2018 Impact Factor: 1.701
Greenhouse technology is a practical option for the production and drying of agricultural products in controlled environment. For the successful design of a greenhouse, the selection of a suitable shape and orientation is of great importance. Of various shapes of greenhouses, the even-span roof and the Quonset shape greenhouses are the most commonly used for crop cultivation and drying. The orientation of greenhouses is kept east–west for maximum utilization of solar radiations. Hybrid and modified greenhouse dryers have been proposed for drying of products. The agricultural products dried in greenhouses are found to be better in quality as compared to open sun drying because they are protected from dust, rain, insects, birds and animals. Moreover, various greenhouses shapes along with their applications have been reviewed.
Under the trends to using renewable energy sources as alternatives to the traditional ones, it is important to contribute to the fast growing development of these sources by using powerful soft computing methods. In this context, this paper introduces a novel structure to optimize and control the energy produced from a variable speed wind turbine which is based on a squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) and connected to the grid. The optimization strategy of the harvested power from the wind is realized by a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm based on fuzzy logic, and the control strategy of the generator is implemented by means of an internal model (IM) controller. Three IM controllers are incorporated in the vector control technique, as an alternative to the proportional integral (PI) controller, to implement the proposed optimization strategy. The MPPT in conjunction with the IM controller is proposed as an alternative to the traditional tip speed ratio (TSR) technique, to avoid any disturbance such as wind speed measurement and wind turbine (WT) characteristic uncertainties. Based on the simulation results of a six KW-WECS model in Matlab/Simulink, the presented control system topology is reliable and keeps the system operation around the desired response.
金属有机框架 (metal-organic frameworks, MOFs) 材料因其具有高比表面积，可调结构，以及功能多样化等特点而备受关注。目前，MOFs在光催化还原二氧化碳领域已经崭露头角。本文综述了近年来MOFs在光催化还原二氧化碳领域的最新研究进展。此外, 本文讨论了基于MOF的光催化剂的合理设计策略 (功能化原始 MOF结构、MOF -光敏剂、MOF-半导体、MOF-金属和 MOF-碳材料复合材料) 以有效增强光催化二氧化碳还原反应，并对MOFs在光催化还原二氧化碳领域今后的发展进行了展望。
VS4 has gained more and more attention for its high theoretical capacity (449 mAh/g with 3e− transfer) in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, a layered structure VS4 anchored in graphene aerogels is prepared and first reported as cathode material for LIBs. VS4@GAs composite exhibits an exceptional high initial reversible capacity (511 mAh/g), an excellent high-rate capability (191 mAh/g at the 5 C), and an excellent cyclic stability (239 mAh/g after 15 cycles).
Mining industries worldwide have inevitably resorted to exploiting resources from the deep underground. However, traditional mining methods can cause various problems, e.g., considerable mining difficulty, environmental degradations, and frequent disastrous accidents. To exploit deep resources in the future, the concept of mining must be reconsidered and innovative new theories, methods, and technologies must be applied. To effectively acquire coal resources deeper than 2000 m, new theoretical and technological concepts about deep in situ fluidized mining are required. The limits of mining depth need to be broken to acquire deep-coal resources in an environmentally friendly, safe, and efficient manner. This is characterized by ‘There are no coal on the ground and no men in the coal mine’. First, this paper systematically explains deep in situ fluidized coal mining. Then, it presents a new theoretical concept, including the theories of mining-induced rock mechanics, three-field visualization, multi-physics coupling for in situ transformation, and in situ mining, transformation and transport. It also presents key technological concepts, including those of intelligent, unmanned, and fluidized mining. Finally, this paper presents a strategic roadmap for deep in situ fluidized coal mining. In summary, this paper develops new theoretical and technological systems for accomplishing groundbreaking innovations in mining technologies of coal resources in the deep underground.
As the main power source of China, coal-fired power industry has achieved a great progress in installed capacity, manufacturing technologies, thermal efficiency, as well as pollutant control during the past century. With the fast development of renewable energies, coal-fired power industry is experiencing a strategic transformation. To specify the development of coal-fired power industry, its development history is reviewed and the technical progresses on aspects of thermal efficiency, pollutants control and peaking shaving capacity are discussed. It is concluded that the role of China’s coal-fired power source would be transformed from the dominant position to a base position in power source structure. Considering the sustainable development of coal-fired power industry in energy conservation, emission control, and utilization of renewable energies, it is suggested that the national average thermal efficiency should be improved by continual up-gradation of units by using advanced technologies and eliminating outdated capacity. Moreover, the emission standard of air pollutants should not be stricter any more in coal-fired power industry. Furthermore, the huge amount of combined heat and power (CHP) coal-fired units should be operated in a decoupled way, so as to release more than 350 GW regulation capacity for the grid to accept more renewable energy power.
Conventional power generation mainly depends on natural gas and diesel oil in Brunei Darussalam. The power utility company is now thinking of power generation using natural wind. In this paper, wind energy, being one of the most readily available renewable energy sources, was studied. The wind characteristic, velocity and directions were studied using Weibull distribution based on the measurement of wind speed at two different locations in Brunei Darussalam. These wind speed distributions were modeled using the Wind Power program. The wind rose graph was obtained for the wind direction to analyze the wind power density onshore and offshore. Based on this analysis, it has been found that the wind speed of 3 to 5 m/s has a probability of occurrence of 40%. Besides, the annual energy production at a wind speed of 5 m/s has been found to be in the range between 1000 and 1500 kWh for both the locations in Brunei Darussalam.
本文介绍了纳米网格系统的设计方法、项目实施和经济性。该系统的开发旨在通过实验室现场演示（FOLD）和“架通研究、开发和实施之间的鸿沟”，以使可再生技术适应印度社会。该系统由太阳能光伏（PV）（2.4 kWp）、风力发电机（3.2 kWp）和电池组（400 Ah）组成。首先，利用美国国家可再生能源实验室（NREL）开发的成熟的HOMER（电力可再生混合优化模型）软件进行了前期可行性研究。可行性研究表明，纳米电网系统的最佳容量由一台2.16 kWp太阳能光伏、一台3kWp风力发电机、一台1.44kw逆变器和一个24kWh电池组组成。系统的总净现值（TNPC）和能源成本（COE）分别为20789.85美元和0.673美元/kWh。然而，由于没有所需规格的系统组件，并且为了提高系统的可靠性，安装了由2.4 kWp太阳能光伏、3.2 kWp风力发电机、3 kVA逆变器和400 Ah电池组组成的混合系统。安装系统的TNPC和COE分别为20073.63美元和0.635美元/kWh，这两个成本在很大程度上受电池成本的影响。此外，本文还对各部件和系统的的安装细节进行了说明。另外，还讨论了系统的详细成本分解。进一步地，还对系统的性能进行了研究，并用仿真结果进行了验证。发现了在一年中来自光伏发电系统的发电量相当大，而且几乎是均匀的。与此相反，除4月、5月和6月外，一年中的风速很小，发电量也很小。本研究演示为在印度地区或类似地形地区，未来规划大规模混合能源系统或微电网提供了一条路径。
The parabolic trough solar concentrating system has been well developed and widely used in commercial solar thermal power plants. However, the conventional system has its drawbacks when connecting receiver tube parts and enhancing the concentration ratio. To overcome those inherent disadvantages, in this paper, an innovative concept of linear focus secondary trough concentrating system was proposed, which consists of a fixed parabolic trough concentrator, one or more heliostats, and a fixed tube receiver. The proposed system not only avoids the end loss and connection problem on the receiver during the tracking process but also opens up the possibility to increase the concentration ratio by enlarging aperture. The design scheme of the proposed system was elaborated in detail in this paper. Besides, the optical performance of the semi and the whole secondary solar trough concentrator was evaluated by using the ray tracing method. This innovative solar concentrating system shows a high application value as a solar energy experimental device.
This paper establishes a theoretical model of the single-compressor-driven (SCD) three-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) and conducts experimental verifications. The main differences between the SCD type and the multi-compressor-driven (MCD) crycooler are analyzed, such as the distribution of the input acoustic power in each stage and the optimization of the operating parameters, in which both advantages and difficulties of the former are stressed. The effects of the dynamic temperatures are considered to improve the accuracy of the simulation at very low temperatures, and a specific simulation example aiming at 10 K is given in which quantitative analyses are provided. A SCD three-stage SPTC is developed based on the theoretical analyses and with a total input acoustic power of 371.58 W, which reaches a no-load temperature of 8.82 K and can simultaneously achieve the cooling capacities of 2.4 W at 70 K, 0.17 W at 25 K, and 0.05 W at 10 K. The performance of the SCD three-stage SPTC is slightly poorer than that of its MCD counterpart developed in the same laboratory, but the advantages of lightweight and compactness make the former more attractive to practical applications.
In the present scenario, the utilities are focusing on smart grid technologies to achieve reliable and profitable grid operation. Demand side management (DSM) is one of such smart grid technologies which motivate end users to actively participate in the electricity market by providing incentives. Consumers are expected to respond (demand response (DR)) in various ways to attain these benefits. Nowadays, residential consumers are interested in energy storage devices such as battery to reduce power consumption from the utility during peak intervals. In this paper, the use of a smart residential energy management system (SREMS) is demonstrated at the consumer premises to reduce the total electricity bill by optimally time scheduling the operation of household appliances. Further, the SREMS effectively utilizes the battery by scheduling the mode of operation of the battery (charging/floating/discharging) and the amount of power exchange from the battery while considering the variations in consumer demand and utility parameters such as electricity price and consumer consumption limit (CCL). The SREMS framework is implemented in Matlab and the case study results show significant yields for the end user.
In this paper, a novel swing vane rotary compressor (SVC) was introduced, which had significant advantages—simple mechanism, reduced frictional loss, reliable operation, and a comparatively higher compression ratio. Based on the swing vane compressor geometry model, thermodynamic model and kinetic model, the mathematical model of optimum design was established, and further theoretical and experimental studies were conducted. The length of the cylinder, radius of the rotor and cylinder were defined as design variables and the reciprocal of EER as objective function. The complex optimization method was adopted to study the structure of the swing vane compressor. The theoretical model could provide an effective method for predicting compressor performance, which would also contribute to structural optimization of the SVC. The study shows that the friction loss of the compressor are greatly reduced by optimized design in a given initial value, and the EER increased by 8.55%.
The present study was conducted with the objective of evaluating several proposed turbines from 25 kW to 1.65 MW in order to select the appropriate turbine for electricity and hydrogen production in Firuzkuh area using the decision making trial and evaluation (DEMATEL) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) methods. Initially, five important factors in selection of the best wind turbine for wind farm construction were determined using the DEMATEL technique. Then, technical-economic feasibility was performed for each of the eight proposed turbines using the HOMER software, and the performance score for each proposed wind turbine was obtained. The results show that the GE 1.5sl model wind turbine is suitable for wind farm construction. The turbine can generate 5515.325 MW of electricity annually, which is equivalent to $ 1103065. The average annual hydrogen production would be 1014 kg for Firuzkuh by using the GE 1.5sl model turbine.
Geothermal energy is a renewable and alternative energy with the potential to replace fossil fuels and help mitigate global warming. However, the development of geothermal energy has environmental, economic and social-cultural consequences, which needs to be predicted beforehand and then mitigated. To guarantee a sustainable development, it is, therefore, essential to consider the relative potential impacts. From a sustainability point of view, in the present study, a comprehensive analysis of consequences of geothermal energy development is conducted, including environmental, economic and societal & cultural dimensions. The geothermal energy industry will prosper only if sustainable aspects can be integrally considered.
Low-cost nickels can be used as cocatalyst to improve the performance of photocatalysts, which may be promising materials applied in the field of photocatalytic water splitting. In this study, different nickel species Ni, Ni(OH)2, NiO, NiOx, and NiS are used to modified titanium dioxide (P25) to investigate their roles on the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activities. UV-visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis etc. are employed to characterize the physical and chemical properties of catalysts. The results indicate that all the nickel species can improve the photocatalytic hydrogen production activity of P25. The P25 modified with NiOx and NiS has more superior photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activities than those modified with other nickel species. The reason for this is that NiOx and NiS can form p-n junctions with P25 respectively. In addition, NiOx can be selectively deposited on the active sites of P25 via in situ the photodeposition method and NiS is beneficial for H+ reacting with photo-excited electrons.
Due to acute problems caused by fossil fuels that threaten the environment, conducting research on other types of energy carriers that are clean and renewable is of great importance. Since in the past few years hydrogen has been introduced as the future fuel, the aim of this study is to evaluate wind and solar energy potentials in prone areas of Iran by the Weibull distribution function (WDF) and the Angstrom-Prescott (AP) equation for hydrogen production. To this end, the meteorological data of solar radiation and wind speed recorded at 10 m height in the time interval of 3 h in a five-year period have been used. The findings indicate that Manjil and Zahedan with yearly wind and solar energy densities of 6004 (kWh/m2) and 2247 (kWh/m2), respectively, have the greatest amount of energy among the other cities. After examining three different types of commercial wind turbines and photovoltaic (PV) systems, it becomes clear that by utilizing one set of Gamesa G47 turbine, 91 kg/d of hydrogen, which provides energy for 91 car/week, can be produced in Manjil and will save about 1347 L of gasoline in the week. Besides, by installing one thousand sets of X21-345 PV systems in Zahedan, 20 kg/d of hydrogen, enough for 20 cars per week, can be generated and 296 L of gasoline can be saved. Finally, the RETScreen software is used to calculate the annual CO2 emission reduction after replacing gasoline with the produced hydrogen.
Together with a huge number of other countries, Germany signed the Paris Agreements in 2015 to prevent global temperature increase above 2°C. Within this agreement, all countries defined their own national contributions to CO2 reduction. Since that, it was visible that CO2 emissions in Germany decreased, but not so fast than proposed in this German nationally determined contribution to the Paris Agreement. Due to increasing traffic, CO2 emissions from this mobility sector increased and CO2 emission from German power generation is nearly constant for the past 20 years, even a renewable generation capacity of 112 GW was built up in 2017, which is much higher than the peak load of 84 GW in Germany. That is why the German National Government has implemented a commission (often called “The German Coal Commission”) to propose a time line: how Germany can move out of coal-fired power stations. This “Coal Commission” started its work in the late spring of 2018 and handed over its final report with 336 pages to the government on January 26th, 2019. Within this report the following proposals were made: ① Until 2022: Due to a former decision of the German Government, the actual remaining nuclear power generation capacity of about 10 GW has to be switched off in 2022. Besides, the “Coal Commission” proposed to switch off additionally in total 12.5 GW of both, hard coal and lignite-fired power plants, so that Germany should reduce its conventional generation capacity by 22.5 GW in 2022. ② Until 2030: Another 13 GW of German hard coal or lignite-fired power plants should be switched off. ③ Until 2038: The final 17 GW of German hard coal or lignite-fired power plants should be switched off until 2038 latest. Unfortunately the “Coal Commission” has not investigated the relevant technical parameter to ensure a secured electric power supply, based on German’s own national resources. Because German Energy Revolution mainly is based on wind energy and photovoltaic, this paper will describe the negligible contribution of these sources to the secured generation capacity, which will be needed for a reliable power supply. In addition, it will discuss several technical options to integrate wind energy and photovoltaic into a secured power supply system with an overall reduced CO2 emission.
This paper reported a study on a flexible liquid metal coil (LMC) for electromagnetic collection from the transmission line for self-powered sensor and electromagnetic generation for wireless charging of cellular telephone. The room temperature liquid metal of Galinstan was perfused to elastic silicone tube, which is then terminated with gallium-plated copper wire. The as-prepared liquid metal wire can sustain stretching, twisting, and bending with large deformation, and has a good electrical contact stability with the external circuit. The LMC based magnetic energy harvester was then designed and demonstrated to collect the magnetic field energy induced by a wire carrying alternating current. The power of 260 mW was obtained for the wire carrying current of 10 A. The flexible toroidal inductor was fabricated and tested for magnetic energy harvesting. The flexible spiral-shaped LMC was also designed and demonstrated to power cellular telephone through wireless charging. The present study opens the way for further applications of elastic LMC in electromagnetic energy harvesting and charging.
It is well known that smart thermostats (STs) have become key devices in the implementation of smart homes; thus, they are considered as primary elements for the control of electrical energy consumption in households. Moreover, energy consumption is drastically affected when the end users select unsuitable STs or when they do not use the STs correctly. Furthermore, in future, Mexico will face serious electrical energy challenges that can be considerably resolved if the end users operate the STs in a correct manner. Hence, it is important to carry out an in-depth study and analysis on thermostats, by focusing on social aspects that influence the technological use and performance of the thermostats. This paper proposes the use of a signal detection theory (SDT), fuzzy detection theory (FDT), and chi-square (CS) test in order to understand the perceptions and beliefs of end users about the use of STs in Mexico. This paper extensively shows the perceptions and beliefs about the selected thermostats in Mexico. Besides, it presents an in-depth discussion on the cognitive perceptions and beliefs of end users. Moreover, it shows why the expectations of the end users about STs are not met. It also promotes the technological and social development of STs such that they are relatively more accepted in complex electrical grids such as smart grids.