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Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front Agric Chin    2009, Vol. 3 Issue (3) : 311-318     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-009-0022-1
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Effect of oilseeds rich in linoleic and linolenic acids on milk production and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows
Yanxia GAO, Tao SUN, Jianguo LI()
Department of Animal Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071001, China
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Abstract  

Nine multiparous cows averaging 93±13 days in milk production (DIM) were used in a triple 3×3 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding them whole roasted flaxseed, cracked roasted soybean and fresh alfalfa in the diet on milk production, milk fatty acid profiles and the digestibility of nutrients. Each experimental period lasted 30 d and a sample collection was performed during the last 7 d. The cows were fed on the control basal diet (CON) or diets containing whole roasted flaxseed (FLA) or cracked roasted soybean (SOY). All diets were fed as a total mixed ration (TMR) and had similar concentrations of crude protein (CP), Net Energy Lactation (NEL), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The dry matter intake (DMI) was not significantly different (P>0.05), but tended to increase in FLA and SOY diets compared with the control (P>0.05). Cows in all treatments had a similar milk yield, although 4% fat corrected milk (FCM) yield was higher on the FLA and SOY diets than on the CON diet. Milk fat percentage (3.45%) increased in the FLA diet compared with the control (3.31%) and SOY diets (3.39%). Milk protein percentages were similar among the diets (P>0.05). There were similar digestibilities of DM, CP and ADF among the treatments and lower digestibilities of NDF and ether extract in the SOY diet compared with the CON diet. Feeding various oilseeds significantly increased the concentrations of C18∶1, C18∶3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The FLA diet decreased the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty-acids in the milk, which would improve the nutritive value of the milk.

Keywords oilseed      conjugated linoleic acid      milk fatty acid      dairy cow     
Corresponding Authors: LI Jianguo,Email:jgli@hebau.edu.cn   
Issue Date: 05 September 2009
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/10.1007/s11703-009-0022-1     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/Y2009/V3/I3/311
itemtreatment
CONFLASOYSEM
ingredient/% DM basiscorn silage5033.333.3
fresh alfalfa016.716.7
corn, ground shelled25.524.526.5
roasted whole flaxseed07.50
roasted cracked soybean007.5
wheat bran222
soybean meal2.52.50
peanut meal2.501
cottonseed meal64.51.5
flaxseed meal2.502.5
rapeseed meal222
malt root222
distillers dried grains with solubles2.52.52.5
sodium bicarbonate,0.50.50.5
dicalcium phosphate0.70.70.7
premix0.50.50.5
salt0.80.80.8
nutrient contents of the dietsNEL/(Mcal?kg-1 of DM)1.241.351.300.04
CP/% of DM13.113.113.00.3
NDF/% of DM34.735.835.41.3
ADF/% of DM23.722.823.20.8
calcium/% of DM0.740.730.770.03
phosphorus/% of DM0.460.450.470.015
ether extract/% of DM3.7a5.0b5.2b
fatty acids/% of total fatty acidsC12∶00.8a0b0b0.1
C14∶01.2a0b0.5b0.1
C16∶031.4a11.5b15.2b0.4
C16∶10.42a0.12b0.31a0.015
C18∶02.72.12.40.1
C18∶124.6a17.8b20.2ab0.8
C18∶229.8a31.4a47.2b1.3
C18∶39.1a36.9b14.2b0.3
Tab.1  Ingredient and nutrient composition of experimental diets for lactating dairy cows
itemtreatment
CONFLASOYSEM
initial BW/kg56555958711
finial BW/kg57957560314
BW change/(g?d-1)15517817813
average BW/kg57256759514
DMI/(kg?d-1)15.7017.0016.460.61
milk yield
actual/(kg?d-1)17.7319.1919.052.41
fat/%3.31a3.45b3.39ab0.18
fat yield/(kg?d-1)0.590.660.650.04
protein/%2.923.042.930.08
protein yield/(kg?d-1)0.520.580.560.04
4% FCM/(kg?d-1)15.89a17.61b17.31b1.61
ECM/kg?d-116.9518.8518.411.21
Tab.2  BW, DMI, milk yield and milk composition from cows fed experimental diets
apparent total tract digestibility,% of intaketreatment
CONFLASOYSEM
DM67.367.967.12.1
CP60.7163.7763.853.35
NDF39.39a38.30a34.49b4.48
ADF32.1832.3934.501.49
ether extract60.67a54.11b55.84b5.45
Tab.3  Effect of dietary on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients
itemtreatment
CONFLASOYSEM
C4∶026.3028.5826.841.58
C6∶014.6914.3313.540.75
C8∶010.109.068.931.08
C10∶020.8418.1818.251.58
C12∶022.3718.7219.511.61
C14∶077.9377.8775.882.57
C14:16.516.767.070.56
C16∶0197.37189.84194.945.98
C16∶17.287.859.391.21
C18∶089.54114.59106.1210.31
total C18∶1206.78a276.03b268.86b21.82
t11C18∶114.07a19.06b20.85b1.61
t12C18∶11.56a2.43b2.54b0.16
c9C18∶1189.38a251.61b242.45b11.28
c12C18∶11.76a2.93b3.02b0.22
C18∶213.35a16.41a24.621.01
C18∶31.55a4.62b4.52b0.18
total CLA7.08a10.18b12.01b0.93
c9t11CLA5.22a8.23b9.38b0.56
t10c12CLA0.390.340.540.03
c9c11CLA0.680.600.690.03
t9t11CLA0.70a1.01b1.41c0.11
C20∶31.40ab1.12b1.53a0.18
C20∶50.41a0.43a0.54b0.04
C22∶40.590.460.680.06
Omega-613.34a16.41a24.62b1.71
Omega-33.94a6.63b7.27b0.36
Omega-6/ Omega-33.39a2.48b3.39a0.28
Tab.4  Fatty acid composition of milk fat from feeding different fat sources (mg?g total fatty acid)
itemtreatment
CONFLASOYSEM
short (<C14)94.2988.8787.063.12
medium (C14-C16)289.08282.32287.288.21
long (>C18)524.46a699.76b687.57b28.87
saturated FA (SFA)459.13471.17463.999.39
SFA/% total FA64.5658.5257.634.21
monounsaturated FA (MUFA)220.56a290.64b285.32b13.83
MUFA/ % total FA31.02a36.10b35.44b2.34
polyunsaturated FA ( PUFA)31.45a43.28b55.74c3.38
PUFA, % total FA4.42a5.38b6.92c0.35
desaturated index
C14∶1/C14∶00.081a0.089b0.091b0.004
C16∶1/C16∶00.037a0.042a0.048b0.003
C18∶1/C18∶02.29a2.44a2.55b0.09
C9,t11CLA/t11C18∶10.37a0.43b0.45b0.04
Tab.5  The content of different kind of fatty acid in milk and desaturated index (mg?g total fatty acid)
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