Frontiers of Economics in China

ISSN 1673-3444

ISSN 1673-3568(Online)

CN 11-5744/F

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Urbanization and Urban-Rural Inequality in China: A New Perspective from the Government’s Development Strategy
Justin Yifu Lin, Binkai Chen
Front Econ Chin. 2011, 6 (1): 1-21.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-011-0119-3

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This paper offers a novel explanation for the lower urbanization rate and great urban-rural inequality in China. Our study reveals that, heavy-industry-oriented development strategy will result in lower urbanization rate and higher urban-rural inequality. The greater the degree of heavy-industryoriented development strategy is, the lower the urbanization rate is, and the higher the urban-rural inequality is. From a dynamic perspective, heavy-industryoriented development strategy reduces the capital accumulation rate, which results in a slower progress of urbanization and a highly persistent urban-rural inequality. The higher the degree of heavy-industry-oriented development strategy, the slower the progress of urbanization, and the longer the urban-rural inequality will last. This mechanism can potentially explain the lower urbanization rate and higher urban-rural inequality in China under a unified framework.

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China’s Banking System, Market Structure, and Competitive Conditions
Omar Masood, Bruno S. Sergi
Front Econ Chin. 2011, 6 (1): 22-35.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-011-0120-x

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This paper presents an empirical assessment of the market structure and the competitive conditions of the Chinese banking sector. We applied the Panzar-Rosse H-statistic on the data collected from a panel including 16 most significant Chinese banks for the period 2004–2007. Equilibrium tests and the competitive conditions tests were applied on the data. From the pooled regression in the whole period, we found that the banking sector in China for 2004–2007 was monopolistically competitive. We also show that the Chinese banks were not able to achieve high records of profitability in monopolistically competitive markets.

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Does Method Selection Matter? A New Look at FDI and Human Capital in Chinese High-Tech Industries
Guoqing Zhao, Zhongyuan Zhang
Front Econ Chin. 2011, 6 (1): 36-54.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-011-0121-9

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Using the data that comes from China Statistical Yearbook on High Technology Industry, this paper examines the human capital accumulation, the R&D expenditure and the FDI externality effects on the productivity improvement of Chinese high-tech industries. Our empirical results suggest that the effects of FDI and human capital accumulation on technological progress depend in part on the adopted approaches. We believe that the dynamic model dominates the static model estimates. This paper finds little evidence in support of technological spillovers from FDI and indicate that the technological progresses are mainly rooting in human capital accumulation other than technology spillover induced by FDI in Chinese high-tech industry.

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Capital Endowment, Credit Constraint and FDI: Analysis Based on Heterogeneous Firms
Junjiang Li, Lei Hou, Jiarui Zhang
Front Econ Chin. 2011, 6 (1): 55-75.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-011-0122-8

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To examine the impact of capital endowment and credit constraint on firms’ FDI decisions, we build a model of investment portfolio based on heterogeneous firms setup. We find that financial factors matter for firms’ internationalization. More capital endowment or less credit constraint lowers cutoff productivity for firms to do FDI.

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Measuring the NAIRU — A Structural VAR Approach
Hongmei Zhao, Vincent Hogan
Front Econ Chin. 2011, 6 (1): 76-91.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-011-0123-7

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This paper calculates the NAIRU for the US in a framework that allows inflation and unemployment to be jointly endogenous. We define the NAIRU as being the component of actual unemployment that is uncorrelated with inflation in the long run. We use a structural VAR to estimate the NAIRU and core inflation simultaneously and with greater precision than most of the previous literature. Our results show that the NAIRU fell dramatically at the end of the 1990s from 6.7% before 1997 to 5.2% afterwards.

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Global Reserve Currency System: Why Will the Dollar Standard Give Way to a Tripolar Currency Order?
Vivekanand Jayakumar, Barbara Weiss
Front Econ Chin. 2011, 6 (1): 92-130.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-011-0124-6

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The recent financial crisis highlighted some of the underlying defects in the dollar-based reserve system. This paper argues that the era of the US hegemonic stability and unipolarity, which provided the foundation for the dollar’s sustenance as the pre-eminent global reserve currency, has already peaked and the global economy of the future will revolve around a multipolar order. The rise of China, along with other emerging markets, is rapidly redrawing the traditional Western dominated global economic system. The structural challenges facing the American economy along with the extraordinary expansion of Federal Reserve’s balance sheet and the explosion of the US government debt will diminish the attractiveness of the dollar standard going forward. Our analysis suggests that a tripolar currency order—consisting of the dollar, the yuan and the euro—will replace the dollar standard in the coming decades.

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Income-Related Inequalities of Health and Health Care Utilization
E Xie
Front Econ Chin. 2011, 6 (1): 131-156.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-011-0125-5

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By utilizing the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data, this paper examines the extent of deviations in terms of horizontal equity in the field of China’s health and medical community, i.e., that those in equal demand ought to be treated equally, and computes the contribution of income in health inequality and utilization inequality of health care. The main conclusions are: There is pro-rich inequality in health and utilization of health care; income contribution to inequality of health care utilization accounts for 0.13–0.2; insurance also enlarges the inequality of health care utilization; health inequality in rural area is larger than that of in urban area; and both rural and urban health inequality are increasing. From 1991 to 2006, income changes in urban districts and rural area account for 7.08% and 13.38% respectively of raising inequality of rural and urban health.

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An Empirical Analysis of Income Disparity and Consumption in China
Feng Lou, Xuesong Li
Front Econ Chin. 2011, 6 (1): 157-170.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-011-0126-4

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Using China’s provincial data from 1991 to 2005, this paper analyzes the impact of urban income disparity on their consumption based on static and dynamic panel data models and state space model. The GMM and Kalman Filter methods are used in the estimation and the variables such as income and price are controlled. The empirical results show that the elasticity of permanent income to consumption is much higher than that of temporary income; and the impact of income disparity on consumption is negative and substantial. A rise of 0.01 in the absolute value of Gini coefficient will cause a reduction of 0.35% in consumption on average. The effects fluctuate with the change of economic structure, consumption expectation and economic cycle. In the beginning years of 1990s, it is positive to enlarge income disparity moderately for consumption. It is the year of 1996 that the negative effect first appears in China. During 1998–2004, an increase of 0.01 to the absolute value of Gini coefficient will result in the reduction of consumption to fluctuate between 0.37% and 0.54%. In order to enlarge domestic demand and promote consumption, the focus should be the improvement of permanent income instead of temporary income, and the vigorous policies to reduce income disparity.

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