Please wait a minute...
Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front Agric Chin    2009, Vol. 3 Issue (2) : 178-185     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-009-0031-0
Effects of aqueous leaf extracts of P. at different ages on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics
Meiqiu ZHU, Ying WANG, Bingxiang LIU, Lili ZHANG, Hui WANG, Yuxin YUAN, Kejiu DU()
College of Forestry, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071000, China
Download: PDF(316 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks

Through the outdoor potted plant trials, the allelopathic potential of Populus tomentosa was tested against its species in the growth, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics with aqueous extracts (0.01, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.1 g?mL-1) obtained from leaves at different individual ages (1, 20, and 45 years old). The results showed that seedling height, basal diameter, fresh and dry weights, quantity of chlorophyll, the ratio of chlorophyll a/b, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSII (Fv/Fm), potential activity of PSII (Fv/F0), and photochemical quenching (qP) of the seedlings gradually decreased with the increase of extract concentration of all three ages when compared with the controls. The older the P. tomentosa used for extract preparation, the greater the percentage declined in the aforementioned parameters. Moreover, at the four concentrations used, there was a significant difference between treatments with the extracts from 1- and 45-year-old plants (except for qP), but occasionally, the effects were not obvious between the 1- and the 20-year-old plants, or the 20- and 45-year-old plants. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) treated with the extracts from the 1-year-old decreased at the lowest concentration, whereas it increased at higher concentrations. The Ci treated with aqueous leaf extracts from the 20-year-old decreased at the lower concentrations and increased to similar levels to that of the control at the higher concentrations. Ci was always close to control levels in 45-year-old extract treatments. All the aqueous leaf extracts of P. tomentosa at all ages caused an increase of the initial fluorescence (F0). The older P. tomentosa used for the preparation of aqueous leaf extracts caused a greater percentage decline in F0. The nonphotochemical quenching (qN) increased significantly at lower concentrations of all P. tomentosa extracts, whereas it decreased significantly at higher concentrations. It seemed that aqueous leaf extracts from P. tomentosa were harmful to the photosynthetic structure of its own seedlings, inhibited seedling growth, and led to an eventual decrease of biomass. Extracts from older P. tomentosa leaves had more negative effects on the seedling growth of poplar. The effects on photosynthesis are the more important mechanism of the allelopathy of poplar.

Keywords Populus tomentosa      aqueous leaf extracts      photosynthesis      chlorophyll fluorescence     
Corresponding Authors: DU Kejiu,   
Issue Date: 05 June 2009
URL:     OR
Fig.1  Effects of aqueous leaf extracts from on the basal diameter (a) and height (b) of seedlings
Fig.2  Effects of aqueous leaf extracts from on the dry weight (a) and fresh weight (b) of the seedlings of
Note: Different letters above the square column indicate significant difference at the same concentration among different ages (including control) (<0.05).
Fig.3  Effects of aqueous leaf extracts from on the chlorophyll content (a) and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b (b) of
Note: Different letters above the square column indicate significant difference at the same concentration among different ages (including control) (<0.05).
Fig.4  Effects of aqueous leaf extracts of on the photosynthetic characteristics of seedlings
Note: (a), (b), (c), and (d) represent net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO concentration, and transpiration rate, respectively. Different letters above the square column indicate significant difference at the same concentration of different ages (including control) (<0.05).
Fig.5  Effects of aqueous leaf extracts of on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of its seedlings
Note: (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e) represent initial fluorescence, efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSII, potential activity of PSII, photochemical quenching, and nonphotochemical quenching, respectively. Different letters above the square column indicate significant difference at the same concentration among different ages (including control) (<0.05).
1 Chen L C, Liao L P, Wang S L, Hang Z Q, Xiao F M (2002). Effect of vanillin and ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid on physiological characteristics of Chinese fir seedlings. Chin J Appl Ecol , 13(10): 1291–1294 (in Chinese)
2 Chen L C, Wang S L (2003). Preliminary study of allelopathy of root exudates of Chinese fir. Acta Ecologica Sinica , 23(2): 393–398 (in Chinese)
3 Einbhlling F A, Rasmussen J A, Schon M K (1979). Effects of three phenolic acids on chlorophyll content and growth of soybean and grain sorghum seedlings. J Chem Ecol , 4: 425–436
4 Fan B, Bao S M, Jiang Y F, Jin H, Tan J J (2007). Effects of replanting poplar on soil microorganisms. J Nanjing Forestry Univ (Natural Sciences Edition) , 31(5): 81–83 (in Chinese)
5 Fang L L, Yu J, Che J L (2007). Effects of continual cropping poplar on plant growth. Resource Development &amp; Market , 23(7): 609–611 (in Chinese)
6 Farquhar G D, Sharkey T D (1982). Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology , 33: 317–345
doi: 10.1146/annurev.pp.33.060182.001533
7 Gentle C B, Duggin J A (1997). Allelopathy as a competitive strategy in persistent thickets of Lantana camara L. in three Australian forest communities. Plant Ecol , 132: 85–95
doi: 10.1023/A:1009707404802
8 Guo S K, Zhao K F (2001). The possible mechanisms of NaCl inhibit photosynthesis of maize seedlings. Acta Phytophysiol Sin , 27(6): 461–466 (in Chinese)
9 Han L H, Feng Y L (2007).The effects of growth and development stage on allelopathy of Eupatorium adenophorum. Acta Ecologica Sinica , 27(3): 1185–1191 (in Chinese)
10 Hu F, Kong C H (1997). Allelopathy of Ageratum conyzoides I. Allelopathy of Ageratum conyzoides aqueous extract and isolation and identification of its allelochemicals. Chin J Appl Ecol , 8(3): 304–308 (in Chinese)
11 Huang Z Q, Haig T, Wang S L (2002). Autotoxicity of Chinese fir on seed germination and seedling growth. Allelopathy J, 9(2): 187–193 (in Chinese)
12 Jack R D, Michael T S, Heidi R B, Richard L L (2006). Age-related shifts in leaf chemistry of clonal aspen (Populus tremuloides). J Chem Eco , 32(7): 1415–1429
doi: 10.1007/s10886-006-9059-2
13 Jia L M, Zhai M P, Fen C H (2003). Effects of allelopathic substances on the growth and photosynthesis of Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings. J Beijing For Univ , 25(4): 6–10 (in Chinese)
14 Kaur H, Inderjit Kaushik S (2005). Cellular evidence of allelopathic interference of benzoic acid to mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedling growth. Plant Physiol Biochem , 43: 77–81
doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2004.12.007
15 Kaushal R, Verma K S, Singh K N (2003). Effect of Grewia optivaand Populus deltoids leachates on field crops. Allelopathy J, 11: 229–234
16 Li H S, Sun Q, Zhao S J (2000). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Principles and Experimental Techniques. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 134–137 (in Chinese)
17 Lin S Z, Huang S G (1999). Autointoxication of Chinese fir. Chin J Appl Ecol , 10(6): 661–664 (in Chinese)
18 Luo C B, Fang S Z, Tian Y (2003). Effects of water extracts of poplar roots on the seeds germination and seedlings growth of three pastures. Journal of Plant Resources and Environment , 12(4): 27–30 (in Chinese)
19 Luo C B, Hang P C, Tian Y, Fang S Z (2004). Effects of the water extract of poplar roots on seeds germination and seedling growth of several crops. J Nanjing For Univ (Natural Sciences Edition) , 28(2): 43–46 (in Chinese)
20 Olsen R A, Odham G, Lindeberg G (1971). Aromatic substances in leaves of Populous tremula as inhibitors of mycorrhizal fungi. Physiol Plant , 25: 122–129
doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1971.tb01100.x
21 Prati D, Bossdorf O (2004). Allelopathic inhibition of germination by Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae). Am J Bot , 91(2): 285–288
doi: 10.3732/ajb.91.2.285
22 Qin S Y, Wang D Y, Feng X M (1999). Studies on allelopathic effects of Chinese white poplar. Hebei Journal of Forestry and Orchard Research , 14(4): 293–297 (in Chinese)
23 Rice E L (1984). Allelopathy. 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press Inc, 309–315
24 Sharma N K, Samra J S, Singh H P (2000). Effect of leaf litter of poplar on Phalaris minor weed. Allelopathy J , 7: 243–252
25 Shi Q H, Wei G Q, Zhu J, Qian Q Q (2004). Response of photosynthetic apparatus in the seedlings of different cucumber cultivars to salt stress. Bulle Sci Technol , 20(5): 459–463 (in Chinese)
26 Tan X M, Wang H T, Kong L G, Wang Y P (2008). Accumulation of phenolic acids in soil of a continuous cropping poplar plantation and their effects on soil microbes. J Shandong Univ , 4(1): 14–19
27 Wallstedt A, Nilsson M C, Odham G, Zackrisson O (1997). A method to quantify the allelopathic batatasin-III in extracts from Empetrum hermaphroditum using gas chromatography: Applied on extracts from leaves of different ages. J Chem Ecol , 23(10): 2345–2356
doi: 10.1023/
28 Wang A P (2004). Allelopathy of Pinus massoniana to itself and its company species. Dissertation for the Master Degree . Fujian: Fujian Agr For Univ, 1–12 (in Chinese)
29 Wang H X, Zhang J, Yang W S, Huang Q M, Zou P (2006). A research on the allelopathic substances in root system and root system soil of Eucalyptus Grandis. J Sichuan Normal Univ (Natural Science) , 29(3): 368–371 (in Chinese)
30 Wang S L, Cheng L C, Liao L P, Huang Z Q (2002). Effects of three kinds of allelochemicals on growth of Chinese fir seedlings. J Appl &amp; Enviro Bio , 8(6): 588–591 (in Chinese)
31 Yu J H, Zhang Y, Niu C X, Li J J (2007). Effects of two kinds of allelochemicals on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Solanum melongena L. seedlings. Chin J Appl Ecol , 17(9): 1629–1631 (in Chinese)
32 Zeng R S, Li P W (1997). Allelopathic effects of Eucalylus exserta and E. urophylla. J South China Agr Univ , 18(1): 6–10 (in Chinese)
33 Zhang F L, Zhou B L, Wang R H, He Y (2005). Allelopathic effects of grafted eggplant root exudates. Chin J Appl Ecol , 16(4): 744–749 (in Chinese)
[1] Tariq AFTAB, M. Masroor A. KHAN, Mohd. IDREES, M. NAEEM, MOINUDDIN. Optimizing nitrogen levels combined with gibberellic acid for enhanced yield, photosynthetic attributes, enzyme activities, and artemisinin content of Artemisia annua[J]. Front Agric Chin, 2011, 5(1): 51-59.
[2] Xiaojuan WANG, Zhigang WANG, . Influence of crust-covered paving on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of a city landscape plant, Firmiana simplex[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2010, 4(1): 91-95.
[3] Lanfang YANG, Jingjing YAN, Zucong CAI, . Effects of N-applications and photosynthesis of maize ( Zea mays L.) on soil respiration and its diurnal variation[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2010, 4(1): 42-49.
[4] WANG Tian, WANG Suping, GUO Shirong, SUN Yanjun. Effects of exogenous spermidine on the photosynthesis of L. seedlings under rhizosphere hypoxia stress[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2008, 2(1): 55-60.
[5] YANG Lanfang, CAI Zucong, QI Shihua. Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) growth and photosynthesis on δ13C in soil respiration[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2007, 1(4): 405-410.
[6] ZHANG Jianfu, Swapan K. Datta, WANG Guoying, XIE Huaan. Integration of C4-specific PPDK gene of maize to C3 rice and its characteristics in relation to photosynthesis[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2007, 1(3): 243-249.
[7] LI Wenrao, ZHANG Suiqi, SHAN Lun. Responsibility of non-stomatal limitations for the reduction of photosynthesis—response of photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme characteristics in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings to water stress and rehydration[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2007, 1(3): 255-264.
[8] FAN Huaifu, GUO Shirong, JIAO Yansheng, ZHANG Runhua, LI Juan. Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on growth, active oxygen species metabolism, and photosynthetic characteristics in cucumber seedlings under NaCl stress[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2007, 1(3): 308-314.
Full text