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Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering

ISSN 2095-0179

ISSN 2095-0187(Online)

CN 11-5981/TQ

Postal Subscription Code 80-969

2018 Impact Factor: 2.809

Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.    2014, Vol. 8 Issue (2) : 179-187     DOI: 10.1007/s11705-014-1431-0
WO3 nanomaterials synthesized via a sol-gel method and calcination for use as a CO gas sensor
Diah SUSANTI1,*(),A.A. Gede Pradnyana DIPUTRA1,Lucky TANANTA1,Hariyati PURWANINGSIH1,George Endri KUSUMA2,Chenhao WANG3,Shaoju SHIH3,Yingsheng HUANG4
1. Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Surabaya State Shipbuilding Polytechnic, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
3. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (NTUST), Taipei 10607, Taiwan, China
4. Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (NTUST), Taipei 10607, Taiwan, China
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Carbon monoxide is a poisonous and hazardous gas and sensitive sensor devices are needed to prevent humans from being poisoned by this gas. A CO gas sensor has been prepared from WO3 synthesized by a sol-gel method. The sensor chip was prepared by a spin-coating technique which deposited a thin film of WO3 on an alumina substrate. The chip samples were then calcined at 300, 400, 500 or 600 °C for 1 h. The sensitivities of the different sensor chips for CO gas were determined by comparing the changes in electrical resistance in the absence and presence of 50 ppm of CO gas at 200 °C. The WO3 calcined at 500 °C had the highest sensitivity. The sensitivity of this sensor was also measured at CO concentrations of 100 ppm and 200 ppm and at operating temperatures of 30 and 100 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis of the WO3 calcined at 500 °C indicated that this sample had the highest gas adsorption capacity. This preliminary research has shown that WO3 can serve as a CO gas sensor and that is should be further explored and developed.

Keywords WO3 nanomaterial      sol-gel      calcinations      CO gas sensor      sensitivity     
Corresponding Authors: Diah SUSANTI   
Issue Date: 22 May 2014
URL:     OR
Fig.1  Schematic diagram of the sensor chip arrangement. 1 Alumina substrate, 2 palladium electrode, 3 WO3 film, 4 palladium heating element, 5 connecting wires, 6 small ceramic tube for thermocouple connection
Fig.2  Secondary electron SEM images of WO3 coated on top of alumina wafers after calcination at (a) 300, (b) 400, (c) 500, and (d) 600°C for 1 h
Fig.3  X-ray diffraction patterns of WO3 material after calcination at 300, 400, 500, and 600 °C for 1 h
Calcination temperature /°C300400500600
Crystallite size /nm6.410.921.839.3
BET surface area /(m2·g–1)83.941511.24.51
Tab.1  Crystallite sizes and active surface areas of WO3 powder calcinated at different temperatures
Fig.4  Bright-field TEM images of the WO3 material calcined at 600°C. (a) A WO3 cluster, (b) higher magnification of the square region in (a), (c) and (d) magnified images of the square regions in (b), 1 and 2 respectively
Fig.5  EDX spectra of WO3 taken from the square region in Fig. 4(a)
Fig.6  Raman spectra of WO3 powder calcined at 300, 400, 500, and 600 °C
Fig.7  (a) TGA/DTA of WO3 gel without thermal treatment, (b) TGA of WO3 powder treated at 300 and 400 °C, (c) TGA of WO3 powder treated at 500 °C and 600 °C
Fig.8  (a) Sensitivity of WO3-based chip sensor calcined at 300, 400, 500 and 600 °C, measured at 200 °C and 50 ppm CO; (b) Sensitivity of sensor calcined at 500 °C measured at different operating temperatures: 30, 100 and 200 °C at 50 ppm CO; (c) Sensitivity of sensor calcined at 500 °C measured at different CO gas concentrations: 50, 100 °C and 200 ppm at 200 °C
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