Please wait a minute...
Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front Agric Chin    2009, Vol. 3 Issue (2) : 122-129     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-009-0041-y
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on radish yield, nutrition quality, and nitrogen recovery efficiency
Yulin LIAO*1, Xiangmin RONG*1(), Qiang LIU*1, Meirong FAN1, Jianwei PENG1, Guixian XIE1, Yulin LIAO2, Shengxian ZHENG*2(), Meirong FAN*3
1. College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China; 2. Soil and Fertilizer Institute of Hunan Province, Changsha 410125, China; 3. Changsha Environmental Protection Colleges, Changsha 410004, China
Download: PDF(220 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract  

Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) were grown in plastic pots in a screenhouse to investigate the influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates (NFAR) on yield, nitrate content, nitrate reductase activity (NR), nutrition quality, and nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE) at commercial mature stage. Five N-rate treatments, 0.644, 0.819, 0.995, 1.170, and 1.346 g?pot-1, were set up in the screenhouse pot experiments, and nitrogen fertilizer (unlabeled N and 15N-labeled fertilizer) was applied as basal dressing and topdressing, respectively. The results indicated that the fresh and dry weight yields of radish increased with the increase of NFAR at the range of 0.099 to 0.180 g N?kg-1 soil, decreased at 0.207 g N?kg-1 soil, and accordingly there was a significant quadratic relationship between the fresh and dry weight yields of radish and the NFAR. At the high addition of urea-N fertilizer, the nitrate content accumulated in the fleshy roots and leaves due to the decline in NR activity. From 0.644 to 0.819 g N?pot-1 NR increased most rapidly, the highest NR activity occurred at 0.819 g N?pot-1, and the lowest NR activity happened at 1.346 g N?pot-1. Soluble sugar and ascorbic acid initially increased to the highest value and then decreased, and, contrarily, crude fiber rapidly decreased with the increase of NFAR. Total N uptake (TNU), N derived from fertilizer (Ndff), and N derived from soil (Ndfs) in radish increased, except that Ndfs relatively and slightly decreased at the rate of 0.207 g N?kg-1soil. The ratio of Ndff to TNU increased, but the ratio of Ndfs to TNU as well as NRE of N fertilizer decreased with the increase of NFAR. Therefore, the appropriate NFAR should be preferably recommended for improving the yields and nutrition qualities of radish and NRE of N fertilizer.

Keywords 15N-labeled nitrogen fertilizer      radish      yields      nutrition quality      nitrogen recovery efficiency     
Corresponding Authors: RONG* Xiangmin,Email:rongxm2005@126.com; ZHENG* Shengxian,Email:sxzheng@ipni.ac.cn   
Issue Date: 05 June 2009
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/10.1007/s11703-009-0041-y     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/Y2009/V3/I2/122
Fig.1  The correlations of nitrogen fertilizer application rates (a) and total N uptake (b) with fresh weight yield (open triangles) and dry weight yield (open circles) of radish
Note: The lines through the points are least-squares regressions. The regression functions are (a) =2.55+531.26–215.08 (=0.87, <0.01) and =4.07+34.01–13.69 (=0.82, <0.01) for fresh weight and dry weight; (b) =119.24+0.24 (=0.73, <0.01) and =10.66+0.0125 (=0.77, <0.01) for fresh weight and dry weight.
Fig.2  Influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on the contents of NO in the fleshy roots (open squares) and the leaves (filled squares) of radish
Note: Data are shown in mean±SD, =5.
Fig.3  Influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on NR activity in the leaf blades of radish
Note: Data are shown in mean±SD, =5.
Fig.4  The relationship between the NO contents and the NR activity in the leaf of radish
Note: The lines through the points are least-squares regressions. The regression function is =637.08-37.75 (=0.54, <0.01).
Fig.5  Influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on the contents of soluble sugar in the fleshy roots (open squares) and the leaves (filled squares) of radish
Note: Data are shown in mean±SD, =5.
Fig.6  Influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on the contents of ascorbic acid in the fleshy roots (open squares) and the leaves (filled squares) of radish
Note: Data are shown in mean±SD, =5.
Fig.7  Influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on the contents of crude fiber in the fleshy roots (open squares) and the leaves (filled squares) of radish
Note: Data are shown in mean±SD, =5.
Fig.8  The correlations of crude fiber content with total N content in the fleshy roots (open triangles) and the leaves (open circles) of radish
Note: The lines through the points are least-squares regressions. The regression functions are =348.63-4.73 (=0.65, <0.01) and =196.89-2.22 (=0.21, <0.01) for the fleshy roots and the leaves.
Fig.9  Influences of N fertilizer application rates on total N uptake (TNU, filled squares), N derived from fertilizer (N, open circles), and N derived from soil (N, filled circles) of radish
Note: Data are shown in mean±SD, =5.
Fig.10  Influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on the ratios of N derived from fertilizer (N, filled squares) and N derived from soil (N, open squares) to total N uptake (TNU) in radish
Note: Data are shown in mean±SD, =5.
Fig.11  Influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on N recovery efficiency of fertilizer N in radish
Note: Data are shown in mean±SD, =5.
1 Ai S Y, Yao J, Huang W, Luo X H, Ke Y S, Ling D Q (2002). Study on the nitrate reduction characteristic of vegetables. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science , 8: 40-43 (in Chinese)
2 Aslam M, Travis R L, Rains D W (2001). Enhancement of nitrate reductase activity and metabolic nitrate concentration by methionine sulfoximine in barley roots. Plant Science , 161: 133-142
doi: 10.1016/S0168-9452(01)00396-X
3 Basra A S, Dhawan A K, Goyal S S (2002). DCMU inhibits in vivo nitrate reduction in illuminated barley (C3) leaves but not in maize (C4): a new mechanism for the role of light. Planta , 215: 855-861
doi: 10.1007/s00425-002-0802-9
4 Cárdenas-Navarro R, Adamowicz S, Robin P (1999). Nitrate accumulation in plants: a role for water. Journal of Experimental Botany , 50: 613-624
doi: 10.1093/jexbot/50.334.613
5 Chen B M, Wang Z H, Li S X, Wang G X, Song H X, Wang X N (2004). Effects of nitrate supply on plant, nitrate accumulation, metabolic nitrate concentration and nitrate reductase activity in three leafy vegetables. Plant Science , 167: 635-643
doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.05.015
6 Crawford N M (1995). Nitrate: nutrient and signal for plant growth. Plant Cell , 12: 2383-2349
7 Durner J, Klessig D F (1999). Nitric oxide as a signal in plants. Current Opinion in Plant Biology , 2: 369-374
doi: 10.1016/S1369-5266(99)00007-2
8 Elia A, Santamaria P, Serio F (1999). Nitrogen nutrition, yield and quality of spinach. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture , 76(3): 341-346
doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199803)76:3&lt;341::AID-JSFA938&gt;3.0.CO;2-4
9 Foyer C H, Valadier M H, Migge A, Becker T W (1998). Drought-induced effects on nitrate reductase activity and mRNA and on the coordination of nitrogen and carbon metabolism in maize leaves. Plant Physiology , 117: 283-292
doi: 10.1104/pp.117.1.283
10 Gastal F, Lemaire G (2002). N uptake and distribution in crops: an agronomical and ecophysiological perspective. Journal of Experimental Botany , 53: 789-799
doi: 10.1093/jexbot/53.370.789
11 Hu C X, Deng B E, Liu T C (1992). Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on nitrate accumulation by the Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinenses) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum). Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University , 11: 239-243 (in Chinese)
12 Ikemoto Y, Teraguchi M, Kogayashi Y (2002). Plasma level of nitrate in congenital heart disease: comparison with healthy children. Pediatric Cardiology , 23: 132-136
doi: 10.1007/s00246-001-0036-9
13 Ishiwata H, Yamada T, Yoshiike N, Nishijima M, Kawamoto A, Uyama Y ( 2002). Daily intake of food additives in Japan in five age groups estimated by the market basket method. European Food Research and Technology , 215: 367-374
doi: 10.1007/s00217-002-0577-z
14 Ivashkina N V, Sokolov O A (1997). Regulation of nitrate distribution in maize seedling by nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and glutamate. Plant Science , 123: 29-37
doi: 10.1016/S0168-9452(96)04566-9
15 Ji X H, Zheng S X, Lu Y H, Liao Y L (2006). Dynamics of floodwater nitrogen and its runoff loss, urea and controlled release nitrogen fertilizer application regulation in rice. Scientia Agricultura Sinica , 39: 2521-2530 (in Chinese)
16 Joseph H S, Michael J P (1979).In vitro stability of nitrate reductase from wheat leaves. Plant Physiology , 63: 346-353
doi: 10.1104/pp.63.2.346
17 Lam H M, Coschigano K T, Oliveira I C, Melo-Oliveira R, Coruzzi G M (1996). The molecular-genetics of nitrogen assimilation into amino acids in higher plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology , 47: 569-593
doi: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.47.1.569
18 Lowell C A, Tomlinson P T, Koch K E (1989). Sucrose metabolizing enzymes in transport tissue and adjacent sink structures in developing citrus fruit. Plant Physiology , 90: 1394-1402
doi: 10.1104/pp.90.4.1394
19 Lu Y K (2000). Analysis Methods of Soil Agricultural Chemistry. Beijing: China Agricultural Scientech Press (in Chinese)
20 Matt P, Geiger M, Walch-Liu P, Engels C, Krapp A, Stitt M (2001). The immediate cause of the diurnal changes of nitrogen metabolism in leaves of nitrate-replete tobacco: a major imbalance between the rate of nitrate reduction and the rates of nitrate uptake and ammonium metabolism during the first part of the light period. Plant Cell and Environment , 24: 177-190
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2001.00676.x
21 Noguchi K, Terashima I (2006). Responses of spinach leaf mitochondria to low N availability. Plant Cell and Environment , 29: 710-719
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2005.01457.x
22 Samuelson M E, Campbell W H, Larasson C M (1995). The influence of cytokinins in nitrate regulation of nitrate reductase activity and expression in barley. Physiologia Plantarum , 93: 533-539
doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1995.tb06854.x
23 Sánchez E, Rivero R M, Ruiz J M, Romero L (2004). Changes in biomass, enzymatic activity and protein concentration in roots and leaves of green bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Strike) under high NH4NO3 application rates. Scientia Horticulturae , 99: 237-248
doi: 10.1016/S0304-4238(03)00114-6
24 Scheible W R, Lauerer M, Schulze E D, Caboche M, Stitt M (1997). Accumulation of nitrate in the shoot acts as signal to regulate shoot-root allocation in tobacco. Plant Journal , 11: 671-691
doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1997.11040671.x
25 Shou S Y, Lu G, Huang X Z (2007). Seasonal variation in nutritional components of green asparagus using the mother fern cultivation. Scientia Horticulturae , 112: 251-257
doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2006.12.048
26 Stitt M, Krapp A (1999). The molecular physiological basis for the interaction between elevated carbon dioxide and nutrients. Plant Cell and Environment , 22: 583-622
doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3040.1999.00386.x
27 Wang Z H, Li S X (1996). Relationships between nitrate contents and water, total N as well as total P in different organs of vegetable plants. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science , 2: 144-152 (in Chinese)
28 Wang Z H, Zong Z Q, Li S X, Chen B M (2002). Nitrate accumulation in vegetables and its residual in vegetable fields. Environment Science , 23: 79-83 (in Chinese)
29 Zheng G S, Peng G Y, Zhang Q G (1994). Studies on N-utilization of leaf-vegetables with 15N tracer technique. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Pekinensis , 20: 257-261 (in Chinese)
30 Zheng G S, Peng G Y, Zhang Q G (1995).The studies on the nitrate accumulation in celery with 15N tracer techniques. Acta Agriculturae Nucleatea Sinica , 9: 42-46 (in Chinese)
No related articles found!
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed