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Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front Agric Chin    2010, Vol. 4 Issue (4) : 383-393     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-010-1044-4
REVIEW |
Genetic bases of improved soybean cultivars released from 1923 to 2005 in China—A historical review
Dongjin XIONG1,2, Tuanjie ZHAO1, Junyi GAI1()
1. School of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China; 2. Soybean Research Institute, Nanjing Agricultural University; National Center for Soybean Improvement; National Key Laboratory for Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing 210095, China
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Abstract  

Improved soybean cultivars are cultivars released from a scientific breeding program in China in contrast to the historical landraces kept by farmers from their own seed lots. The pedigree data of 1300 soybean cultivars [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] released in China from 1923 to 2005 were collected, checked, and corrected. These cultivars traced back to 670 nuclear and 344 cytoplasmic ancestors; 45% (50%) of the nuclear (cytoplasmic) germplasms were from Eco-region I, 23% (26%) from II, 7% (10%) from III, 4% (5%) from IV, 1% (1%) from V, 1% (1%) from VI, 18% (7%) from foreign countries, and 0% (1%) from geographically unknown sources. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic germplasm from Eco-regions I, II, and III, and foreign countries accounted for most of the ancestry of the released cultivars. In each of the eco-regions, with the exception of region VI, but especially in region I, the local nuclear and cytoplasmic germplasm was dominant in the released cultivars. Exotic germplasm accounted for an increasing portion of the nuclear and cytoplasmic germplasm, especially in Eco-regions I and II. The genetic base of the released cultivars is relatively narrow but has been gradually broadened, especially in Eco-regions I and II; and the average number of ancestors per cultivar released between 1996 and 2005 in various eco-regions was approximately double the period between 1986 and 1995. Seventy-eight ancestors accounted for 12% of the total ancestors but explained that 64% of the nuclear contribution and 70% of the cytoplasmic contribution to the 1300 released cultivars. For broadening the genetic base of future cultivars, the utilization of germplasm from outside regions is emphasized.

Keywords soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]      ancestor      nuclear contribution      cytoplasmic contribution      genetic base broadening     
Corresponding Authors: GAI Junyi,Email:sri@njau.edu.cn   
Issue Date: 05 December 2010
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/10.1007/s11703-010-1044-4     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/Y2010/V4/I4/383
Fig.1  Varietal eco-regions of soybeans in China
Note: I= Northern China single cropping spring planting varietal eco-region; II= Huang-Huai-Hai double cropping spring and summer planting varietal eco-region; III= Middle and Lower Changjiang valleys double cropping spring and summer planting varietal eco-region; IV= Central-south multiple cropping spring summer and fall planting varietal eco-region; V= Southwest plateau spring and summer planting varietal eco-region; VI= South China tropics multiple cropping all season planting eco-region.
periodeco-regionno. released CTVssource of ancestors and their genetic contribution to released cultivars
IIIIIIIVVVIFU
1923-2005 (83 years)I682537.15 (614)14.68 (10)0.16 (0)1.02 (0)1.00 (1)0.00 (0)123.68 (48)4.39 (9)
II39544.89 (31)257.82 (317)14.26 (17)0.02 (0)0.50 (2)0.00 (0)76.01 (26)1.50 (2)
III641.53 (0)11.41 (5)36.19 (51)1.00 (0)0.00 (0)2.75 (2)11.12 (6)0.00 (0)
IV1205.34 (2)14.00 (8)37.75 (49)45.75 (50)0.00 (0)0.50 (1)16.66 (10)0.00 (0)
V161.25 (0)1.25 (0)2.50 (4)0.25 (0)9.75 (12)0.00 (0)1.00 (0)0.00 (0)
VI230.50 (0)2.88 (2)4.38 (4)9.13 (10)0.00 (0)3.88 (6)2.25 (1)0.00 (0)
sum.1300590.66 (647)302.04 (342)95.23 (125)57.16 (60)11.25 (15)7.13 (9)230.71 (91)5.89 (11)
1996-2005 (10 years)I316223.15 (267)10.09 (5)0.16 (0)0.52 (0)1.00 (1)0.00 (0)77.77 (36)3.39 (7)
II17215.86 (14)103.10 (126)6.82 (10)0.02 (0)0.50 (2)0.00 (0)45.70 (20)0.00 (0)
III251.53 (0)3.85 (1)9.19 (16)1.00 (0)0.00 (0)2.75 (2)6.68 (6)0.00 (0)
IV632.97 (0)7.09 (3)21.44 (28)19.31 (23)0.00 (0)0.50 (1)11.69 (8)0.00 (0)
V60.25 (0)0.50 (0)1.25 (2)0.25 (0)2.75 (4)0.00 (0)1.00 (0)0.00 (0)
VI100.00 (0)1.13 (1)2.38 (2)2.88 (3)0.00 (0)2.88 (4)0.75 (0)0.00 (0)
sum.592243.76 (281)125.75 (136)41.23 (58)23.98 (26)4.25 (7)6.13 (7)143.59 (70)3.39 (7)
Tab.1  Nuclear and cytoplasmic contribution of the ancestors to the released soybean cultivars in China
type of ancestortotalIIIIIIIVVVIUF
improved cultivar4747
landrace3461109838459739
breeding line257143721393413
wild accession171421
uncertain type313
total67026717251551211399
Tab.2  Source and type of ancestors of cultivars released between 1923 and 2005 in China
no. of ancestors123456-1011-1516-2021-2526-3031323435total
no. of released cultivars177172999894310201106191615111300
%13.6113.237.627.547.2323.8515.468.151.461.230.080.380.080.08100.00
Tab.3  Number of ancestors per cultivar between 1923 and 2005 in China
periodcountryIIIIIIIVVVI
1923-19551.20 (0.72)1.25 (0.65)1.00 (1.00)1.00 (1.00)0.00 (0.00)0.00 (0.00)0.00 (0.00)
1956-19651.82 (0.72)2.00 (0.67)1.36 (1.18)1.00 (0.67)0.00 (0.00)0.00 (0.00)1.00 (1.00)
1966-19752.49 (0.74)2.91 (0.63)2.17 (0.98)1.50 (1.50)1.40 (1.40)1.00 (1.00)1.00 (1.00)
1976-19853.78 (0.97)3.92 (0.89)4.07 (1.28)3.13 (1.63)2.00 (1.70)0.00 (0.00)1.00 (1.00)
1986-19956.32 (0.85)6.96 (0.94)7.39 (1.14)4.00 (1.82)3.95 (1.43)1.89 (1.89)2.63 (2.38)
1996-200510.88 (0.85)12.29 (0.89)11.42 (1.17)6.16 (2.56)5.90 (1.86)5.00 (3.50)3.60 (2.30)
1923-20057.44 (0.52)8.19 (0.53)7.90 (0.67)4.34 (1.27)4.77 (1.18)3.00 (1.88)2.70 (1.52)
Tab.4  Average number of nuclear ancestors per released cultivar and ratio of total number of ancestors to total number of cultivars in China and six eco-regions
no. derived cultivarsancestorcontribution
no.%value%
1356 (238)53.13 (69.18)192.82 (238)14.83 (18.31)
2-5166 (69)24.79 (20.06)151.37 (185)11.64 (14.23)
6-1044 (11)6.57 (3.2)58.9 (78)4.53 (6.00)
11-2028 (12)4.18 (3.49)68.71 (176)5.29 (13.53)
21-3012 (8)1.79 (2.33)43.92 (203)3.38 (15.62)
31-4016 (1)2.39 (0.29)74.97 (38)5.77 (2.92)
41-6012 (3)1.79 (0.87)72.51 (163)5.58 (12.55)
61-1008 (1)1.19 (0.29)47.22 (83)3.63 (6.38)
101-1408 (1)1.19 (0.29)80.48 (136)6.19 (10.46)
141-18071.04117.89.06
181-320101.49221.9117.07
35710.1545.763.52
49710.1557.984.46
57710.1565.655.05
total670 (344)100 (100)1,300 (1300)100 (100)
Tab.5  Number of derived cultivars of the 670 nuclear and 344 cytoplasmic ancestors and their contribution to cultivars released between 1923 and 2005 in China
periodeco-regioncountryIIIIIIIVVVI
1923-1975 (53 years)mean1.802.241.201.000.711.001.00
min.0.250.250.250.500.501.001.00
max.24.5023.507.502.001.001.001.00
1976-1995 (20 years)Mean1.461.381.150.750.710.530.48
min.0.060.060.060.030.030.060.03
max.21.6919.2616.85.134.631.001.00
1996-2005 (10 years)mean1.181.120.860.390.540.290.43
min.0.010.010.020.000.010.060.03
max.25.6825.1811.892.067.941.001.75
1923-2005 (83 years)mean1.941.891.510.790.850.530.66
min.0.020.010.020.000.010.130.03
max.65.6560.3929.697.8112.562.001.88
Tab.6  Cumulative genetic contribution of a single ancestor to cultivars released in China and six eco-regions during different periods (total contribution value 1300)
name of ancestorarea of major ancestor usedno. DCNC/%CC/%
I
JinyuanC,I (C,I)5775.051.46
Silihuang (A210)C,I (C,I)4974.4610.46
BaimeiC,I (C,I)3573.526.38
DuludouC,I (C,I)3132.843.62
TiejiasilihuangC,I (C,I)2812.280.08
KeshansilijiaC,I (C,I)2121.830.15
TiejiaziI (C,I)1691.552.00
XiongyuexiaohuangdouI (I)2501.290.00
Yongfengdou911.080.54
Yiwofeng (A256)1040.802.08
Xiaolidou 9 hao1010.894.62
Suoyiling870.780.00
Xiaojinhuang580.630.46
Silihuang (A211)1100.590.31
Xiaojinhuang1110.640.92
Xiaolihuang900.620.31
Dongnong 33320.401.38
Huinanqingpidou630.390.08
Wudingzhu180.230.92
II
BinhaidabaihuaC,II,III,IV (C,II,III,IV)1802.854.31
A295C,II (II)1181.632.23
JimoyoudouII,IV (II)1451.482.92
TongshantianedanII (II)1631.381.08
YidupingdinghuangII1320.770.31
Tiejiaohuang1290.640.00
DingtaopingdingdahuangdouII (II)300.571.23
Huaxiandalvdou440.520.00
Pixianruantiaozhi(II)640.490.08
Dabaima210.490.92
Shandongsijiaoqi580.432.08
Dahuapi360.380.00
Qinyangshuibaidou480.331.00
Guangpingniumaohuang170.310.62
Shandongxiaohuangdou170.250.31
Peixiandabaijiao190.250.54
Tongzhouxiaohuangdou260.260.62
Dabaiqi120.240.31
Yiwofeng (A257)40.190.15
Xiaopingding190.190.08
III
A291III, IV, VI (III, IV, VI)401.482.08
FenxianshuidaohuangIII, V,VI (III,VI) VVVVVVV,VI (III,VI)450.981.69
51-83III (III)410.771.15
ShanghailiuyuebaiIII, IV,V (III, IV,V)340.721.77
TaixingheidouIII (III)130.370.15
Pudongdahuangdou290.320.15
Houzimao80.150.15
Tongshanbaopihuangdou100.150.00
Wuyueba60.140.38
IV
MaopengqingIV (IV)80.460.46
Siyuebai(IV)190.290.00
Baijiadou40.230.31
PutiandahuangdouVI80.220.46
ShaodongliuyehuangIV70.200.38
Dahuangzhu30.150.08
GutiandouVI30.150.23
Caoqing30.130.15
LachenghuangdouVI (VI)30.130.15
Gongxianerjizao40.100.31
Huangmaodou40.100.31
V
MaoerhuiV20.150.15
A299V (V)30.150.23
DafangliuyuezaoV30.100.15
VI
JingxizaohuangdouVI (VI)30.070.08
F
A.K.C,I (C,I)2971.800.38
RichlandII (II)2411.140.00
Mandarin2420.940.08
Dunfield1900.610.00
Mukden1690.391.31
OtootanII (II)1690.710.00
Clemson1380.240.00
ShishengchangyeC, I (C, I)2873.130.35
LincolnII (II,V)1971.211.69
Mammoth YellowII(II)1690.710.00
Heilongjiang 41330.330.08
Ribendabaimei160.360.38
Yeqi 1 hao550.300.00
Magnolia320.280.00
Youbilie300.270.00
total63.6569.80
Tab.7  The 78 core ancestors of soybean cultivars released between 1923 and 2005 in China
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