Frontiers of Economics in China

ISSN 1673-3444

ISSN 1673-3568(Online)

CN 11-5744/F

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Health care system in rural China: A quantitative approach based on heterogeneous individuals
FENG Jin, SONG Zheng
Front Econ Chin. 2009, 4 (2): 153-172.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-009-0009-0

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This paper is aimed to provide some responses to the following three hotly debated issues regarding China’s new rural cooperative medical system (NCMS), which was launched at the beginning of 2003. Firstly, how many people would join the system voluntarily? Secondly, can the system be self-balanced? And thirdly, would the lump-sum tax benefit the rich more than the poor? We build a decision model with heterogeneous agents and we compute the implications of NCMS and find under certain conditions, the balanced-system can be sustained and the rate of participation could be higher than 90%. Moreover, it is the unhealthy poor that benefit more from NCMS.

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Comparison of health care financing schemes before and after market reforms in China’s urban areas
WANG Nuo, SUN Huixin, Christian GERICKE
Front Econ Chin. 2009, 4 (2): 173-191.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-009-0010-7

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The health financing schemes is the foundation for the nation’s health care system, and the health insurance is a main one of some options for financing health care. This article compares two health care financing schemes in urban areas before and after the health reform, and targets at the impacts facing coverage groups, the financing methods, decision-making power or financial management (i.e. the distribution of responsibility and rights between the central government and local governments), payment arrangement and cost containment of health care financing mechanisms. Prior to reform, the equal access and universal coverage of health care services were implemented through the employment-based health insurance in a state-controlled economy with guaranteed full employment and central control in general. The decentralization reforms of fiscal system and tax sharing reforms disrupts the past economic foundation, the rebuilding health insurance system which still benefits the employed bring the limited coverage. The next trend is to make transition from health insurance covering only part of the employed population to what are in effect national health services covering the whole population in urban areas.

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Research on tax revenue increasing faster than GDP increasing based upon industry structure
TANG Dengshan, WU Hong
Front Econ Chin. 2009, 4 (2): 192-208.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-009-0011-6

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Recently, qualitative and comparatively simple positive research on tax revenue increase faster than that of GDP are mostly based upon some factors, such as economic growth, levy technology enhancement, difference between structure of GDP and that of tax, excessive increase of high-tax industries due to local governments’ land-leasing behavior, etc. We firstly develop a theoretical model and responding algorithm about this phenomenon based on industry structure and their tax burden. Our model explicitly takes into account every industry’s contribution to this phenomenon. We attempt to provide a path for explaining tax revenue increase faster than GDP increase and suggestion for forecasting the change of macro-tax burden.

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FDI technology spillover and the productivity growth of China’s manufacturing sector
Qiu Bin, YANG Shuai, XIN Peijiang, Berna KIRKULAK
Front Econ Chin. 2009, 4 (2): 209-227.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-009-0012-5

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This paper analyses total factor productivity (TFP) of China’s manufacturing sector and its decomposed indexes, i.e., technological progress and technological efficiency by employing Malmquist productivity index based on the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. Using panel data of domestic manufacturing sector in China from 2000 to 2005, we estimate the influences of horizontal and vertical linkages on TFP and its decomposition indexes by controlling R&D and exports indexes of domestic manufacturing sector. The empirical results show that R&D and exports have a positive effect on TFP and that FDI inflows lead to positive spillovers significantly in general mainly through technological progress resulting from backward linkages; however, forward linkages have no technology spillover effect while horizontal linkages promote TFP through technological efficiency which has quite different influencing modes compared to that of backward and forward linkages. The grouping regression results also show that FDI technology spillovers have different conductive mechanisms under different technological levels, industry concentrations and export dependency indexes.

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Comparative study on foreign trade development patterns of the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta
ZHU Shi’e, YANG Rudai
Front Econ Chin. 2009, 4 (2): 228-249.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-009-0013-4

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Based on a massive collection of data, this paper tries to make a detailed comparison between the foreign trade development patterns of two export-oriented regional economies: the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. It is shown that both of the deltas have made spectacular progress in foreign trade development. However, the Yangtze River Delta is catching up with the Pearl River Delta, and China’s foreign trade development pattern has changed in recent years from a Pearl River Delta-dominated foreign trade environment to a situation in which the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta together dominate China’s foreign trade. The primary difference in the foreign trade development patterns of these two deltas is that foreign trade in the Pearl River Delta relies more on processing trade, while that in the Yangtze River Delta is more government-oriented with special political zones playing a significant role in its foreign trade.

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The nature of land property rights and contract options in institutional changes: A case study of cooperation economy
CUI Baomin, DENG Hongtu
Front Econ Chin. 2009, 4 (2): 250-264.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-009-0014-3

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This paper discusses an evolutionary process of rural collective property rights or agricultural cooperation economy in detail. We convince that both the evolution of the household contract system and the rural cooperation economy in the market elaborate the key position of property rights’ multi-attribute in the formation of contract structure and organization shape. If there were strong externality between several elements of household, the collective property rights should be chosen.

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What is the driving force of the energy productivity? Evidence from China
WEI Chu, SHEN Man-hong
Front Econ Chin. 2009, 4 (2): 265-273.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-009-0015-2

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This paper identifies the determinants of energy productivity based on a basic economic growth model. Using panel data including 29 provinces from 1995 to 2007, we find that energy productivity is negatively associated with the industry sector share in GDP and the state-owned sector share in GDP, and is positively associated with the electricity share in energy consumption. In addition, we find that there exists a big gap of energy efficiency among eastern, middle and western region in China. Our results suggest that we should induce the industry development structure from the industrial sector to service sector, prompt the reform of state-owned enterprises, as well as improve the energy consumption structure dominated by coal to diversified cleaning energy.

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Bank specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability: Empirical evidence from the China banking sector
Fadzlan SUFIAN, Muzafar Shah HABIBULLAH
Front Econ Chin. 2009, 4 (2): 274-291.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-009-0016-1

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This paper seeks to examine the determinants of the profitability of the Chinese banking sector during the post-reform period of 2000–2005. The empirical findings from this study suggest that all the determinants variables have statistically significant impact on China banks profitability. However, the impacts are not uniform across bank types. We find that liquidity, credit risk, and capitalization have positive impacts on the state owned commercial banks (SOCBs) profitability, while the impact of cost is negative. Similar to their SOCB counterparts, we find that joint stock commercial banks (JSCB) with higher credit risk tend to be more profitable, while higher cost results in a lower JSCB profitability levels. During the period under study, the empirical findings suggest that size and cost results in a lower city commercial banks (CITY) profitability, while the more diversified and relatively better capitalized CITY tend to exhibit higher profitability levels. The impact of economic growth is positive, while growth in money supply is negatively related to the SOCB and CITY profitability levels.

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Jiangsu-Zhejiang model and the nationwide development of the private sector in China
WANG Zhikai
Front Econ Chin. 2009, 4 (2): 292-316.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-009-0017-0

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Along with the implementation of reform and open up policy in China, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, two provinces have got rapid economic development and greatly contributed to China’s market transition. Jiangsu, Zhejiang together with Shanghai, have shaped China’s economic heartland—the Yangtze River Delta Economic Region. Undoubtedly, the private sector is the driving force for the tremendous economic development in the Yangtze River Delta, particularly for facilitating institutional transition and economic development. Fortunately, this kind of economic development driven by the private sector was not only restricted in the Yangtze River Delta Region, but also across the country as it has been gradually extended nationwide. This paper is to look at the development of the private sector in Jiangsu and Zhejiang areas and particularly trace its fantastic effects on nationwide economic development and market transition.

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9 articles