The purpose of this study was to assess the synergistic effects of exogenously applied proline and glycinebetaine (betaine) in antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification system in mung bean seedlings subjected to salt stress (200 mmol·L-1 NaCl, 48 h). Seven-day-old mung bean seedlings were exposed to salt stress after pre-treatment with proline or betaine. Salt stress caused a sharp increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content in leaves, while the GSH/GSSG ratio and ascorbate (AsA) content decreased significantly. The glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) activities were increased in response to salt stress, while the monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), catalase (CAT) and glyoxalase I (Gly I) activities sharply decreased with an associated increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation level (MDA). Proline or betaine pre-treatment had little influence on non-enzymatic and enzymatic components as compared to those of the untreated control. However, proline or betaine pre-treated salt-stressed seedlings showed an increase in AsA, GSH content, GSH/GSSG ratio and maintained higher activities of APX, DHAR, GR, GST, GPX, CAT, Gly I and Gly II involved in ROS and MG detoxification system as compared to those of the untreated control and mostly also salt-stressed plants with a simultaneous decrease in GSSG content, H2O2 and MDA level. These results together with our previous results suggest that coordinate induction of antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system by proline and betaine rendered the plants tolerant to salinity-induced oxidative stress in a synergistic fashion.