 10.5 334
16 We 0-20 21.5 0.648 1.817 2.0 3.1 344
Table 1  Physical and chemical properties of tested soil
SoilNo.* Irrigationtype* Depth/cm Catalase**/mL·g-1 Invertase**/mg·g-1 Urease/mg·g-1 Phosphatase/mg·g-1 Lead/mg·kg-1 Cadmium/mg·kg-1
1 W 0-20 2.12 1.6 0.24 0.7 34.2 1.05
2 W 20-40 2.3 1.78 0.43 0.43 16.45 1.06
3 F 0-20 2.28 1.66 2.23 0.55 16.4 0.66
4 F 20-40 2.12 0.73 0.82 0.22 12 0.86
5 W 0-20 1.16 1.64 0.82 0.76 34.1 1.15
6 W 0-20 2.4 3.04 0.71 0.81 34.3 1.06
7 W 20-40 2.68 0.56 0.23 0.3 16.5 0.86
8 F 0-20 2.7 3.9 1.5 0.9 29.7 1.05
9 F 20-40 3.71 1.74 0.78 0.45 0.86
10 W 0-20 2.43 3.06 0.73 0.83 34 1.05
11 F 0-20 2.69 3.88 1.45 0.89 31.9 1.05
12 W 0-20 2.29 3.24 1.67 1.01 29.8 0.86
13 F 0-20 2.85 4.53 4.6 1 25.2 0.66
14 W 0-20 2.74 6.17 2.3 1.21 29.7 0.86
15 F 0-20 2.83 4.51 4.58 0.98 25.3 0.66
16 W 0-20 2.45 3.63 3.4 0.74 25.4 0.67
Average W 0-20 2.23 3.2 1.33 0.87 31.64 0.96
F 0-20 2.67 3.7 2.87 0.86 25.7 0.82
Total average 0-20 2.41 3.41 1.97 0.86 29.17 0.9
Table 2  Soil enzyme activities Pb and Cd contents in the wastewater-irrigated area of Baoding City
Relation Mod## Lead and urease Mod## Lead and catalase
r# r2 a b r# r2 a b
Regression fitting S -0.804** 0.654 7.03 -0.17 S -0.795** 0.633 0.093 -0.05
F -0.715** 0.511 63.86 -0.13 D -0.645* 0.415 -7.24 0.69
H 0.673* 0.453 7.56 -0.19 B 0.497 0.240 25.99 1.49
Relation Mod Lead and invertase Mod Lead and alkaline phosphatase
r r2 a b r r2 a b
Regression fitting D 0.495 0.245 -4.62 0.51 B 0.705* 0.497 0.30 0.86
S -0.481 0.231 0.38 -0.43 D 0.637* 0.453 4.45 1.04
B 0.238 0.057 47.14 1.77 S -0.655* 0.429 0.07 0.03
Relation Mod Cadmium and urease Mod Cadmium and catalase
r r2 a b r r2 a b
Regression fitting S -0.899** 0.808 225.35 -5.53 S -0.852** 0.726 13.01 -1.76
D -0.892** 0.796 1.19 -1.39 D -0.724* 0.524 -0.28 0.77
B -0.889** 0.791 8.32 -7.06 B 0.500 0.250 0.95 1.32
Relation Mod Cadmium and invertase Mod Cadmium and alkaline phosphatase
r r2 a b r r2 a b
Regression fitting S -0.662* 0.438 19.49 -1.89 D 0.762** 0.581 -0.02 1.22
D 0.617* 0.381 -0.22 0.60 S -0.754** 0.568 2.82 -1.19
H -0.332 0.110 5.52 -2.36 B 0.716** 0.512 0.11 0.74
Table 3  Correlation between Pb and Cd contents and soil enzymatic activities and their regressive fitting results
Heavy metal The first treating concentration/mg · kg-1 Soil enzymatic activities* Soil microbes/CFU · g-1 dw · s-1
Urease Phosphatase Catalase Invertase Bacteria Actinomycete Fungus
Cd 0 2.26 1.09 2.97 4.55 6.345x1010 1.904x105 1.19x104
1 2.82 1.04 2.97 4.45 8.985x1010 2.142x105 2.38x104
5 2.04 1.03 3.09 4.75 4.762x1010 2.140x105 2.97x104
10 1.95 0.85 8.1 4.92 3.451x1010 3.570x105 5.36x104
50 1.74 0.6 2.97 4.88 2.737x1010 2.380x105 3.57x104
100 1.57 0.44 2.92 4.2 2.460x1010 3.330x105 2.38x104
200 0.57 0.17 2.44 2.08 1.428x1010 2.570x105 2.38x104
Pb 0 0.9 0.66 8.61 4.15 6.347x1010 2.499x105 8.33x104
10 0.98 0.62 8.51 4.48 8.330x1010 3.392x105 11.90x104
50 1.9 0.72 9.59 3.9 6.185x1010 2.620x105 6.54x104
200 2.08 0.78 8.65 4 4.757x1010 2.380x105 6.54x104
500 2.19 0.66 8.85 4.08 3.094x1010 2.261x105 5.95x104
1000 1.89 0.69 9.89 4.25 2.495x1010 1.964x105 1.19x104
2000 0.8 0.68 4.02 4 1.666x1010 1.488x105 1.19x104
Table 4  Influence of heavy metals on soil enzymatic activities and microbial effect
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