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Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front Agric Chin    2009, Vol. 3 Issue (2) : 109-121     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-009-0025-y
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
A simulation model assisted study on water and nitrogen dynamics and their effects on crop performance in the wheat-maize system: (II) model calibration, evaluation and simulated experimentation
Hongzhan Lü1, Weili LIANG1(), Guiyan WANG1, David J. CONNOR2, Glyn M. RIMMINGTON2
1. Department of Agronomy, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071001, China; 2. School of Agriculture and Food Systems, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia; 3. Office of Global Learning, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67206, USA
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Abstract  

The test on the model with data collected from two years’ field experiments revealed an ability to satisfactorily simulate crop parameters such as LAI, biomass accumulation and partitioning, yield, and variables influencing crop growth and development as nitrogen uptake by crops and partitioning in different organs, and dynamics of soil water and nitrogen including infiltration and leaching. With the model, crop yield, water use efficiency (WUE), nitrogen use efficiency (NYE) and water-nitrogen leaching at specific soil layers under various water and nitrogen management practices were simulated to provide data used as references for designing sustainable nitrogen and water management practices.

The outputs of the simulated experiment with various treatments of irrigation and nitrogen application indicated that crop yield was closely related to water and nitrogen application, crop water use was positively related to irrigation amount, and nitrogen fertilization could improve the crop water use and WUE within certain limits. This is a valuable evidence to be considered in water-saving farming. Nitrogen uptake had a positive relation to nitrogen application, while irrigation to some extent improved its uptake by crops and hence increased NYE. Additionally, irrigation and fertilization had great effects on nitrogen leaching. Thus, in order to improve WUE and NYE, the model showed how nitrogen application and irrigation should be well coordinated.

Keywords wheat      maize      cropping system      water      nitrogen      simulation      model     
Corresponding Authors: LIANG Weili,Email:wayleel@hotmail.com   
Issue Date: 05 June 2009
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/10.1007/s11703-009-0025-y     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/Y2009/V3/I2/109
depth/cmtextureBD/(g?cm-3)OM/%AN/(mg?kg-1)AP/(mg?kg-1)AK/(mg?kg-1)TN/%FC/mmsoil retention curve (S = AqB)
AB
0-30CL1.41.1243.22640.8596.470.082117.61.71E3-5.7
30-40CL1.470.9130.81620.2390.320.08955.891.28E3-9.99
40-65SL1.321.0420.46810.9386.760.054100.702.10E3-5.2
65-71CL1.330.9521.1239.5986.310.05133.531.53 E3-7.8
71-90SL1.380.9022.5356.3587.520.05076.103.05E4-4.78
90-118CL1.420.7920.0003.4478.000.033112.111.28E3-9.99
118-160C1.330.6515.3202.8926.050.032164.61.28E3-9.99
160-200S1.390.510.0002.2215.320.028160.003.68E3-3.77
Tab.1  Soil characteristics of the experimental field
yearJan.–Mar.AprilMayJuneJulyAug.Sep.Oct.Nov.Dec.annual
1997661.8827.622.321.626.446.419.79.37.8249.0
199821.622.666.422.971.484.31.310.60.20.0301.3
19990.57.843.223.354.096.325.422.416.20.0289.1
20003.19.6529.733.5248.034.584.615.013.47.9479.8
30-yr ave.20.022.128.153.4147.5137.346.827.312.03.4498.0
Tab.2  Precipitation during the experimental years(mm)
itemwinter wheatsummer maizeannual
irrigation/mmnitrogen rate/(kg·hm-2)irrigation/mmnitrogen rate/(kg·hm-2)irrigation/mmnitrogen rate/(kg·hm-2)
I8837590375178750
II88+6037590375238750
III03759037590750
Tab.3  Irrigation and nitrogen treatments (1997-1998)
treatmentwinter wheatsummer maizeannual
irrigation/mmnitrogen rate/(kg?hm-2)nitrogen rate/(kg?hm-2)irrigation/mmnitrogen rate/(kg?hm-2)
I1F060+ 135001950
I1F160+ 135100100195200
I1F260+ 135200200195400
I1F360+ 135300300195600
I2F260+ 90200200150400
I2F360+ 90300300150600
Tab.4  Irrigation and nitrogen treatments (1999-2000)
cropphenostageobservedsimulateddifferenceχ2cχ2c, 4
wheatHenong 859S25/10/199725/10/19970.1764
E9/11/19977/11/1997-20.0181
SE10/04/199809/04/1998-10.1111
H28/04/199828/04/199800
F02/05/199801/05/1998-10.0323
M07/06/199806/06/1998–10.0149
maizeLudan 14S15/06/199815/06/1998χ2c, 30.1751
E21/06/199820/06/1998–10.0500
SE14/07/199812/07/1998-20.0952
T06/08/199806/08/199800
M10/10/199812/10/199820.0299
wheatLankao 906S28/10/199928/10/1999χ2c, 50.1775
E12/11/199913/11/199910.00632
SE09/04/200008/04/2000-10.00432
H30/04/200001/05/200010.00410
F03/05/200004/05/200010.00408
M12/06/200015/06/200030.09398
maizeLudan 14S22/06/200022/06/2000χ2c,40.1760
E27/06/200026/06/2000-10.00368
SE19/07/200018/07/2000-10.00354
T18/08/200016/08/2000-20.03030
M30/09/200001/10/200010.00312
Tab.5  Comparison of simulated and observed phenostage dates
croptreatment (1997-1998)treatment (1999-2000)
IIIIIII1F0I1F1I1F2I1F3
winter wheatsimulated6222624830395402603760045304
actual5840636536785800603059575298
error/%-6.561.50-4.386.86-0.12-0.78-0.28
summer maizesimulated7213.278406634.54952818486318301
actual7285.876396525.95213815084457957
error/%0.996-2.63-1.665.00-0.42-1.71-4.32
Tab.6  Comparison of simulated and observed yields in various treatments (kg·hm)
Fig.1  Comparison of simulated and measured LAI (II 1997-1998)
Fig.2  Comparison of simulated and measured LAI (I1F2 1999-2000)
Note: R, FL and EH represent green-recovering, flagging and ear-heading, respectively.
Fig.3  Comparison of simulated and measured biomass (I1F2 1999-2000)
Fig.4  Comparison of simulated and measured soil moisture content in treatment level II at 120 cm soil depth (1997-1998)
Fig.5  Comparison of simulated and measured soil moisture content in treatment level II at 200 cm soil depth (1997-1998)
Fig.6  Comparison of simulated and measured soil moisture content in treatment level I1F2 at 120 cm soil depth (1999-2000)
Fig.7  Comparison of simulated and measured soil moisture content in treatment level I1F2 at 200 cm soil depth (1999-2000)
Fig.8  Comparison of simulated and measured moisture content at different soil layers in treatment I1F2 (1999-2000)
Fig.9  Comparison of simulated and measured -N content at different soil layers in treatment I1F2 (1999-2000)
Fig.10  Simulated and measured grain nitrogen content in different treatment (1999-2000)
Fig.11  Simulated and measured leaf nitrogen content in treatment I1F2 (1999-2000)
Note: 3L is 3 leaves and SI is silking.
treatmentwinter wheatsummer maizeannual
totalcompositiontotalcomposition
irrigation/mmI118090 + 904040230
I227090 + 90 + 904040310
I336090 + 90 + 90 + 904040400
I445090 + 90 + 90 + 90 + 904040490
N fertilization/(kg?hm-2)F110050 + 5010050 + 50200
F2200100 + 100200100 + 100400
F3300150 + 150300150 + 150600
F4400200 + 200400200 + 200800
Tab.7  Treatment details of the virtual experiment
croptreatmentF1F2F3F4F-test
wheatI14822528350774203Frow > F0.05Fcolum > F0.05
I25412605660325341
I35170599661555646
I44095510454455119
maizeI16359768082938198Fcolum > F0.05
I26523777383158150
I36680786083318094
I46830793983398032
annualI111181129631337012401
I211935138291434713491
I311850138561448613740
I410925130431378413151
Tab.8  Simulated crop yields under various water and nitrogen treatment levels (kg?hm)
croptreatmentF1F2F3F4
WUEETWUEETWUEETWUEET
wheatI111.88405.813.04405.012.54404.910.36405.6
I212.43435.414.00432.513.90433.912.13440.1
I311.17462.913.15456.013.46457.312.10466.7
I48.10505.710.49486.711.21485.910.25499.2
maizeI115.68405.518.96405.120.52404.120.36402.6
I216.08405.519.19405.020.57404.120.25402.4
I316.48405.419.41404.920.62403.920.12402.2
I416.85405.419.61404.820.65403.819.97402.1
annualI113.78811.316.00810.116.53809.115.34808.2
I214.19840.916.51837.517.12838.116.01842.5
I313.65868.317.11809.916.82861.315.81868.9
I411.99911.114.63891.515.49889.714.59901.3
Tab.9  Crop water use and WUE under various water and nitrogen treatments
croptreatmentF1F2F3F4
NYENUNYENUNYENUNYENU
wheatI135.1813734.0415531.1916326.65164
I235.715235.1617235.4518329.97184
I329.6217429.7020128.0721924.75228
I416.9524117.6328916.6232813.91368
maizeI119.8132121.6235521.8138020.38402
I220.0732521.7135821.7438220.15404
I320.3032821.7836121.6538419.90407
I420.5333321.8436321.5538719.64409
annualI124.41458.025.42510.024.62543.021.91566.0
I225.02477.026.09530.025.39565.022.94588.0
I323.61502.024.65562.024.02603.021.64635.0
I419.03574.020.00652.019.28715.016.93777.0
Tab.10  Simulated NYE and nitrogen uptake of different water and nitrogen treatments
Fig.12  Nitrate and water down flow at 90 cm soil depth in various water (a) and fertilizer (b) treatment levels
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