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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

ISSN 2095-2201

ISSN 2095-221X(Online)

CN 10-1013/X

Postal Subscription Code 80-973

2018 Impact Factor: 3.883

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2017, Vol. 11 Issue (1) : 3    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-017-0891-0
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Emissions analysis on second generation biodiesel
Yuvarajan Devarajan1(),Ravi kumar Jayabal2,Devanathan Ragupathy2,Harish Venu3
1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vel Tech Dr. RR & Dr. SR Technical University, Chennai 600062, India
2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeppiaar Institute of Technology, Chennai 631604, India
3. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600025, India
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Abstract

CNSBD can be used as a fuel without any modification in existing CI engine.

Pentanol reduces HC, CO, NOx and Smoke emissions significantly.

New and next generation alternative fuel is employed.

Blending of CNSBD with pentanol resulted in no separation of phases and found miscible.

This work investigates the effect of adding pentanol with biodiesel derived from cashew nut shell on its emissions characteristics is conducted in stationery diesel engine. The main purpose of this work is intended to reduce the emissions by fuelling biodiesel derived from cashew nut shell and the pentanol blends. Cashew nut shell biodiesel is prepared by transesterification process. Oxygenated additive used in the work is Pentanol. The experiment is conducted using four test fuels such as, biodiesel derived from cashew nut shell (CNSBD), a fuel containing 90% cashew nut shell biodiesel and 10% pentanol (CNSBD90P10), a fuel containing 80% cashew nut shell biodiesel and 20% pentanol (CNSBD80P20) and neat diesel. Experimental work concluded that by adding 10% of pentanol to cashew nut shell biodiesel 10.1%, 2.6%, 5.1% and 2.1%reduction in CO, HC, NOx and Smoke emissions were observed respectively. Further by fueling with these blends, no modifications in engines were required.

Keywords Pentanol      Biodiesel      Emissions     
Corresponding Authors: Yuvarajan Devarajan   
Issue Date: 14 December 2016
 Cite this article:   
Yuvarajan Devarajan,Ravi kumar Jayabal,Devanathan Ragupathy, et al. Emissions analysis on second generation biodiesel[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2017, 11(1): 3.
 URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-017-0891-0
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2017/V11/I1/3
fatty acids CNSBD (% mass)
palmitic C16:0 10.3
stearic
oleic
c18:0
8.8
24.7
linoleic C18:2 39.7
linoleic C18:3 16.5
free fatty acid (neat cashew nut oil) 17
Tab.1  Fatty acid compositions
properties pentanol
molecular formula C5H11-OH
viscosity at 40°C (mm·s−2) 2.88
flash point (°C) 49
latent heat of evaporation (kJ·kg−1) 308
C (%wt) 68.18
H (%wt) 13.64
O(%wt) 18.18
Tab.2  Properties of pentanol
Fig.1  Molecular structure of pentanol
Fig.2  Layout of engine set up
Make Kirloskar
Stroke 4
Cylinder Single
rated power 4.2 kW
rated speed 1300 r·min−1
bore diameter (D) 87.5 mm
stroke (L) 110 mm
compression ratio 17.5:1
injection timing 17°bTDC
injection pressure 200 bar
Tab.3  Specification of engine set up
pollutant range accuracy uncertainty absolute (ppm) uncertainty relative (%)
CO 0%–9.99% 0.01% ±0.004 ±6
HC 0–1500 ppm 1% ±0.89 ±3
NOx 0–5000 ppm 0.01% ±2 ±0.1
smoke 0%–100% ±1% ±0.03 ±4
Tab.4  Range and accuracy details of smoke meter and gas analyzer
properties CNSBD CNSBD90P10 CNSBD80P20 diesel method
water content (%) 0.12 0.11 0.11 Nil ASTM D2709
density @ 18°C (gm·mL−1) 0.8829 0.8662 0.8482 0.8200 ASTM D4052
kinematic viscosity @35°C (mm2·s−1) 4.30 3.97 3.76 2.5 ASTM D445
calorific value (kJ·kg−1) 38108 38567 38812 42957 ASTM D240
cetane index, CI 52 54 56 47 ASTM D976
Tab.5  Properties of Tested fuels
Fig.3  Variation of CO emissions with load
Fig.4  Variation of HC emissions with load
Fig.5  Variation of NOx emissions with load
Fig.6  Variation of smoke emissions with load
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