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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

ISSN 2095-2201

ISSN 2095-221X(Online)

CN 10-1013/X

Postal Subscription Code 80-973

2018 Impact Factor: 3.883

Front Envir Sci Eng    2013, Vol. 7 Issue (4) : 559-567    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-013-0501-8
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Response of bacterial communities to short-term pyrene exposure in red soil
Jingjing PENG1, Hong LI2, Jianqiang SU1, Qiufang ZHANG1, Junpeng RUI3, Chao CAI1()
1. Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; 2. Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK; 3. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
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Abstract

Pyrene, a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compound produced mainly from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is hazardous to ecosystem health. However, long-term exposure studies did not detect any significant effects of pyrene on soil microorganism. In this study, short-term microcosm experiments were conducted to identify the immediate effect of pyrene on soil bacterial communities. A freshly-collected pristine red soil was spiked with pyrene at 0, 10, 100, 200, and 500 mg·kg-1 and incubated for one day and seven days. The bacterial communities in the incubated soils were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) methods. The results revealed high bacterial diversity in both unspiked and pyrene-spiked soils. Only at the highest pyrene-spiking rate of 500 mg·kg-1, two minor bacteria groups of the identified 14 most abundant bacteria groups were completely suppressed. Short-term exposure to pyrene resulted in dominance of Proteobacteria in soil, followed by Acidobacteria, Firmutes, and Bacteroidetes. Our findings showed that bacterial community structure did respond to the presence of pyrene but recovered rapidly from the perturbation. The intensity of impact and the rate of recovery showed some pyrene dosage-dependent trends. Our results revealed that different levels of pyrene may affect the bacterial community structure by suppressing or selecting certain groups of bacteria. It was also found that the bacterial community was most susceptible to pyrene within one day of the chemical addition.

Keywords pyrene      bacterial communities      terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism      short-term exposure      rank-abundance plots     
Corresponding Authors: CAI Chao,Email:ccai@iue.ac.cn   
Issue Date: 01 August 2013
 Cite this article:   
Jingjing PENG,Hong LI,Jianqiang SU, et al. Response of bacterial communities to short-term pyrene exposure in red soil[J]. Front Envir Sci Eng, 2013, 7(4): 559-567.
 URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-013-0501-8
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2013/V7/I4/559
Fig.1  Pyrene concentration in treatments after incubation for 1 d (white) and 7 d (black). Lower-case letters indicate the outcome of an one way-ANOVA analysis comparing 1 d and 7 d values. Data are means±standard deviation of triplicate measurements
phylogenetic groupcontrol500 mg·kg-1 pyrenerelative abundance of control /(% of total taxa)relative abundance with 500 mg·kg-1 pyrene /(% of total taxa)
Acidobacteria332422.420.7
Verrucomicrobia432.72.6
Cyanobacteria614.10.9
Chloroflexi130.72.6
Bacteroidetes1137.52.6
Planctomycetes231.42.6
Gemmatimonadetes221.41.7
Actinobacteria503.40.0
Firmutes11197.516.4
α-Proteobacteria241916.316.4
β-Proteobacteria272618.422.4
Δ-Proteobacteria9106.18.6
γ-Proteobacteria906.10.0
unclassified bacteria332.02.6
total (all taxa)147116100.0100.0
Tab.1  Phylogenetic assignments of 16S rRNA gene clones on day 1st
Fig.2  Structure of the bacterial community in red soil on day 1st (a) and day 7th (b) after addition of different doses of pyrene. The graphs show the relative abundances of T-RFs used as a measure of the composition of the bacterial community. Data are means±standard deviation of triplicate measurements
Fig.3  Phylogenetic relationship between representative bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences generated from unspiked (control) and 500 mg·kg pyrene-spiked soils. Bootstrap values (for 1000 reactions) over 50% are indicated on branches. Genbank accession numbers of sequences are indicated; the in silico T-RFs size is given in square brackets
Fig.4  Changes in community structure in different treatments (0, 10, 100, 200, and 500 mg·kg) visualized using rank-abundance plots after different incubation time (day 1st (a) and day 7th (b)). Triplicate plots, the mean slope values and the standard deviation of the mean ( = 3) for each treatment are shown. All regression coefficients were significant (<0.05)
pyrene concentrationday1st/day7thday1st control/ day1st treatmentsday7th control/day7th treatments
RPRPRP
0 ppm0.2220.150
10 ppm0.0740.2500.2900.1500.1900.150
100 ppm0.1850.3500.2000.001a)0.8500.001a)
200 ppm0.6290.001a)0.5600.001a)0.7000.001a)
500 ppm0.5560.001a)0.4100.001a)0.4800.001a)
Tab.2  β diversity index analysis. Given are the ANOSIM test statistic () and significance ()
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