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Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front Agric Chin    2009, Vol. 3 Issue (3) : 231-239     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-009-0062-6
REVIEW |
Current progress on genetic interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight fungi
Yulin JIA1(), Guangjie LIU2, Stefano COSTANZO1, Seonghee LEE2, Yuntao DAI2
1. USDA-ARS, Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center, Stuttgart AR 72160, USA; 2. Rice Research and Extension Center, University of Arkansas, Stuttgart AR 72160, USA
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Abstract  

Analysis of genetic interactions between rice and its pathogenic fungi Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani should lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of host resistance, and the improvement of strategies to manage rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Currently, dozens of rice resistance (R) genes against specific races of the blast fungus have been described. Among them, ten were molecularly characterized and some were widely used for breeding for genetic resistance. The Pi-ta gene was one of the best characterized rice R genes. Following the elucidation of its molecular structure, interaction, distribution, and evolution, user friendly DNA markers were developed from portions of the cloned genes to facilitate the incorporations of the Pi-ta mediated resistance into improved rice varieties using marker assisted selection (MAS). However, rice blast is still a major threat for stable rice production because of race change mutations occurring in rice fields, which often overcome added resistance based on single R genes, and these virulent races of M. oryzae pose a continued challenge for blast control. For sheath blight, progress has been made on the exploration of novel sources of resistance from wild rice relatives and indica rice cultivars. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL), named qSB9-2, was recently verified in several mapping populations with different phenotyping methods, including greenhouse methods. The ability to identify qSB9-2 using greenhouse methods should accelerate the efforts on the qSB9-2 fine mapping and positional cloning.

Keywords blast      Magnaporthe oryzae      Oryza sativa      Pi-ta      rice      Rhizoctonia solani      sheath blight     
Corresponding Authors: JIA Yulin,Email:yulin.jia@ars.usda.gov   
Issue Date: 05 September 2009
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/10.1007/s11703-009-0062-6     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/Y2009/V3/I3/231
Fig.1  Blast disease of rice
Note: A germinated conidium of (a), typical symptoms of leaf blast (b), and typical symptom of panicle blast (c), left, and panicles at right are healthy (controls). Pictures were taken by a digital camera. Leaf blast was captured 7 days after infection with , and panicle blast was collected in an experimental field in Arkansas, USA.
Fig.2  Sheath blight disease of rice
Note: Rice cultivar Jasmine 85 showing highly resistance, and rice cultivar Lemont showing highly susceptibility. Picture was taken in a sheath blight nursery post anthesis after inoculation with a field isolate from Arkansas, USA.
Fig.3  A model of mediated disease resistance showing the existence of additional plant component
Note: was predicted to be translocated to the inside of plant cells in triggering /-mediated resistance. () was identified to be essential for - mediated resistance.
Fig.4  Levels of Tajima’s in accessions of and
Note: Levels of Tajima’s for (a) , (b) . The arrow indicates the position of the gene. The nucleotide diversity of the genomic region around the locus in (upper) accessions showing Tajima’s statistics of the alleles and the six flanking genes spanning the locus whose physical locations were shown in the lower panel.
Fig.5  Diagram of genomic structures of cloned blast resistance genes
Note: Exons are indicated by boxes, and introns by thin lines angled upward. For and , where two genes are required to confer rice blast resistance, their genomic distance in kb is reported at the center of the diagram.
name of the AVR genestructural featurehost R genereference
AVR-Pitaputative neutral zinc metalloproteasePi-taOrbach et al., 2000
AVR1-CO39putative calcium binding proteinCo39Farman and Leong, 1998
PWL1a novel protein with 147 amino acidsNAKang et al., 1995
PWL2a glycine-rich, hydrophilic protein with a putative secretion signal sequenceNASweigard et al., 1995
ACE1a putative hybrid between a polyketide synthase and a nonribosomal peptide synthetasePi33Bohnert et al., 2004
AVR-Pizta predicted secreted proteinPiZtLi et al., 2009
Tab.1  Summary of molecularly characterized avirulence genes in races of
Fig.6  Micro chamber method to evaluate reactions to sheath blight pathogen
Note: Rice seedlings at three to four leaf stages were inoculated with PDA agarose blocks that contain actively grown mycelia (a). An enlarged agarose block that contains mycelia (b) and inoculated plants shown in (a) were covered by soft drink bottles with bottoms removed (c). Disease is rated 3-5 days after inoculation using a rating scale described in Jia et al. ().
yearmapping populationmolecular markersShB-QTLschromosomeLOD valuea)related tob)references
PHHD
1995Lemont/Teqing F4 bulk113 RFLPQSbr2a, QSbr3a, QSbr4a, QSbr8a, QSbr9a, QSbr12a2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 12 ≥ 2.4Li et al., 1995
1999Lemont/Jasmine 85 DH lines94 RFLP+ SSRqSB-2, qSB-3, qSB-72, 3, 7 > 2.0×Pan et al., 1999
2000Lemont/Jasmine 85 F2118 RFLP+ SSRqSB-2, qSB-3, qSB-7, qSB-9-2, qSB-9-1, qSB-112, 3, 7, 9, 11 ≥ 2.0××Zou et al., 2000
2002Zhaiyeqing 8/Jingxi 17 DH linesqSB-2, qSB-3, qSB-7, qSB-112, 3, 7, 11 ≥ 2.0Kunihiro et al., 2002
2002Zhenshan 97/Minghui 63 F11-12 RILsRFLP+ SSRqSB-5, qSB-95, 9 ≥ 2.0Han et al., 2002
2003XZX19/4001(transgenic) F2RFLP+ SSRRsb15Che et al., 2003
2004WSS2/Hinohikari (SB resistance from Tetep) BC1F1201 SSR+ STSqSB-3, qSB-123, 12 ≥ 3.0Sato et al., 2004
2005Lemont/Teqing, F10-11 RILs173 RFLPqSB-1, qSB-2, qSB-3-1, qSB-3-2, qSB4-1, qSB4-2, qSB-5, qSB-6-1, qSB-6-2, qSB-7, qSB-8-1, qSB-8-2, qSB-9, qSB-10, qSB-121, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 ≥ 2.4××Pinson et al., 2005
2005Lemont/Teqing F2SSRqSB-9,qSB-119, 11 ≥ 2.0Tan et al., 2005
2007Lemont/Teqing BC4F1IndelqSB11Le11Zuo et al., 2007
2009Rosemont/Pecos F2:3149 SSRFour ShB-QTLs1, 2, 3, 9 ≥ 3.6Sharma et al., 2009
2009Lemont/Jasmine 85 F5 RILs199 SSRqShB1, qShB2-1, qShB2-2, qShB3-1, qShB5, qShB6, qShB9-1, qShB9-21, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9 ≥ 2.4Liu et al., 2009
Tab.2  Summary of historical effort on the identification of quantitative trait loci responsible for sheath blight resistance in rice
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