Frontiers in Biology

ISSN 1674-7984

ISSN 1674-7992(Online)

CN 11-5892/Q

   Online First

Administered by

, Volume 13 Issue 6

For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
REVIEW
Intracellular trafficking of planar cell polarity proteins
Yan Huang, Tianji Ma, Yusong Guo
Front. Biol.. 2018, 13 (6): 395-405.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11515-018-1520-4

Abstract   HTML   PDF (1335KB)

BACKGROUND: Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a phenomenon in which epithelial cells are polarized along the plane of a tissue. PCP is critical for a variety of developmental processes and is regulated by a set of evolutionarily conserved PCP signaling proteins. Many of the PCP proteins adopt characteristic asymmetric localizations on the opposing cellular boundaries. Currently, the molecular mechanisms that establish and maintain this PCP asymmetry remain largely unclear. Newly synthesized integral PCP proteins are transported along the secretory transport pathway to the plasma membranes. Once delivered to the plasma membranes, PCP proteins undergo endocytosis. Recent studies reveal insights into the intracellular trafficking of PCP proteins, suggesting that intracellular trafficking of PCP proteins contributes to establishing the PCP asymmetry.

OBJECTIVE: To understand the intracellular trafficking of planar cell polarity proteins in the secretory transport pathway and endocytic transport pathway.

METHODS: This review summarizes our current understanding of the intracellular trafficking of PCP proteins. We highlights the molecular mechanisms that regulate sorting of PCP proteins into transport vesicles and how the intracellular trafficking process regulates the asymmetric localizations of PCP proteins.

RESULTS: Current studies reveal novel insights into the molecular mechanisms mediating intracellular trafficking of PCP proteins. This process is critical for delivering newly synthesized PCP proteins to their specific destinations, removing the unstable or mislocalized PCP proteins from the plasma membranes and preserving tissue polarity during proliferation of mammalian skin cells.

CONCLUSION: Understanding how PCP proteins are delivered in the secretory and endocytic transport pathway will provide mechanistic insights into how the asymmetric localizations of PCP proteins are established and maintained.

Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
Association of mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review of literature
Karimeh Haghani, Pouyan Asadi, Gholamreza Taheripak, Ali Noori-Zadeh, Shahram Darabi, Salar Bakhtiyari
Front. Biol.. 2018, 13 (6): 406-417.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11515-018-1521-3

Abstract   HTML   PDF (229KB)

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases, and its prevalence continues to increase globally. The impact of mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism on diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance (IR) has been implicated in several previous reports; however, the results of studies are confusing despite four decades of study.

METHODS/RESULTS: This review has evaluated updated understanding of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism on type 2 diabetes, and found that mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism disorder induce the dysregulation of liver and pancreatic beta cells, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.

CONCLUSION: Mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism induce metabolic dysregulation and finally increasing the possibility of diabetes.

Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics