Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering

ISSN 2095-0179

ISSN 2095-0187(Online)

CN 11-5981/TQ

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2018 Impact Factor: 2.809

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Research articles
Introduction to the special issue on food technology
Jian CHEN,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 345-345.

Abstract   PDF (35KB)
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Effects of sucrose crystallization and moisture migration on the structural changes of a coated intermediate moisture food
Tiancheng LI, Peng ZHOU, Theodore P. LABUZA
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 346-350.

Abstract   PDF (210KB)
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether moisture migration and sugar crystallization play an important role in the changes of IMF matrix structure. The migration of water was monitored with changes of water activity in different physical domains of samples during storage, while the crystallization of sucrose was determined with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The formation of both a hard inner-layer and agglomerated particles in the inner matrix was observed during storage. Our results suggested that both moisture loss and sucrose crystallization were mainly responsible for the formation of the crusty intermediate inner layer, and the agglomerated matrix particles were the result of sucrose crystallization.
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Statistical modeling and optimization for enhanced hyaluronic acid production by batch culture of Sreptococcus zooepidemicus via the supplement of uracil
Long LIU, Haiquan YANG, Guocheng DU, Miao WANG, Jian CHEN,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 351-356.

Abstract   PDF (187KB)
This work is aimed to achieve the optimal hyaluronic acid (HA) production by batch culture of Streptococcus zooepidemicus via the supplement of nucleotide bases using response surface methodology (RSM). First, the influence of nucleotide bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil) on microbial HA production was investigated using fractional factorial design (FFD). By a 25−2 FFD, uracil was found to be the most significant factor for cell growth and HA production, while the other nucleotide bases were shown to have no significant effects on cell growth and HA production. Also, the impact of uracil on cell growth and HA production was further investigated by RSM, where two variables were considered: uracil concentration and supplement time. The optimal uracil concentration and supplement time were found to be 0.051g/L and 7h, respectively, and the predicted maximal HA production reached 6.42g/L. The maximal HA production increased from 5.0g/L of the control without uracil supplement to 6.31g/L at the optimal conditions in validation experiments.
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Investigation of nanostructure of konjac-based water absorbents with atomic force microscopy
Shengrong GENG, Ruotai LIN, Mingli CHEN, Shaoyang LIU, Yifen WANG,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 357-362.

Abstract   PDF (225KB)
Atomic force microscopy technology is gradually spreading to almost all aspects, including food science and technology, since it was first invented in 1986. In this study, this powerful instrument was applied to image nanostructures of three water absorbents—original konjac powder, konjac powder grafted with acrylic acid using 60Co γ-irradiation and regenerated grafted powder. Water absorption capacities and the rates of the three absorbents were also determined in this work. Original konjac powder could only absorb 60 times (w/w) of water, while 270 times for the grafted absorbent and 360 times for the regenerated absorbent. The initial water absorption rates in both tap and distilled water were high, but the rate decreased steeply as time elapsed. After 20min, the absorbent was close to saturated status. These physical properties were in accordance with the nanostructures of these three water absorbents.
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Hydrogen peroxide is correlated with browning in peach fruit stored at low temperature
Zhansheng DING, Shiping TIAN, Xianghong MENG, Yong XU,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 363-374.

Abstract   PDF (521KB)
The objective of this present research is to study the biological basis of browning in peach fruit during storage at low temperatures. After being immersed in 0 or 2mmol·L−1 salicylic acid (SA) aqueous solution for 10min, peach fruit (Prunus persica L. cv. Hongtao) were stored at 10°C, 5°C or 0°C with or without shelf life at 25°C. During storage, the progress of browning, lipid per-oxidation, phenol content, activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO, E.C. and guaiacol peroxidase (POD, EC, redox state of ascorbate and glutathione, as well as the content, location and metabolism of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the fruit were examined. The results indicated that a decrease in H2O2 content was correlated with browning, whereas phenol content and activities of PPO and POD were not correlated with the change in H2O2 content. Moreover, H2O2 content was influenced by different responses of antioxidants at different storage conditions. It was concluded that the main effect of H2O2 on browning was to regulate its appearance and development as a signal molecule, and lower H2O2 content was beneficial to browning.
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Application of high-speed counter-current chromatography coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the separation and purification of Quercetin-3- O -sambubioside from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera
Shengguo DENG, Zeyuan DENG, Yawei FAN, Jing LI, Rong LIU, Dongmei XIONG,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 375-382.

Abstract   PDF (214KB)
Quercetin-3-O-sambubioside [Quercetin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl (1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside] was separated and purified by semi-preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase-solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol–water (4∶1∶5, v/v) from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera (Lotus). A total of 5.0mg of the targeted compound with a purity of 98.6% as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was obtained from 100m g of the crude extract cleaned up by AB-8 macroporous resin in a one-step separation. Quercetin-3-O-sambubioside was a novel flavonoid glycoside from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera, and its chemical structure was identified by means of ESI-MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR.
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Purification of ice structuring protein complexes from winter wheat using Triton X-114 phase partitioning
Huaneng XU, Haiying CHEN, Weining HUANG,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 383-385.

Abstract   PDF (102KB)
Ice structuring proteins (ISPs) isolated from the cold-acclimated plants have a great potential in improving the quality of frozen foods. The purification of ISP complexes from winter wheat was achieved using an aqueous two-phase system of Triton X-114. The highly reactive phenols were removed, and the ISP complexes remained in the aqueous phase after phase separation. The ISP complexes treated by this procedure retained higher thermal hysteresis activity than those treated by ammonium sulfate method. The phase separation technique provides a simple and mild way for removing phenols from ISP complexes.
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Effect of succinic acid deamidation-induced modification on wheat gluten
Lan LIAO, Mouming ZHAO, Haifeng ZHAO, Jiaoyan REN, Chun CUI, Xiao HU,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 386-392.

Abstract   PDF (149KB)
The effect of succinic acid deamidation-induced modification on wheat gluten was investigated in the present study. The changes of surface hydrophobicity, functional properties, secondary structure, and sensibility of proteolysis of modified samples were determined. The solubility of deamidated proteins increased in the isoelectric region of untreated wheat gluten. The isoelectric point of succinic acid deamidated wheat gluten was shifted to a basic pH and existed in the broad pH regions. Foaming property and molecular flexibility of wheat gluten were improved after the modification. The hydrolysis degree of the hydrolysates in proteolysis with flavorzyme and pancreatin increased after succinic acid deamidation. Moreover, succinic acid deamidation-induced modification resulted in little change in molecular weight and secondary structure of the protein. Thus, succinic acid could facilitate unfolding protein conformation. In addition, it could improve protein-water interactions, surface properties, and sensibility of the proteolysis of the deamidated wheat gluten.
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Bioproduction of D -psicose using permeabilized cells of newly isolated Rhodobacter sphaeroides SK011
Longtao ZHANG, Bo JIANG, Wanmeng MU, Tao ZHANG,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 393-398.

Abstract   PDF (150KB)
D-psicose exits in an extremely small amount in nature and is difficult to be chemically synthesized. Only three bacteria have been used in the biotransformation of D-psicose from D-fructose. In this paper, another bacterium which could convert D-fructose to D-psicose was isolated and identified as Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The process parameters of D-psicose production using permeabilized cells of Rhodobacter sphaeroides SK011 were optimized, including the permeabilization procedure: 0.1% (w/v) CTAB, 10min, and reaction conditions: cell concentration, 30g dry cell wt/L; concentration of substrate, 50g/L; 40°C, pH 9.0; reaction time, 8 h. Under the optimized conditions, the permeabilized cells produced approximately 6.5g/L D-psicose with a D-psicose productivity of 0.82g·L−1·h−1. This is the first report of bioproduction of D-psicose using permeabilized cells of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
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Biopolymer-stabilized emulsions on the basis of interactions between β -lactoglobulin and ι -carrageenan
Qiaomei RU, Younghee CHO, Qingrong HUANG,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 399-406.

Abstract   PDF (264KB)
ι-Carrageenan and β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, which can be used for the oral administration of bioactive but environmentally sensitive ingredients, have been successfully prepared. The effects of protein/polysaccharide ratios, total biopolymer concentration, environmental stress (thermal processing and sonication), and pH on the complex formation between ι-carrageenan and β-lactoglobulin have been investigated. We found that β-lactoglobulin andι-carrageenan stabilized emulsions can be formed at pH values of 6.0, 4.0, and 3.4. However, the microstructures of emulsions stabilized by β-lactoglobulin and ι-carrageenan was identified by optical microscopy, and it indicated that the emulsion prepared at pH 6.0 flocculated more extensively, while its hydrodynamic radius was much bigger than those prepared at pH 4.0 and 3.4. Regarding rheological properties, the emulsion of pH 6.0 showed a more solid-like behavior but with a lower viscosity than those of pH 4.0 and 3.4. The optimum concentration ranges for β-lg andι-carrageenan to form stable emulsions at pH 4.0 and 3.4 were 0.3wt-%―0.6wt-% and 0.4wt-%―0.7wt-%, respectively.
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Effects of fatty acid chain length and degree of unsaturation on the surface activities of monoacyl trehaloses
Yue-E SUN, Wenshui XIA, Xueyan TANG, Zhiyong HE, Jie CHEN,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 407-412.

Abstract   PDF (137KB)
The surface properties of monoacyl trehaloses with different acyl chains were investigated at 30°C, 40°C, 50°C, and 60°C. Monoacyl trehaloses were enzymatically synthesized and purified with silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the purity of products was identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The surface tension of monoacyl trehalose in pure water was measured using Doüy ring method at different temperatures. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC), surface tension at the CMC, γCMC, and residual area per molecule, a, were estimated from the curves. The CMC value of unsaturated monoacyl trehalose was affected by both the degree of unsaturation and the acyl chain length, and the effect of chain length on the CMC value was much stronger than that of the unsaturation degree. However, there was no significant dependency of the γCMC value and a values on the chain length or the unsaturated degree.
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Advancements in non-starch polysaccharides research for frozen foods and microencapsulation of probiotics
Pavan Kumar SOMA, Patrick D. WILLIAMS, Y. Martin LO,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 413-426.

Abstract   PDF (416KB)
Conventionally used in the food industry as stabilizing, thickening, gelling, and suspending or dispersing agents, non-starch polysaccharides such as xanthan gum are known to improve the texture of certain frozen products. Another polysaccharide that has received significant attention in recent years is chitosan, a natural biopolymer derived from chitin. In the wake of growing interest in finding ideal encapsulating agents for probiotics, non-starch polysaccharides have been investigated. Scattered research can be found on the effect of each individual polysaccharide, but there remains a void in the literature in terms of closely comparing the characteristics of non-starch polysaccharides for these applications, especially when more than one biopolymer is employed. A good understanding of the tools capable of elucidating the underlying mechanisms involved is essential in ushering further development of their applications. Therefore, it is this review’s intention to focus on the selection criteria of non-starch polysaccharides based on their rheological properties, resistance to harsh conditions, and ability to improve sensory quality. A variety of critical tools is also carefully examined with respect to the attainable information crucial to frozen food and microencapsulation applications.
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A review of traditional and novel detection techniques for melamine and its analogues in foods and animal feed
Mengshi LIN,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 427-435.

Abstract   PDF (246KB)
Melamine, a nitrogen-rich chemical, has received much attention in recent years due to a series of highly publicized food safety incidents, including 2007 pet food recalls in North America and 2008 melamine contamination in milk, infant formula, and other milk-derived products in China. Current analytical methods for testing melamine are time-consuming, expensive, and labor-intensive. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in the food science and analytical chemistry field to develop simple, quick, sensitive, and cost-effective methods for detection of melamine and its analogues (e.g., cyanuric acid, melamine cyanurate, ammelide, and ammeline) in food ingredients, processed food, and animal feed. This review aims to summarize traditional and novel analytical techniques that have been used or show great potential to detect, characterize, and quantify melamine and its analogues in foods and animal feed.
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Changes in structure and functional properties of whey proteins induced by high hydrostatic pressure: A review
Xiaoming LIU, Jia NING, Stephanie CLARK,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 436-442.

Abstract   PDF (139KB)
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is an alternative technology to heat processing for food product modifications. It does not cause environmental pollution and eliminates the use of chemical additives in food products. This review covers the research conducted to understand the effect of HHP on structure and functional properties of whey proteins. In this paper, the mechanism underlying pressure-induced changes in β-lactoglobulin and α-lactabumin is also discussed and how they related to functional properties such as hydrophobicity, foam stability, and flavor-binding capacity.
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The energy consumption in a batch stripper and a batch rectifier
Xianbao CUI, Tianyang FENG, Ying ZHANG, Zhicai YANG,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 443-452.

Abstract   PDF (342KB)
The energy consumption in a batch rectifier and a batch stripper was investigated with a shortcut mathematical model. The minimum energy consumption of a batch stripper was compared to that of a batch rectifier under “general constant reflux” and “general constant distillate composition” with the ratio of minimum energy consumption ES/ER. When the feed contains a large amount of light component, the product purity specification is low and the relative volatility is small, the minimum energy consumption of a batch stripper is less than that of a batch rectifier under “general constant reflux” and “general constant distillate composition”. When the feed contains a small amount of light component, the product purity specification is very high and the relative volatility is low, a batch stripper can also consume less energy only in the “general constant distillate composition” operation mode. In other cases, a batch rectifier can consume less energy.
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Selective oxidation of o -nitrotoluene to o -nitrobenzaldehyde with metalloporphyrins as biomimetic catalysts
Xinling WANG, Yuanbin SHE,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 453-456.

Abstract   PDF (99KB)
Selective oxidation of o-nitrotoluene to o-nitrobenzaldehyde with metalloporphyrins as biomimetic catalysts was studied. The peripheral substituent around porphyrin rings and various process parameters of NaOH concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time and oxygen pressure all affect the selectivity of o-nitrobenzaldehyde. Further, 82.0% selectivity of o-nitrobenzaldehyde was achieved under the optimum conditions: 1.0×10−5mol•L−1 of T(p-NO2)PPFeCl catalyst, 2.5mol•L−1 of NaOH, 0.2mol•L−1 of o-nitrotoluene, 45°C and 2.0MPa for 6h.
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Synthesis of p -substituted tetraphenylporphyrins and corresponding ferric complexes with mixed-solvents method
Zhicheng SUN, Yuanbin SHE, Rugang ZHONG,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 457-461.

Abstract   PDF (101KB)
By using mixed-solvents method, five kinds of p-substituted tetraphenylporphyrin compounds [T(p-R)PPH2, R=NO2, Cl, CH3, OCH3, OH] were synthesized by the condensation of p-substituted benzaldehyde with pyrrole in mixed solvents (propionic acid, acetic acid and nitrobenzene), and corresponding ferric complexes [T(p-R)PPFeIIICl] were synthesized in dimethylformamide. The above free base porphyrins were obtained in 30%–50% yields, metalation yields were up to 90% and total yields of ferric complexes were 27%–50%. Effects of reactive conditions, solvents and oxidants on yields of free base porphyrins were investigated and the relevant mechanism was discussed. Structures of the above porphyrin complexes were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), infrared (IR) and far infrared (FIR) spectroscopy.
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Preparation and characterization of EVAL hollow fiber membrane adsorbents filled with cation exchange resins
Fengli ZHANG, Yuzhong ZHANG, Hong LI, Guangfen LI,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 462-467.

Abstract   PDF (350KB)
EVAL hollow fiber membrane adsorbents filled with powder D061-type cation exchange resin were prepared through dry-wet spinning process, using hydrophilic copolymer EVAL as the fiber substrate. The microstructures of the membrane adsorbents were observed, and the pure water fluxes, BSA rejection, and static adsorption capacities of membrane adsorbents for BSA were measured. The effect of the resin-filled content on membrane performance has been discussed. The results showed that EVAL hollow fiber membrane adsorbents filled with D061-type cation exchange resins had good adsorption capacity, and the adsorption capacity increased with the quantity of the resin-filled content. The static protein adsorption capacity was 77.14 mg BSA/g membrane adsorbents when D061 resin loading content was 65% at pH 4.5.
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Experimental study on capturing CO 2 greenhouse gas by mixture of ammonia and soil
Ying WU, Yifei WANG, Qinghua ZENG, Xin GONG, Zunhong YU,
Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.. 2009, 3 (4): 468-473.

Abstract   PDF (256KB)
This paper presents our study on removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) greenhouse gas emissions by using the mixture of ammonia and soil. CO2 capture capacity using this method is 15% higher than the sum of ammonia chemical absorption capacity and soil physical adsorption capacity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are utilized to study this synergism. The removal effect is not only reflected in ammonia chemical reaction with CO2. CO2 can also be absorbed by ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) crystal, which is the main component of the product, or wrapped in the pore of the crystal or packed in the gap between the crystal and the soil. CO2 can be permanently deposited as carbonated minerals in the subsoil earth layers.
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19 articles