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Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front Agric Chin    2010, Vol. 4 Issue (4) : 507-512     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-010-1048-0
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Effect of various dietary vitamin A levels on growth performance and immune response of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Ran GUO1,2(), Chhorn LIM2, Hui XIA1,2, Mediha Yildirim AKSOR2, Menghe LI3
1. Ocean College, Agricultural University of Hebei, Qinhuangdao 066000, China; 2. Aquatic Animal Health Research Laboratories, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, 990 Wire Road, Auburn, AL, 36830, USA; 3. Thad Cochran National Warmwater Aquaculture Center, Mississippi State University, Stoneville, MS 38776 USA
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Abstract  

Six purified vitamin-free casein-based diets were formulated to contain six levels vitamin A at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 IU·kg-1, respectively. Tilapias (initial mean weight: 7.73±0.03 g) were fed the diets in quadruplicate aquaria to apparent satiation twice daily for 10 weeks. No differences in mortality, weight gain, or feed efficiency ratio (FER) were observed among the groups. Liver vitamin A levels reflected dietary vitamin A levels. Immune parameters, such as hemoglobin levels, total cell count, red blood cell count, total serum protein, and serum lysozyme activity, did not vary with the dietary vitamin A levels. White blood cell counts of fish in 2000 IU·kg-1 diet groups were significantly higher than that in other diets groups. Serum complement activities of fish in 2000 and 4000 IU·kg-1 vitamin A diet groups were also higher than those in other diet groups. After the 14-d challenge test, the mortality and antibody titer were similar among the treatments. The results indicated that dietary vitamin A inclusions did not affect the immune response of Oreochromis niloticus.

Keywords vitamin A      health      immune response      tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)     
Corresponding Authors: GUO Ran,Email:toguoran@163.com   
Issue Date: 05 December 2010
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/10.1007/s11703-010-1048-0     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/Y2010/V4/I4/507
ingredientspercent in diet
casein vitamin-free32
gelatin8
cornstarch33
cod liver oil3
soybean oil3
mineral premix14
vitamin premix2 (vitamin A free)1
CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose sodium)3
cellulose313
analyzed nutrients
crude protein/%35.6
crude fat/%5.6
estimated digestible energy/kcal·g-13.2
Tab.1  Percentage composition and estimated nutrient content of basal diet (g·kg)
vitamin A added/ (IU·kg-1)weight gain/%dry matter feed intake/(g·fish-1)FER3survival/%
0594.17±96.1548.27±5.340.96±0.0698.57±1.65
500590.70±83.0847.73±2.910.97±0.0897.88±1.42
1000593.15±54.7546.80±2.291.00±0.05100.00±2.33
2000575.45±21.8645.60±1.160.98±0.0399.33±3.52
4000622.89±62.7647.56±3.491.01±0.0394.29±2.33
8000640.49±59.9047.84±2.961.03±0.0399.29±1.43
Tab.2  Mean final weight gain per fish, survival, and FER (feed efficiency ratio) of tilapia fed diets containing various levels of vitamin A
vitamin A added/(IU·kg-1)serum protein/(mg·mL-1)lysozyme/(mg·mL-1)alternative complement AH50/(unit·mL-1)antibody titer
035.26±1.7157.18±17.6539.70±25.59a1.72±0.52
50035.29±2.4859.12±13.0155.56±30.67ab1.47±0.33
100035.42±1.0767.32±13.2175.37±47.02b1.50±0.32
200036.01±3.5153.99±20.5574.92±67.80b1.47±0.65
400034.85±0.8271.28±6.9648.38±28.41ab1.57±0.31
800032.93±3.2457.25±18.1354.13±32.36ab2.09±0.62
Tab.3  Mean alternative complement activity, lysozyme and serum protein of tilapia fed diets containing various levels of vitamin A for 10 weeks, and antibody titer after the 14-day challenge
vitamin A added/ (IU·kg-1)hematocrit/%total cell count/(106·μL-1)red blood cell/(106·μL-1)white blood cell/(105·μL-1)hemoglobin/(g·dL-1)
030.6±1.672.26±0.131.99±0.092.73±0.52ab8.21±0.33
50031.98±3.132.26±0.062.01±0.092.45±0.44ab8.45±0.40
100030.58±2.242.41±0.382.12±0.402.93±0.30b8.30±0.79
200031.03±3.092.13±0.341.88±0.332.49±0.23ab8.55±0.43
400030.43±3.102.33±0.172.08±0.152.53±0.59ab8.36±0.28
800030.78±2.702.11±0.221.89±0.192.22±0.35a8.60±0.29
Tab.4  Mean total cell count, red blood cell count, white blood cell, hemoglobin, and hematocrit of tilapia fed diets containing various levels of vitamin A for 10 weeks
vitamin A added/(IU·kg-1)cumulative mortality/%
087.00±6.83
50083.88±4.48
100088.00±8.64
200084.00±5.66
400081.00±17.40
800080.00±8.64
Tab.5  Mean cumulative mortality of tilapia fed diets containing various levels of vitamin A at 14 d postimmersion challenge with
vitamin A added/(IU·g-1)vitamin A content in diet/(IU·g-1)vitamin A content in liver/(IU·g-1)
024,31065,312a
50024,71582,021a
100025,916128,603b
200039,626132,602b
400040,979140,064b
800045,985187,965c
Tab.6  Mean vitamin A content of livers of tilapia after 10 weeks of feeding diets containing various levels of vitamin A
Fig.1  Mean vitamin A content of liver of tilapia after 10 weeks of feeding diets containing various levels of vitamin A
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