Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

ISSN 2095-2201

ISSN 2095-221X(Online)

CN 10-1013/X

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Sorption and desorption of pymetrozine on six Chinese soils
Mingxing GAO,Yingying LI,Hong YANG,Yucheng GU
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 1-10.

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Pymetrozine is a selective insecticide with a unique chemical structure and mode to control hemipteran and homopteran. While pymetrozine has brought great benefits to crop production by killing insects, its residues in soil may have a detrimental effect on environment. Therefore, it is of great importance to investigate its behaviors in soil. In this study, the sorption and desorption of pymetrozine on six Chinese soils were investigated using a batch equilibrium approach to understand its mobile behavior in the soils. Both sorption and desorption isotherms of pymetrozine were in good agreement with the Freundlich model. The sorption coefficient KF varied between 3.37 and 58.32 mL?g−1 and the sorption isotherms were nonlinear, with 1/n ranging from 0.57 to 0.91. A regression equation was proposed to predict the sorption of pymetrozine on six different soil samples: log KF = 4.3708 − 4.5709 × log (pH in 0.01mol·L−1 CaCl2) + 0.4700 × log OC% + 0.0057 × sand (%) + 0.0022 × CEC(clay), with R2 = 0.9982. The organic carbon content of soil positively affected the sorption of pymetrozine, but soil pH had a negative effect on the sorption. Additionally, effects of CaCl2 concentration, soil to solution ratio and pesticide form were investigated. The sorption was promoted with an increase in soil to solution ratio and a decrease in CaCl2 concentration. The possible variation of the five formulated products of pymetrozine was also investigated.

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Removing carbonyl sulfide with metal-modified activated carbon
Juan QIU,Ping NING,Xueqian WANG,Kai LI,Wei LIU,Wei CHEN,Langlang WANG
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 11-18.

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A Cu-Co-K/activated carbon (AC) adsorbent has been developed for the removal of carbonyl sulfide (COS). The effects of COS concentration, reaction temperature and relative humidity were closely examined. A breakthrough of 33.23 mg COS·g−1 adsorbent at 60°C, under 30% relative humidity and in presence of 1.0% oxygen was exhibited in the Cu-Co-K/AC adsorbent prepared. Competitive adsorption studies for COS in the presence of CS2, and H2S were also conducted. TPD analysis was used to identify sulfur-containing products on the carbon surface, and the results indicated that H2S, COS and SO2 were all evident in the effluent gas generated from the exhausted Cu-Co-K/AC. Structure of the activated carbon samples has been characterized using nitrogen adsorption, and their surface chemical structures were also determined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It turns out that the modification with Cu(OH)2CO3-CoPcS-KOH can significantly improve the COS removal capacity, forming SO42 species simultaneously. Regeneration of the spent activated carbon sorbents by thermal desorption has also been explored.

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Sequence of the main geochemical controls on the Cu and Zn fractions in the Yangtze River estuarine sediments
Shou ZHAO,Dongxin WANG,Chenghong FENG,Ying WANG,Zhenyao SHEN
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 19-27.

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Metal speciation can provide sufficient information for environmental and geochemical researches. In this study, based on the speciation determination of Cu and Zn in the Yangtze Estuary sediments, roles of eight geochemical controls (i.e., total organic carbon (TOC), clay, Fe/Mn in five chemical fractions and salinity) are fully investigated and sequenced with correlation analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA). Results show that TOC, clay and Fe/Mn oxides are key geochemical factors affecting the chemical speciation distributions of Cu and Zn in sediments, while the role of salinity appears to be more indirect effect. The influencing sequence generally follows the order: TOC>clay>Mn oxides>Fe oxides>salinity. Among the different fractions of Fe/Mn oxides, residual and total Fe content, and exchangeable and carbonate Mn exert the greatest influences, while exchangeable Fe and residual Mn show the poorest influences.

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Removal of lead from aqueous solution by hydroxyapatite/manganese dioxide composite
Lijing DONG,Zhiliang ZHU,Yanling QIU,Jianfu ZHAO
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 28-36.

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A novel composite adsorbent, hydroxyapatite/manganese dioxide (HAp/MnO2), has been developed for the purpose of removing lead ions from aqueous solutions. The combination of HAp with MnO2 is meant to increase its adsorption capacity. Various factors that may affect the adsorption efficiency, including solution pH, coexistent substances such as humic acid and competing cations (Ca2+, Mg2+), initial solute concentration, and the duration of the reaction, have been investigated. Using this composite adsorbent, solution pH and coexistent calcium or magnesium cations were found to have no significant influence on the removal of lead ions under the experimental conditions. The adsorption equilibrium was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model, and the calculated maximum adsorption capacity was 769 mg·g−1. The sorption processes obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The experimental results indicate that HAp/MnO2 composite may be an effective adsorbent for the removal of lead ions from aqueous solutions.

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Fe-Mn-sepiolite as an effective heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst for the decolorization of reactive brilliant blue
Chengyuan SU,Weiguang LI,Xingzhe LIU,Xiaofei HUANG,Xiaodan YU
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 37-45.

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A study of the decolorization of reactive brilliant blue in an aqueous solution using Fe-Mn-sepiolite as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst has been performed. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the catalyst showed bending vibrations of the Fe-O. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the catalyst showed characteristic diffraction peaks of α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3 and MnO. A four factor central composite design (CCD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate and optimize the important variables (catalyst addition, hydrogen peroxide dosage, initial pH value and initial dye concentration). When the reaction conditions were catalyst dosage= 0.4 g, [H2O2]= 0.3 mL, pH= 2.5, [reactive brilliant blue]o = 50 mg·L−1, and volume of solution= 500 mL at room temperature, the decolorization efficiency of reactive brilliant blue was 91.98% within 60 min. Moreover, the Fe-Mn-sepiolite catalyst had good stability for the degradation of reactive brilliant blue even after six cycles. Leaching of iron ions (<0.4 mg·L−1) was observed. The decoloring process was reactive brilliant blue specific via a redox reaction. The benzene ring and naphthalene ring were first oxidized to open ring; these were then oxidized to the alcohol and carboxylic acid. The reactive brilliant blue was decomposed mainly by the attack of ·OH radicals including surface-bound ·OH radicals generated on the catalyst surface.

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Biologic risk and source diagnose of 16 PAHs from Haihe River Basin, China
Qiuying CHEN,Jingling LIU,Feng LIU,Binbin WANG,Zhiguo CAO
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 46-52.

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Surface sediments of rivers can exhibit spatial and temporal variations in contaminant concentrations that may significantly affect risk evaluations. As to pollution control and remediation of watershed, large-scale and further background data on PAHs in China were required urgently. Spatial distribution and compositional characteristics of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from Haihe River Basin were investigated. A method based on effects range (ER) was used to assess ecosystem risk of ∑PAHs (the total of 16 PAH) sensitively and accurately. The results indicated that ∑PAHs content levels ranged from 257 to 16901 μg·kg−1 dry weight. The lower rings predominated in the samples, and 2-, 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs accounted for 12%, 21%, 30%, 30%, and 7% respectively in total PAHs. The ratio of Fl / (Fl+ Py) uniformly distributed in the interval 0.20–0.80, indicating that it may be affected by petroleum origin, oil combustion, biomass and coal combustion jointly. ∑PAHs in Cetian (S6), Dongwushi (S19), Handan (S20), Aixinzhuang (S21) and Tianjin (S37) exceeded effects range low (ERL), in which biologic effects were in a medium level with an adverse effect on biologic organisms. Thus, it is necessary to strengthen the PAHs monitoring and research of the Haihe River Basin.

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Long-term trends of fine particulate matter and chemical composition in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone (PRDEZ), China
Xuemei WANG,Weihua CHEN,Duohong CHEN,Zhiyong WU,Qi Fan
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 53-62.

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Understanding the trends in PM2.5 levels is essential for formulating clean air plans. This paper analyzes PM2.5 data from various published sources for the years 2000 to 2010 in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone (PRDEZ). The long-term variation in PM2.5 mass concentration is analyzed. Results show that PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and SO42 show a similar trend, increasing before 2005 and then decreasing slightly. The annual average PM2.5 concentration ranges from 49.1 μg·m−3 in 2000 to 64.3 μg·m−3 in 2010, with a peak of 84.1 μg·m−3 in 2004. None of these 11 years meets the new National Ambient Air Quality standard (NAAQS) for PM2.5 (35 μg·m−3). Overall average concentrations of OC, EC, and SO42 are 13.0, 6.5, and 11.8 μg·m−3, respectively. NO3 and NH4+ respectively have concentrations of 1.5 μg·m−3 and 2.9 μg·m−3 in 2000 and 6.4 μg·m−3 and 5.3 μg·m−3 in 2010, with a statistically significant average annual trend of+ 0.2 μg·m−3·yr−1 and+ 0.1 μg·m−3·yr−1. In certain geographic regions, OC and EC contribute most of the PM2.5, while in other regions secondary water-soluble ions are more important. In general, OC and SO42 are the dominant components of PM2.5, contributing 20.6% and 18.6%, respectively. These results provide, for the first time, a better understanding of the long-term PM2.5 characteristics and trends, on a species-by-species basis, in the PRDEZ. The results indicate that PM2.5 abatement needs to prioritize secondary species.

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A spectrometer for measuring particle size distributions in the range of 3 nm to 10 μm
Jieqiong LIU,Jingkun JIANG,Qiang ZHANG,Jianguo DENG,Jiming HAO
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 63-72.

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A spectrometer combining electrical mobility sizing and aerodynamic sizing was developed to measure aerosol size distributions in the range of 3 nm to 10 μm. It includes three instruments which cover different size ranges (a nano scanning mobility particle sizer (NSMPS, 3 – 60 nm), a regular scanning mobility particle sizer (RSMPS, 40 – 700 nm), and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS, 550 nm – 10 μm)). High voltage and sheath flow of the NSMPS and RSMPS were supplied using two home-built control boxes. A LabVIEW program was developed for spectrometer automatic operation. A linear inversion method was applied to correct particle multiple charging effects and to integrate data from the three instruments into a wide-range size distribution. Experiments were conducted to compare distributions in the overlap size ranges measured by three instruments. Good agreement between the NSMPS and RSMPS was achieved after correcting for the difference in counting efficiencies of the two particle counters. Aerodynamic size distributions reported by the APS were converted to mobility size distributions by applying an effective density method. Distributions measured by the RSMPS and APS were consistent in the overlap size range of 550 – 700 nm. A full spectrum in the size range of 3 nm to 10 μm was demonstrated by measuring aerosol generated using a mixture of different sized polystyrene latex spheres.

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Characteristics of carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in residences in Beijing, China
Hengyi DUAN,Xiaotu LIU,Meilin YAN,Yatao WU,Zhaorong LIU
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 73-84.

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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds were measured both indoors and outdoors in 50 residences of Beijing in heating (December, 2011) and non-heating seasons (April/May, 2012). SUMMA canisters for VOCs and diffusive samplers for carbonyl compounds were deployed for 24 h at each site, and 94 compounds were quantified. Formaldehyde, acetone and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyl compounds both indoors and outdoors with indoor median concentrations being 32.1, 21.7 and 15.3 μg·m−3, respectively. Ethane (17.6 μg·m−3), toluene (14.4 μg·m−3), propane (11.2 μg·m−3), ethene (8.40 μg·m−3), n-butane (6.87 μg·m−3), and benzene (5.95 μg·m−3) showed the high median concentrations in indoor air. Dichloromethane, p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) and toluene exhibited extremely high levels in some residences, which were related with a number of indoor emission sources. Moreover, isoprene, p-dichlorobenzene and carbonyls showed median indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios larger than 3, indicating their indoor sources were prevailing. Chlorinated compounds like CFCs were mainly from outdoor sources for their I/O ratios being less than 1. In addition, indoor concentrations between two sampling seasons varied with different compounds. Carbonyl compounds and some chlorinated compounds had higher concentrations in the non-heating season, while alkanes, alkenes, aromatic compounds showed an increase in the heating season. Indoor concentration of VOCs and carbonyls were influenced by locations, interior decorations and indoor activities, however the specific sources for indoor VOCs and carbonyls could not be easily identified. The findings obtained in this study would significantly enhance our understandings on the prevalent and abundant species of VOCs as well as their concentrations and sources in Beijing residences.

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Effects of sepiolite on stabilization remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and its ecological evaluation
Yuebing SUN,Dan ZHAO,Yingming XU,Lin WANG,Xuefeng LIANG,Yue SHEN
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 85-92.

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Stabilization in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils has been gaining prominence because of its cost-effectiveness and rapid implementation. In this study, microbial properties such as microbial community and enzyme activities, chemical properties such as soil pH and metal fraction, and heavy metal accumulation in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were considered in assessing stabilization remediation effectiveness using sepiolite. Results showed that soil pH values increased with rising sepiolite concentration. Sequential extraction results indicated that the addition of sepiolite converted significant amounts of exchangeable fraction of Cd and Pb into residual form. Treatments of sepiolite were observed to reduce Cd and Pb translocation from the soil to the roots and shoots of spinach. Concentrations of Cd and Pb exhibited 12.6%–51.0% and 11.5%–46.0% reduction for the roots, respectively, and 0.9%–46.2% and 43.0%–65.8% reduction for the shoots, respectively, compared with the control group. Increase in fungi and actinomycete counts, as well as in catalase activities, indicated that soil metabolic recovery occurred after sepiolite treatments.

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Effect of lime on speciation of heavy metals during composting of water hyacinth
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 93-102.

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Composting is attractive and inexpensive method for treatment and biomass disposal of water hyacinth. However, the major disadvantage of water hyacinth composting is the high content of heavy metals in the final compost. Addition of lime sludge significantly reduced most bioavailable fractions (exchangeable and carbonate) of heavy metals. Studies were carried on composting of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) with cattle manure and sawdust (6:3:1 ratio) and effects of addition of lime (1%, 2% and 3%) on heavy metal speciation were evaluated during 30 days of composting period. The Tessier sequential extraction method was employed to investigate the changes in speciation of heavy metals such as Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd) and Chromium (Cr) during water hyacinth composting. Effects of physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH and organic matter on speciation of heavy metals were also studied during the process. Results showed that, the total metal content was increased during the composting process. The higher reduction in bioavailability factor (BF) of Cu, Fe, Ni, Cd and Cr was observed in lime 2 treatment about 62.1%, 64.4%, 71.9%, 62.1% and 58.9% respectively; however higher reduction in BF of Zn and Pb was observed in lime 1 treatment during the composting process. Reducible and oxidizable fractions of Ni, Pb and Cd were not observed during the process. Addition of lime was very effective for reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals during composting of water hyacinth with cattle manure and sawdust.

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Distribution and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the typical eco-units of Haihe River Basin
Jingling LIU,Tao YANG,Qiuying CHEN,Feng LIU,Binbin WANG
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 103-113.

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The distribution and characteristics of seven heavy metals in sediments located in the typical ecological units (eco-units) (e.g., rivers, lakes, and estuaries) of Haihe River Basin were analyzed. The Hakanson potential ecological risk index was used for ecological risk assessment. The results indicated that the concentration scales of As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in the eco-units were 2.08 to 24.80 mg·g−1, 0.01 to 1135.50 mg·g−1, 28.70 to 152.73 mg·g−1, 0.03 to 195765.83 mg·g−1, 8.65 to 157.82 mg·g−1, 6.47 to 178.61 mg·g−1, and 21.09 to 1076.25 mg·g−1, respectively. The maximum concentrations of Hg, Cd, and Zn showed higher levels than other water bodies around the world. Hg and Cd have high concentrations in Zhangweinanhe River (1135.50 and 195765.83 mg·g−1, respectively) and Haihe Estuary (790.50 and 548.47 mg·g−1, respectively). According to the ecological factor, Cd and Hg showed very strong ecological risks. The seven heavy metals, namely, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Pb, Cu, and Zn, exhibited ecological risk levels in descending order. Based on the potential ecological risk index, Luanhe River and Baiyangdian Lake had moderate ecological risks, whereas every site in Zhangweinanhe River and Haihe Estuary had substantial risk levels. The risk order of the typical eco-units are as follows: Zhangweinan River (2278345.68)>Estuary (161914.74)>Luanhe River (191.54)>Baiyangdian Lake (120.95). These results provided a scientific basis for water environment improvement and risk management of the Haihe River Basin.

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Dynamic simulation of urban water metabolism under water environmental carrying capacity restrictions
Weihua ZENG,Bo WU,Ying CHAI
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 114-128.

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A revised concept for urban water metabolism (UWM) is presented in this study to address the inadequacies in current research on UWM and the problems associated with the traditional urban water metabolic process. Feedback loops can be analyzed to increase the water environmental carrying capacity (WECC) of the new urban water metabolism system (UWMS) over that of a traditional UWMS. An analysis of the feedback loops of an UWMS was used to construct a system dynamics (SD) model for the system under a WECC restriction. Water metabolic processes were simulated for different scenarios using the Tongzhou District in Beijing as an example. The results for the newly developed UWM case showed that a water environment of Tongzhou District could support a population of 1.1926 × 106, an irrigation area of 375.521 km2, a livestock of 0.7732 × 106, and an industrial value added of ¥193.14 × 109 (i.e. about US$28.285× 109) in 2020. A sensitivity analysis showed that the WECC could be improved to some extent by constructing new sewage treatment facilities or by expanding the current sewage treatment facilities, using reclaimed water and improving the water circulation system.

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A refined risk explicit interval linear programming approach for optimal watershed load reduction with objective-constraint uncertainty tradeoff analysis
Pingjian YANG,Feifei DONG,Yong LIU,Rui ZOU,Xing CHEN,Huaicheng GUO
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 129-140.

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To enhance the effectiveness of watershed load reduction decision making, the Risk Explicit Interval Linear Programming (REILP) approach was developed in previous studies to address decision risks and system returns. However, REILP lacks the capability to analyze the tradeoff between risks in the objective function and constraints. Therefore, a refined REILP model is proposed in this study to further enhance the decision support capability of the REILP approach for optimal watershed load reduction. By introducing a tradeoff factor (α) into the total risk function, the refined REILP can lead to different compromises between risks associated with the objective functions and the constraints. The proposed model was illustrated using a case study that deals with uncertainty-based optimal load reduction decision making for Lake Qionghai Watershed, China. A risk tradeoff curve with different values of α was presented to decision makers as a more flexible platform to support decision formulation. The results of the standard and refined REILP model were compared under 11 aspiration levels. The results demonstrate that, by applying the refined REILP, it is possible to obtain solutions that preserve the same constraint risk as that in the standard REILP but with lower objective risk, which can provide more effective guidance for decision makers.

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Sinks of steel in China–addition to in-use stock, export and loss
Hua GUO,Tianzhu ZHANG
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 141-149.

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China has become the largest producer of crude steel in the world since 1996, which places the country under huge pressure in terms of resources, energy, and the environment. Examining the driver of steel demand is of great significance to the structural adjustment and sustainable development of the steel industry. The researchers calculate the steel demand in China from 2000 to 2009 based on three sinks (steel stock, export, and loss) by taking the four stages of steel life cycle (production, fabrication and manufacturing, use, and waste management and recycling) as the study object. The researchers conclude that addition to in-use stock is the main driver of steel demand and that the 10-year average addition to in-use stock accounted for 77% of the steel sinks, in which 55% of the addition occurs in the building sector, and the steel for this segment is of low strength with large consumption. Based on the analysis of existing policies, the researchers propose that the steel demand structure will develop toward diversification and that the building sector will realize the upgrade of products as soon as possible to improve construction quality. Under the pressure of rising cost for imported resources, the export ratio of steel products should be controlled appropriately. Thus, recycling economy should be developed to reduce steel losses.

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Carbon emission analysis of a residential building in China through life cycle assessment
Yin ZHANG,Xuejing ZHENG,Huan ZHANG,Gaofeng CHEN,Xia WANG
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 150-158.

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In this paper, a quantitative life cycle model for carbon emission accounting was developed based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) theory. A residential building in Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city (Tianjin, China) was selected as a sample, which had been constructed according to the concept of green environmental protection and sustainable development. In the scenario of this research, material production, construction, use and maintenance, and demolition phases were assessed by building carbon emission models. Results show that use and maintenance phase and material production phase are the most significant contributors to the life cycle carbon emissions of a building. We also analyzed some factor influences in LCA, including the thickness of the insulating layer and the length of building service life. The analysis suggest that thicker insulating layer does not necessarily produce less carbon emissions in the light of LCA, and if service life of a building increases, its carbon emissions during the whole life cycle will rise as well but its unit carbon emission will decrease inversely. Some advices on controlling carbon emissions from buildings are also provided.

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Modeling and simulation of landfill gas production from pretreated MSW landfill simulator
Rasool Bux MAHAR,Abdul Razaque SAHITO,Dongbei YUE,Kamranullah KHAN
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 159-167.

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The cumulative landfill gas (LFG) production and its rate were simulated for pretreated municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill using four models namely first order exponential model, modified Gompertz model, single component combined growth and decay model and Gaussian function. Considering the behavior of the pretreated MSW landfill, a new multi component model was based on biochemical processes that occurring in landfilled pretreated MSW. The model was developed on the basis of single component combined growth and decay model using an anaerobic landfill simulator reactor which treats the pretreated MSW. It includes three components of the degradation i.e. quickly degradable, moderately degradable and slowly degradable. Moreover, the developed model was statistically analyzed for its goodness of fit. The results show that the multi components LFG production model is more suitable in comparison to the simulated models and can efficiently be used as a modeling tool for pretreated MSW landfills. The proposed model is likely to give assistance in sizing of LFG collection system, generates speedy results at lower cost, improves cost-benefit analysis and decreases LFG project risk. It also indicates the stabilization of the landfill and helps the managers in the reuse of the landfill space. The proposed model is limited to aerobically pretreated MSW landfill and also requires the values of delay times in LFG productions from moderately and slowly degradable fractions of pretreated MSW.

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Integrated approach to winery waste: waste generation and data consolidation
Margarida OLIVEIRA,Elizabeth DUARTE
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 168-176.

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The winemaking process involves the generation of a significant amount of waste and wastewater. These residues should be addressed for recycling or treatment before being returned to environment. As each winery is unique in waste generation and disposal, plans for environmentally friendly waste management are not universal and should be tested for their effectiveness. In this study, a diagnostic was made during three years, in different wineries, throughout Portugal, in order to quantify and characterize the waste and the wastewater produced. The results showed that solid waste and wastewater are mainly produced during the harvest period, corresponding to 74% and 87%, respectively. One ton of processed grape approximately produce 0.13 t marc, 0.06 t lees, 0.03 t of stalks and 1.65 m3 of wastewater. No significant differences (P≤0.05) were observed for grape marc, lees and wastewater ratios, between years or wineries. With respect to the stalk ratio, there was no effect of year but the winery significantly affected this ratio (P≤0.05). During the study period the treated wastewater, since diluted, revealed suitable characteristics for irrigation representing an additional source of water. In this regard, the data acquisition and consolidation ensure the transfer of information and experience which constitute an essential step in a support decision tool design.

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Combined reticular blind drainage and vertical hierarchical drainage system for landfills located in areas with high rainfall and high groundwater level
Wenjing LU,Zhonge FU,Yan ZHAO
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 177-184.

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A novel water control technology that combines the features of a reticular blind drainage system and a vertical hierarchical drainage system is developed and applied in the Yanziyan Sanitary Landfill, which is located at an area (Loudi City, Hunan Province, China) with high rainfall and high groundwater level. The reticular blind drain system, which was installed on the bottom and side walls of the landfill site, can conveniently guide the flow of groundwater out of the site while preventing a disorganized flow of groundwater. The vertical hierarchical drainage system was installed to separate rainfall water and leachate in the landfill site, thus efficiently reducing the pressure of leachate treatment. The whole drainage system plays a key role in foundation stabilization by seepage control and separation and in the instant drainage of rainfall water. The leachate reduction efficiency of the drainage technology was calculated in terms of leachate production before (336519 m3) and after (29664 m3) technology application. Over 90% of leachate derived from rainfall water and groundwater inflow was avoided upon installation of the vertical hierarchical drainage and reticular blind drainage systems. The technology can thus be popularized and applied for water control in landfills located in areas with high rainfall and high groundwater level. The proposed technology can be used to alleviate the pressure of leachate treatment and to reduce the risk of instability.

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Nitrogen recovery from wastewater using microbial fuel cells
Yong XIAO,Yue ZHENG,Song WU,Zhao-Hui YANG,Feng ZHAO
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 185-191.

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Nitrogen is one of major contaminants in wastewater; however, nitrogen, as bio-elements for crop growth, is the indispensable fertilizer in agriculture. In this study, two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were first operated with microorganisms in anode chamber and potassium ferricyanide as catholyte. After being successfully startup, the two-chamber MFCs were re-constructed to three-chamber MFCs which were used to recover the NO3N and NH4+N of synthetic wastewater into value-added nitrogenous fertilizer from cathode chamber and anode chamber, respectively. Ferric nitrate was used as the sole electron acceptor in cathode, which also was used to evaluate the NO3N recover efficiency in the case major anion of NO3 in cathode. The output voltage of these MFCs was about 600–700 mV at an external load of 500 Ω. About 47% NH4+N in anode chamber and 83% NO3N in cathode chamber could be recovered. Higher current density can selectively improve the recovery efficiency of both NH4+N and NO3N. The study demonstrated a nitrogen recovery process from synthetic wastewater using three-chamber MFCs.

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Characteristics of the stabilized/solidified municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash and the leaching behavior of Cr and Pb
Yan SHAO,Haobo HOU,Guangxing WANG,Sha WAN,Min ZHOU
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 192-200.

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Fly ash is a hazardous byproduct of municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI). An alkali activated blast furnace slag-based cementitious material was used to stabilize/solidify the fly ash at experimental level. The characteristics of the stabilized/solidified fly ash, including metal leachability, mineralogical characteristics and the distributions of metals in matrices, were tested by toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) respectively. Continuous acid extraction was utilized to extract metal ions and characterize their leaching behavior. The stabilization/solidification procedure for MSWI fly ash demonstrates a strong fixing capacity for the metals by the formation of C-S-H phase, hydrated calcium aluminosilicate and ettringite. The stabilized/solidified fly ash shows a dense and homogeneous microstructure. Cr is mainly solidified in hydrated calcium aluminosilicate, C-S-H and ettringite phase through physical encapsulation, precipitation, adsorption or substitution mechanisms, and Pb is mainly solidified in C-S-H phase and absorbed in the Si-O structure.

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Combustion effects and emission characteristics of SO2, CO, NOx and heavy metals during co-combustion of coal and dewatered sludge
Yiying JIN,Yangyang LI,Fuqiang LIU
Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.. 2016, 10 (1): 201-210.

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The influences of dewatered sludge blending ratio in coal on flammability index (C) and combustion characteristic index (S) and release of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and heavy metals (Hg, As, Cd, Pb and Cr) were studied. The impact on combustion characteristics could be ignored if less than 20% of dewatered sludge was added in coal. Besides, emission pattern experiments of NOx, SO2, CO and heavy metals were carried out in a high-temperature tubular furnace. Results showed that the conversion rate of NOx and total emission of SO2 reduced with the increase of sludge adding ratio, and a better effect of fixing sulfur could be obtained when the blending ratio reached 30%. Concentrations and distributions of five types of heavy metals in different residues (bottom ash and fly ash) as well as in flue gas were analyzed. It was shown that the characteristics of coal and sludge, as well as the volatilization of heavy metals had a great influence on the distribution of heavy metals.

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