Frontiers in Energy

ISSN 2095-1701

ISSN 2095-1698(Online)

CN 11-6017/TK

邮发代号 80-972

2018 Impact Factor: 1.701

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A comprehensive review of greenhouse shapes and its applications
Ravinder Kumar SAHDEV, Mahesh KUMAR, Ashwani Kumar DHINGRA
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (3): 427-438.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-017-0464-8
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Greenhouse technology is a practical option for the production and drying of agricultural products in controlled environment. For the successful design of a greenhouse, the selection of a suitable shape and orientation is of great importance. Of various shapes of greenhouses, the even-span roof and the Quonset shape greenhouses are the most commonly used for crop cultivation and drying. The orientation of greenhouses is kept east–west for maximum utilization of solar radiations. Hybrid and modified greenhouse dryers have been proposed for drying of products. The agricultural products dried in greenhouses are found to be better in quality as compared to open sun drying because they are protected from dust, rain, insects, birds and animals. Moreover, various greenhouses shapes along with their applications have been reviewed.

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Novel power capture optimization based sensorless maximum power point tracking strategy and internal model controller for wind turbines systems driven SCIG
Ali EL YAAKOUBI, Kamal ATTARI, Adel ASSELMAN, Abdelouahed DJEBLI
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (4): 742-756.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-017-0462-x
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Under the trends to using renewable energy sources as alternatives to the traditional ones, it is important to contribute to the fast growing development of these sources by using powerful soft computing methods. In this context, this paper introduces a novel structure to optimize and control the energy produced from a variable speed wind turbine which is based on a squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) and connected to the grid. The optimization strategy of the harvested power from the wind is realized by a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm based on fuzzy logic, and the control strategy of the generator is implemented by means of an internal model (IM) controller. Three IM controllers are incorporated in the vector control technique, as an alternative to the proportional integral (PI) controller, to implement the proposed optimization strategy. The MPPT in conjunction with the IM controller is proposed as an alternative to the traditional tip speed ratio (TSR) technique, to avoid any disturbance such as wind speed measurement and wind turbine (WT) characteristic uncertainties. Based on the simulation results of a six KW-WECS model in Matlab/Simulink, the presented control system topology is reliable and keeps the system operation around the desired response.

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金属有机框架材料在光催化还原二氧化碳应用中的研究进展
张蕾, 张俊卿
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (2): 221-250.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-019-0629-8
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金属有机框架 (metal-organic frameworks, MOFs) 材料因其具有高比表面积,可调结构,以及功能多样化等特点而备受关注。目前,MOFs在光催化还原二氧化碳领域已经崭露头角。本文综述了近年来MOFs在光催化还原二氧化碳领域的最新研究进展。此外, 本文讨论了基于MOF的光催化剂的合理设计策略 (功能化原始 MOF结构、MOF -光敏剂、MOF-半导体、MOF-金属和 MOF-碳材料复合材料) 以有效增强光催化二氧化碳还原反应,并对MOFs在光催化还原二氧化碳领域今后的发展进行了展望。

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二硫化钼在太阳能转化中的研究进展
RASHIDI Soheil, CARINGULA Akshay, NGUYEN Andy, OBI Ijeoma, OBI Chioma, WEI Wei
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (2): 251-268.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-019-0625-z
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在石墨烯基纳米材料作为最广泛研究的用于提高太阳能转换应用中的器件和系统性能的时代,二硫化钼(MoS2)因具有优异的性能,在二维材料中脱颖而出。本文首先评述了MoS2的合成方法,总结了其结构和性能,并介绍了MoS2在太阳能转化领域的应用,其中包括光热水净化,光催化,和光电催化过程。

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利用多级分类算法进行负荷分解的系统方法
Choong YANG Chuan, SOH Chit Siang, Voon YAP Vooi
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (2): 386-398.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-017-0497-z
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在现有消费者电器中节能的潜力非常高。实现节能和提高能源使用意识的方法之一是识别各个电器的能耗。为了识别消费者电器的能量消耗,可以使用负载分解方法。非侵入式设备负载监控(NIALM)是一种负载分解方法,可将单个点的功耗总和分解为各个电器的功耗。在这项研究中,负载分解是通过电压和电流波形进行的,称为V-I轨迹。在利用主成分分析(PCA)和k-NN算法之前,分类算法进行了V-I轨迹图模板图像的裁剪和图像金字塔缩减。本文的新颖之处在于通过利用多阶段分类算法方法,建立了基于V-I轨迹的负载特征图像的负载分解系统方法。本文的贡献在于利用“k值”,即最近邻居的最近数据点的数量,在k-NN算法中有效地对电器进行分类。本文还讨论了多阶段分类算法实现的结果,并且还提出了关于未来工作的想法。

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多联式空调系统中油气分离器的试验研究
辛电波, 黄曙良, 银松, 邓玉平, 张文强
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (2): 411-416.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-017-0447-9
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回油系统在多联式空调(变冷媒流量系统)中起到重要作用,其能保证多联式空调的可靠运行。而油气分离器是回油系统中的关键部件,油气分离器的分离效率直接影响多联式系统的性能。因此本文搭建了可以测量压缩机吐油率和油气分离器效率的实验装置。因为制冷剂中声速的大小随润滑油含量的不同而变化,所以本文通过在线声速仪测量实时测量系统内的含油率,通过比较油气分离器前后的含油率,获取了油气分离器的效率。

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Fabrication of layered structure VS4 anchor in 3D graphene aerogels as a new cathode material for lithium ion batteries
Lijun WU, Yu ZHANG, Bingjiang LI, Pengxiang WANG, Lishuang FAN, Naiqing ZHANG, Kening SUN
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (3): 597-602.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0576-9
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VS4 has gained more and more attention for its high theoretical capacity (449 mAh/g with 3e transfer) in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, a layered structure VS4 anchored in graphene aerogels is prepared and first reported as cathode material for LIBs. VS4@GAs composite exhibits an exceptional high initial reversible capacity (511 mAh/g), an excellent high-rate capability (191 mAh/g at the 5 C), and an excellent cyclic stability (239 mAh/g after 15 cycles).

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高维模型表示函数在正庚烷/空气混合物着火延迟中的应用
刘旺, 张家博, 黄震, 韩东
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (2): 367-376.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0584-9
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低温条件下负温度系数现象的存在使得预测具有两段着火特性的燃料着火延迟时间比较困难。本文使用了基于随机样本取样的高维模型表示方法(RS-HDMR)预测在一系列初始条件下的正庚烷/空气混合物的着火延迟时间,其中正庚烷着火过程中存在负温度系数现象。通过正庚烷详细动力学机理计算得到定压绝热系统中正庚烷/空气着火延迟时间,并通过构造两个HDMR相关函数,全局相关函数和分区相关函数,分别得到两个相关函数预测的正庚烷/空气着火延迟时间。将预测结果与计算结果进行对比,两个相关函数都展示了较好的预测结果,其中在每个分区上,分区相关函数比全局相关函数具有更高的精度。因此,HDMR相关函数可以用于预测在中低温条件下具有两段着火特性的燃料着火延迟时间。

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Theoretical and technological exploration of deep in situ fluidized coal mining
Heping XIE, Yang JU, Shihua REN, Feng GAO, Jianzhong LIU, Yan ZHU
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (4): 603-611.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-019-0643-x
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Mining industries worldwide have inevitably resorted to exploiting resources from the deep underground. However, traditional mining methods can cause various problems, e.g., considerable mining difficulty, environmental degradations, and frequent disastrous accidents. To exploit deep resources in the future, the concept of mining must be reconsidered and innovative new theories, methods, and technologies must be applied. To effectively acquire coal resources deeper than 2000 m, new theoretical and technological concepts about deep in situ fluidized mining are required. The limits of mining depth need to be broken to acquire deep-coal resources in an environmentally friendly, safe, and efficient manner. This is characterized by ‘There are no coal on the ground and no men in the coal mine’. First, this paper systematically explains deep in situ fluidized coal mining. Then, it presents a new theoretical concept, including the theories of mining-induced rock mechanics, three-field visualization, multi-physics coupling for in situ transformation, and in situ mining, transformation and transport. It also presents key technological concepts, including those of intelligent, unmanned, and fluidized mining. Finally, this paper presents a strategic roadmap for deep in situ fluidized coal mining. In summary, this paper develops new theoretical and technological systems for accomplishing groundbreaking innovations in mining technologies of coal resources in the deep underground.

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An overview of the development history and technical progress of China’s coal-fired power industry
Weiliang WANG, Zheng LI, Junfu LYU, Hai ZHANG, Guangxi YUE, Weidou NI
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (3): 417-426.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-019-0614-2
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As the main power source of China, coal-fired power industry has achieved a great progress in installed capacity, manufacturing technologies, thermal efficiency, as well as pollutant control during the past century. With the fast development of renewable energies, coal-fired power industry is experiencing a strategic transformation. To specify the development of coal-fired power industry, its development history is reviewed and the technical progresses on aspects of thermal efficiency, pollutants control and peaking shaving capacity are discussed. It is concluded that the role of China’s coal-fired power source would be transformed from the dominant position to a base position in power source structure. Considering the sustainable development of coal-fired power industry in energy conservation, emission control, and utilization of renewable energies, it is suggested that the national average thermal efficiency should be improved by continual up-gradation of units by using advanced technologies and eliminating outdated capacity. Moreover, the emission standard of air pollutants should not be stricter any more in coal-fired power industry. Furthermore, the huge amount of combined heat and power (CHP) coal-fired units should be operated in a decoupled way, so as to release more than 350 GW regulation capacity for the grid to accept more renewable energy power.

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基于二氧化钛半导体的光催化二氧化碳还原制备燃料
陈熙, 金放鸣
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (2): 207-220.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-019-0628-9
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为应对全球变暖,控制和减少大气中的二氧化碳浓度至关重要。光催化还原二氧化碳制备燃料为解决该问题提供了方法,不仅能够对二氧化碳进行利用,而且同时生产了能源。目前为止,基于二氧化碳的半导体是在二氧化碳光催化还原中应用最为广泛的材料。因此,本篇小综述对近几年该领域的发展进行了总结。本文首先阐述了以结构工程的方法调控和提升二氧化碳催化剂性能的工作,之后描述了通过添加第二/第三种外源元素合成催化剂来改善二氧化碳催化剂的活性和选择性的工作。最后,本文介绍了基于二氧化碳的多元复合材料在二氧化碳催化还原中的应用。

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Investigation of wind energy potentials in Brunei Darussalam
M. A. SALAM, M. G. YAZDANI, Q. M. RAHMAN, Dk NURUL, S. F. MEI, Syeed HASAN
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (4): 731-741.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0528-4
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Conventional power generation mainly depends on natural gas and diesel oil in Brunei Darussalam. The power utility company is now thinking of power generation using natural wind. In this paper, wind energy, being one of the most readily available renewable energy sources, was studied. The wind characteristic, velocity and directions were studied using Weibull distribution based on the measurement of wind speed at two different locations in Brunei Darussalam. These wind speed distributions were modeled using the Wind Power program. The wind rose graph was obtained for the wind direction to analyze the wind power density onshore and offshore. Based on this analysis, it has been found that the wind speed of 3 to 5 m/s has a probability of occurrence of 40%. Besides, the annual energy production at a wind speed of 5 m/s has been found to be in the range between 1000 and 1500 kWh for both the locations in Brunei Darussalam.

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基于光伏-风力-电池纳米电网系统的优化设计与开发:一个实验室现场演示
TUDU B., MANDAL K. K., CHAKRABORTY N.
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (2): 269-283.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0573-z
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本文介绍了纳米网格系统的设计方法、项目实施和经济性。该系统的开发旨在通过实验室现场演示(FOLD)和“架通研究、开发和实施之间的鸿沟”,以使可再生技术适应印度社会。该系统由太阳能光伏(PV)(2.4 kWp)、风力发电机(3.2 kWp)和电池组(400 Ah)组成。首先,利用美国国家可再生能源实验室(NREL)开发的成熟的HOMER(电力可再生混合优化模型)软件进行了前期可行性研究。可行性研究表明,纳米电网系统的最佳容量由一台2.16 kWp太阳能光伏、一台3kWp风力发电机、一台1.44kw逆变器和一个24kWh电池组组成。系统的总净现值(TNPC)和能源成本(COE)分别为20789.85美元和0.673美元/kWh。然而,由于没有所需规格的系统组件,并且为了提高系统的可靠性,安装了由2.4 kWp太阳能光伏、3.2 kWp风力发电机、3 kVA逆变器和400 Ah电池组组成的混合系统。安装系统的TNPC和COE分别为20073.63美元和0.635美元/kWh,这两个成本在很大程度上受电池成本的影响。此外,本文还对各部件和系统的的安装细节进行了说明。另外,还讨论了系统的详细成本分解。进一步地,还对系统的性能进行了研究,并用仿真结果进行了验证。发现了在一年中来自光伏发电系统的发电量相当大,而且几乎是均匀的。与此相反,除4月、5月和6月外,一年中的风速很小,发电量也很小。本研究演示为在印度地区或类似地形地区,未来规划大规模混合能源系统或微电网提供了一条路径。

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质子交换膜燃料电池电堆气体扩散电极材料耐久性综合评估
JAYAKUMAR Arunkumar
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (2): 325-338.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-019-0618-y
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聚合物电解质膜(PEM)燃料电池是各种类型燃料电池中最具发展前景的。尽管有着广泛的应用领域,但其成本和耐久性大大阻碍了PEM燃料电池电堆的商业化。最关键也是最昂贵的部件是其气体扩散电极(GDE),GDE的衰减限制了燃料电池电堆的性能和寿命。对GDE中涉及的各种材料的结构和功能特性进行批判分析和全面理解可帮助我们解决相关的耐久性和成本问题。 本文综述了聚合物电解质膜(PEM)燃料电池电堆最关键的GDE部件,具体分析了影响GDE耐久性的根本原因。本论文还设想了新材料的作用,并给出了提高GDE耐久性的重要建议。

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Optical performance analysis of an innovative linear focus secondary trough solar concentrating system
Xiliang ZHANG, Zhiying CUI, Jianhan ZHANG, Fengwu BAI, Zhifeng WANG
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (3): 590-596.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0602-y
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The parabolic trough solar concentrating system has been well developed and widely used in commercial solar thermal power plants. However, the conventional system has its drawbacks when connecting receiver tube parts and enhancing the concentration ratio. To overcome those inherent disadvantages, in this paper, an innovative concept of linear focus secondary trough concentrating system was proposed, which consists of a fixed parabolic trough concentrator, one or more heliostats, and a fixed tube receiver. The proposed system not only avoids the end loss and connection problem on the receiver during the tracking process but also opens up the possibility to increase the concentration ratio by enlarging aperture. The design scheme of the proposed system was elaborated in detail in this paper. Besides, the optical performance of the semi and the whole secondary solar trough concentrator was evaluated by using the ray tracing method. This innovative solar concentrating system shows a high application value as a solar energy experimental device.

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Theoretical modeling and experimental verifications of the single-compressor-driven three-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler
Haizheng DANG, Dingli BAO, Zhiqian GAO, Tao ZHANG, Jun TAN, Rui ZHA, Jiaqi LI, Ning LI, Yongjiang ZHAO, Bangjian ZHAO
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (3): 450-463.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0569-8
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This paper establishes a theoretical model of the single-compressor-driven (SCD) three-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) and conducts experimental verifications. The main differences between the SCD type and the multi-compressor-driven (MCD) crycooler are analyzed, such as the distribution of the input acoustic power in each stage and the optimization of the operating parameters, in which both advantages and difficulties of the former are stressed. The effects of the dynamic temperatures are considered to improve the accuracy of the simulation at very low temperatures, and a specific simulation example aiming at 10 K is given in which quantitative analyses are provided. A SCD three-stage SPTC is developed based on the theoretical analyses and with a total input acoustic power of 371.58 W, which reaches a no-load temperature of 8.82 K and can simultaneously achieve the cooling capacities of 2.4 W at 70 K, 0.17 W at 25 K, and 0.05 W at 10 K. The performance of the SCD three-stage SPTC is slightly poorer than that of its MCD counterpart developed in the same laboratory, but the advantages of lightweight and compactness make the former more attractive to practical applications.

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Smart residential energy management system for demand response in buildings with energy storage devices
S. L. ARUN, M. P. SELVAN
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (4): 715-730.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0538-2
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In the present scenario, the utilities are focusing on smart grid technologies to achieve reliable and profitable grid operation. Demand side management (DSM) is one of such smart grid technologies which motivate end users to actively participate in the electricity market by providing incentives. Consumers are expected to respond (demand response (DR)) in various ways to attain these benefits. Nowadays, residential consumers are interested in energy storage devices such as battery to reduce power consumption from the utility during peak intervals. In this paper, the use of a smart residential energy management system (SREMS) is demonstrated at the consumer premises to reduce the total electricity bill by optimally time scheduling the operation of household appliances. Further, the SREMS effectively utilizes the battery by scheduling the mode of operation of the battery (charging/floating/discharging) and the amount of power exchange from the battery while considering the variations in consumer demand and utility parameters such as electricity price and consumer consumption limit (CCL). The SREMS framework is implemented in Matlab and the case study results show significant yields for the end user.

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Structural optimal design of a swing vane compressor
Junjie MA, Xiang CHEN, Zongchang QU
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (4): 764-769.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-016-0449-z
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In this paper, a novel swing vane rotary compressor (SVC) was introduced, which had significant advantages—simple mechanism, reduced frictional loss, reliable operation, and a comparatively higher compression ratio. Based on the swing vane compressor geometry model, thermodynamic model and kinetic model, the mathematical model of optimum design was established, and further theoretical and experimental studies were conducted. The length of the cylinder, radius of the rotor and cylinder were defined as design variables and the reciprocal of EER as objective function. The complex optimization method was adopted to study the structure of the swing vane compressor. The theoretical model could provide an effective method for predicting compressor performance, which would also contribute to structural optimization of the SVC. The study shows that the friction loss of the compressor are greatly reduced by optimized design in a given initial value, and the EER increased by 8.55%.

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某商用建筑中锅炉分段的热力性能和部分负荷率特性研究
LEE Da Young, SEO Byeong Mo, YOON Yeo Beom, HONG Sung Hyup, CHOI Jong Min, LEE Kwang Ho
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (2): 339-353.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0596-5
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商业建筑在韩国建筑能源总量中占有较大比重。因此,目前已开展了一系列针对办公建筑中锅炉的热能相关研究。然而,上述研究中缺少对其部分负荷率特性和燃气能耗模式的分析。本文研究了传统变风量系统中燃气锅炉的部分负荷率和运行特性,并比较分析了不同锅炉分段方案的气耗量。结果发现,锅炉的运行时间,热负荷和能耗集中分布在部分负荷率为0~40%范围内,所以,能耗量主要受低部分负荷状态下锅炉效率的影响。此外,研究发现,顺序式锅炉分段方案可节省气耗量约7%。在年供热节能方面,3:7比例分段顺序控制策略可将锅炉效率最大化。

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涪陵气田的发现及展望
郭旭升, 李宇平, 李金磊, 冯明刚, 段华
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (2): 354-366.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0581-z
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涪陵气田的发现到环保、高效探明,取得了页岩气勘探理论认识和评价、勘探技术方面取得系列突破性进展。通过揭示深水陆棚相页岩有机碳含量与硅质矿物含量正相关耦合规律,以及页岩气“早期滞留,晚期改造”动态保存机理,明确深水陆棚相页岩是页岩气生成、储集和压裂改造最有利的页岩类型,保存条件决定页岩气富集程度。提出以页岩品质为基础,以保存条件为关键的选区评价思路,建立了中国南方海相页岩气战略选区评价体系,形成海相页岩气“甜点”地震预测技术、页岩气层“六性”测井评价技术和页岩气水平井组优快钻井技术、水平井复杂缝网压裂技术。展望了四川盆地深层五峰组-龙马溪组页岩气、南方外围地区页岩气和我国陆相盆地页岩气勘探开发前景。

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谐波畸变对不同计量原理电能表的影响
DIAHOVCHENKO Illia, VOLOKHIN Vitalii, KUROCHKINA Victoria, ŠPES Michal, KOSTEREC Michal
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (2): 377-385.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0571-1
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本文针对电能计量装置因电压、电流负荷曲线畸变导致的计量误差进行了研究。研究结果表明,电能计量误差主要取决于电能表的设计及其采用的算法。当前,电能表主要有三种不同的计量原理:感应式(电气机械式)、电子静止式和数字电子式(微处理器)。这三种计算原理有其各自的测量特点。部分计量装置考虑了网络中的所有谐波畸变量以及直流分量,而部分计量装置仅测量基波功率和能量。这种差异会导致采用不同计量原理商用电能表的读数不一致。因此,计量系统的统一性会遭到破坏,并在传输和消耗的电能平衡上体现出显著误差。

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Feasibility of using wind turbines for renewable hydrogen production in Firuzkuh, Iran
Ali MOSTAFAEIPOUR, Mojtaba QOLIPOUR, Hossein GOUDARZI
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (3): 494-505.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0534-6
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The present study was conducted with the objective of evaluating several proposed turbines from 25 kW to 1.65 MW in order to select the appropriate turbine for electricity and hydrogen production in Firuzkuh area using the decision making trial and evaluation (DEMATEL) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) methods. Initially, five important factors in selection of the best wind turbine for wind farm construction were determined using the DEMATEL technique. Then, technical-economic feasibility was performed for each of the eight proposed turbines using the HOMER software, and the performance score for each proposed wind turbine was obtained. The results show that the GE 1.5sl model wind turbine is suitable for wind farm construction. The turbine can generate 5515.325 MW of electricity annually, which is equivalent to $ 1103065. The average annual hydrogen production would be 1014 kg for Firuzkuh by using the GE 1.5sl model turbine.

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不可逆布莱顿循环性能的火用可持续性评估及优化
AHMADI Mohammad H., AHMADI Mohammad-Ali, ABOUKAZEMPOUR Esmaeil, GROSU Lavinia, POURFAYAZ Fathollah, BIDI Mokhtar
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (2): 399-410.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-017-0445-y
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由于能源需求和全球变暖,更高效地利用动力循环已成为人类的一种责任。本文对不可逆布莱顿循环开展热力学研究,目标是要优化布莱顿循环的性能。此外,文中推出了多目标优化的四种不同方案,每种方案的效果分别加以评估。在不可逆布莱顿循环的分析中,考虑了输出功率以及熵产、能量、火用输出和火用效率的概念。在第一种方案中,为实现火用输出最大化,应用了生态学函数与生态学性能系数、多目标优化算法(MOEA)。在第二种方案中,通过应用多目标优化算法,包含火用性能准则、生态学性能系数及生态学函数的三种目标函数同时求它们的最大。在第三种方案中,为寻求火用输出、火用性能准则及生态学性能系数的最大化,多目标优化算法被采用。在最后一种方案中,应用多目标优化算法,包括火用性能准则、生态学性能系数及含火用的生态学函数等三种目标函数同时求其最大。经由基于NSGAII方法的多目标进化算法,执行了全部优化策略。最后,为了综观每一种方案的最终结果,三种熟知的决策方法被用。

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Special column: solar energy conversion
Yun Hang HU, Fangming JIN
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (2): 205-206.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-019-0636-9
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Large-scale geo-energy development: sustainability impacts
Li JIANG, Liandong ZHU, Erkki HILTUNEN
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (4): 757-763.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-017-0455-9
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Geothermal energy is a renewable and alternative energy with the potential to replace fossil fuels and help mitigate global warming. However, the development of geothermal energy has environmental, economic and social-cultural consequences, which needs to be predicted beforehand and then mitigated. To guarantee a sustainable development, it is, therefore, essential to consider the relative potential impacts. From a sustainability point of view, in the present study, a comprehensive analysis of consequences of geothermal energy development is conducted, including environmental, economic and societal & cultural dimensions. The geothermal energy industry will prosper only if sustainable aspects can be integrally considered.

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Roles of various Ni species on TiO2 in enhancing photocatalytic H2 evolution
Xiaoping CHEN, Jihai XIONG, Jinming SHI, Song XIA, Shuanglin GUI, Wenfeng SHANGGUAN
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (4): 684-690.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0585-8
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Low-cost nickels can be used as cocatalyst to improve the performance of photocatalysts, which may be promising materials applied in the field of photocatalytic water splitting. In this study, different nickel species Ni, Ni(OH)2, NiO, NiOx, and NiS are used to modified titanium dioxide (P25) to investigate their roles on the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activities. UV-visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis etc. are employed to characterize the physical and chemical properties of catalysts. The results indicate that all the nickel species can improve the photocatalytic hydrogen production activity of P25. The P25 modified with NiOx and NiS has more superior photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activities than those modified with other nickel species. The reason for this is that NiOx and NiS can form p-n junctions with P25 respectively. In addition, NiOx can be selectively deposited on the active sites of P25 via in situ the photodeposition method and NiS is beneficial for H+ reacting with photo-excited electrons.

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Energy supply for water electrolysis systems using wind and solar energy to produce hydrogen: a case study of Iran
Mostafa REZAEI, Ali MOSTAFAEIPOUR, Mojtaba QOLIPOUR, Mozhgan MOMENI
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (3): 539-550.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-019-0635-x
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Due to acute problems caused by fossil fuels that threaten the environment, conducting research on other types of energy carriers that are clean and renewable is of great importance. Since in the past few years hydrogen has been introduced as the future fuel, the aim of this study is to evaluate wind and solar energy potentials in prone areas of Iran by the Weibull distribution function (WDF) and the Angstrom-Prescott (AP) equation for hydrogen production. To this end, the meteorological data of solar radiation and wind speed recorded at 10 m height in the time interval of 3 h in a five-year period have been used. The findings indicate that Manjil and Zahedan with yearly wind and solar energy densities of 6004 (kWh/m2) and 2247 (kWh/m2), respectively, have the greatest amount of energy among the other cities. After examining three different types of commercial wind turbines and photovoltaic (PV) systems, it becomes clear that by utilizing one set of Gamesa G47 turbine, 91 kg/d of hydrogen, which provides energy for 91 car/week, can be produced in Manjil and will save about 1347 L of gasoline in the week. Besides, by installing one thousand sets of X21-345 PV systems in Zahedan, 20 kg/d of hydrogen, enough for 20 cars per week, can be generated and 296 L of gasoline can be saved. Finally, the RETScreen software is used to calculate the annual CO2 emission reduction after replacing gasoline with the produced hydrogen.

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Will Germany move into a situation with unsecured power supply?
Harald SCHWARZ
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (3): 551-570.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-019-0641-z
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Together with a huge number of other countries, Germany signed the Paris Agreements in 2015 to prevent global temperature increase above 2°C. Within this agreement, all countries defined their own national contributions to CO2 reduction. Since that, it was visible that CO2 emissions in Germany decreased, but not so fast than proposed in this German nationally determined contribution to the Paris Agreement. Due to increasing traffic, CO2 emissions from this mobility sector increased and CO2 emission from German power generation is nearly constant for the past 20 years, even a renewable generation capacity of 112 GW was built up in 2017, which is much higher than the peak load of 84 GW in Germany. That is why the German National Government has implemented a commission (often called “The German Coal Commission”) to propose a time line: how Germany can move out of coal-fired power stations. This “Coal Commission” started its work in the late spring of 2018 and handed over its final report with 336 pages to the government on January 26th, 2019. Within this report the following proposals were made: ① Until 2022: Due to a former decision of the German Government, the actual remaining nuclear power generation capacity of about 10 GW has to be switched off in 2022. Besides, the “Coal Commission” proposed to switch off additionally in total 12.5 GW of both, hard coal and lignite-fired power plants, so that Germany should reduce its conventional generation capacity by 22.5 GW in 2022. ② Until 2030: Another 13 GW of German hard coal or lignite-fired power plants should be switched off. ③ Until 2038: The final 17 GW of German hard coal or lignite-fired power plants should be switched off until 2038 latest. Unfortunately the “Coal Commission” has not investigated the relevant technical parameter to ensure a secured electric power supply, based on German’s own national resources. Because German Energy Revolution mainly is based on wind energy and photovoltaic, this paper will describe the negligible contribution of these sources to the secured generation capacity, which will be needed for a reliable power supply. In addition, it will discuss several technical options to integrate wind energy and photovoltaic into a secured power supply system with an overall reduced CO2 emission.

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Flexible liquid metal coil prepared for electromagnetic energy harvesting and wireless charging
Shen GUO, Peng WANG, Jichuan ZHANG, Wenpeng LUAN, Zishuo XIA, Lingxiao CAO, Zhizhu HE
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (3): 474-482.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-019-0632-0
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This paper reported a study on a flexible liquid metal coil (LMC) for electromagnetic collection from the transmission line for self-powered sensor and electromagnetic generation for wireless charging of cellular telephone. The room temperature liquid metal of Galinstan was perfused to elastic silicone tube, which is then terminated with gallium-plated copper wire. The as-prepared liquid metal wire can sustain stretching, twisting, and bending with large deformation, and has a good electrical contact stability with the external circuit. The LMC based magnetic energy harvester was then designed and demonstrated to collect the magnetic field energy induced by a wire carrying alternating current. The power of 260 mW was obtained for the wire carrying current of 10 A. The flexible toroidal inductor was fabricated and tested for magnetic energy harvesting. The flexible spiral-shaped LMC was also designed and demonstrated to power cellular telephone through wireless charging. The present study opens the way for further applications of elastic LMC in electromagnetic energy harvesting and charging.

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Usability perceptions and beliefs about smart thermostats by chi-square test, signal detection theory, and fuzzy detection theory in regions of Mexico
Pedro PONCE, Therese PEFFER, Arturo MOLINA
Frontiers in Energy    2019, 13 (3): 522-538.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0562-2
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It is well known that smart thermostats (STs) have become key devices in the implementation of smart homes; thus, they are considered as primary elements for the control of electrical energy consumption in households. Moreover, energy consumption is drastically affected when the end users select unsuitable STs or when they do not use the STs correctly. Furthermore, in future, Mexico will face serious electrical energy challenges that can be considerably resolved if the end users operate the STs in a correct manner. Hence, it is important to carry out an in-depth study and analysis on thermostats, by focusing on social aspects that influence the technological use and performance of the thermostats. This paper proposes the use of a signal detection theory (SDT), fuzzy detection theory (FDT), and chi-square (CS) test in order to understand the perceptions and beliefs of end users about the use of STs in Mexico. This paper extensively shows the perceptions and beliefs about the selected thermostats in Mexico. Besides, it presents an in-depth discussion on the cognitive perceptions and beliefs of end users. Moreover, it shows why the expectations of the end users about STs are not met. It also promotes the technological and social development of STs such that they are relatively more accepted in complex electrical grids such as smart grids.

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