Please wait a minute...
Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

Front. Med.    2010, Vol. 4 Issue (1) : 29-35     DOI: 10.1007/s11684-010-0012-y
Research articles |
Clinical and genetic risk factors for venous thromboembolism in Chinese population
Chen WANG PhD, MD1,Zhen-Guo ZHAI PhD, MD1,Ying H. SHEN PhD, MD2,Lan ZHAO PhD, MD3,
1.Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, China; 2.Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77004, USA; 3.Department of Experimental Medicine and Toxicology, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK;
Download: PDF(106 KB)  
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract  Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, carries significant mortality and morbidity. The most important and effective way to reduce VTE incidence is to identify the patients at risk and give necessary prevention. VTE is a multifactorial and complicated disorder. Major risk factors for VTE include surgery and trauma, acute medical illness, active cancer and pregnancy. Genetic factors increase susceptibility to the disease and are useful in predicting the development of VTE. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions alter and magnify the clinical picture in this disorder. This brief review summarizes some selected clinical and genetic risk factors for VTE based on the current research in China.
Keywords risk factor      stroke      prothrombin      plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1      polymorphism      thrombophilia      biomarker      
Issue Date: 05 March 2010
URL:     OR
Heit J A. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in the community. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2008, 28(3): 370–372
Silverstein M D, Heit J A, Mohr D N, Petterson T M, O'Fallon W M, Melton L J III. Trends in the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonaryembolism: a 25-year population-based study. Arch Intern Med, 1998, 158: 585–593
Cohen A T, Agnelli G, Anderson F A, Arcelus J I, Bergqvist D, Brecht J G, Greer I A, Heit J A, Hutchinson J L, Kakkar A K, Mottier D, Oger E, Samama M M, Spannagl M. VTEImpact Assessment Group in Europe (VITAE). Venous thromboembolism(VTE) in Europe. The number of VTE events and associated morbidityand mortality. Thromb Haemost, 2007, 98(4): 756–764
Cheng T O. Medicine in modern China. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1973, 21: 289–313
Cheng T O. Increasing incidence of pulmonary embolism in China:another price of modernization. Int J Cardiol, 2007, 120(2): 143–144
Tan X Y, He J G, Zou Z P, Zhao Y F, Chen B P, Gao Y, Xiong C M, Ni X H, Cheng X S. Changes of the proportion and mortality of pulmonary thromboembolismin hospitalized patients from 1974 to 2005. Chin Med J (Engl), 2006, 119(12): 998–1002
Cai B, Xu L, Guo S. Trends of underline diseases of pulmonaryembolism from Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi, 2001, 24(12): 715–717 (in Chinese)
Cushman M. Epidemiology and risk factors for venous thrombosis. Semin Hematol, 2007, 44(2): 62–69
Greer I A. Inherited thrombophilia and venous thromboembolism. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol, 2003, 17(3): 413–425
Margaglione M, Brancaccio V, De Lucia D, Martinelli I, Ciampa A, Grandone E, Di Minno G. Inherited thrombophilic risk factors and venous thromboembolism:distinct role in peripheral deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Chest, 2000, 118(5): 1405–1411
Douketis J D, Moinuddin I. Prophylaxisagainst venous thromboembolism in hospitalized medical patients: anevidence-based and practical approach. Pol Arch Med Wewn, 2008, 118(4): 209–215
Prandoni P, Samama M M. Risk stratification and venous thromboprophylaxis in hospitalizedmedical and cancer patients. Br J Haematol, 2008, 141(5): 587–597
Sun K K, Wang C, Guli X T, Luo Q. Riskfactors and clinical features of deep venous thrombosis: a reportof 388 cases. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu XiZa Zhi, 2004, 27(11): 727–730 (in Chinese)
Li X L, Lu W J, Yu N S, Lu Y H, Lin Z Q, Dong W Q. Prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis with low molecularheparin following hip and knee surgery. Zhongguo Xiufu Chongjian Waike Zazhi, 2001, 15 (1): 39–41 (in Chinese)
Guan Z P, Lü H S, Chen Y Z, Song Y N, Qin X L, Jiang J. Clinical risk factors for deep vein thrombosisafter total hip and knee arthroplasty. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi, 2005, 43(20): 1317–1320 (in Chinese)
Ko P S, Chan W F, Siu T H, Khoo J, Wu W C, Lam J J. Deep venous thrombosis after total hip or knee arthroplastyin a “low-risk” Chinese population. J Arthroplasty, 2003, 18(2): 174–179
Lee F Y, Chu W, Chan R, Leung Y F, Liu K H, Ng S M, Lai P B, Metreweli C, Lau W Y. Incidence of deep vein thrombosis after colorectal surgery in a Chinesepopulation. ANZ J Surg, 2001, 71(11): 637–640
Sun K K, Wang C, Pang B S, Yang Y H, He W, Chen T F, Zhao Q H, Zhang J. Study on the risk factors of deep venousthrombosis in acute hospitalized stroke patients. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 2004, 25(12): 1019–1023 (in Chinese)
Sun K K, Wang C, Pang B S, Yang Y H. The prevalence of deep venous thrombosis in hospitalized patientswith stroke. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2004, 84(8): 637–641 (in Chinese)
Xu X F, Yang Y H, Zhai Z G, Liu S, Zhu G F, Li C S, Wang C. Prevalenceand incidence of deep venous thrombosis among patients in medicalintensive care unit. Zhonghua Liu XingBing Xue Za Zhi, 2008, 29(10): 1034–1037 (in Chinese)
Joynt G M, Li T S, Griffith J F, Gomersall C D, Yap F H, Ho A M, Leung P. Theincidence of deep venous thrombosis in Chinese medical intensive careunit patients. Hong Kong Med J, 2009, 15(1): 24–30
Chan L Y, Yuen P M, Lo W K, Lau T K. Symptomatic venous thromboembolism in Chinese patients after gynecologicsurgery: incidence and disease pattern. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2002, 81(4): 343–346
Egeberg O. Thrombophlia caused by inherited deficiency of bloodantithrombin. Scand J Clin Lab Invest, 1965, 17: 92
Simioni P, Scudeller A, Girolami A. Factor V Leiden and thrombophilia. N Engl J Med, 1995, 332(20): 1382
Reitsma P H. Genetic heterogeneity in hereditary thrombophilia. Haemostasis, 2000, 30(Suppl 2): 1–10
Murin S, Marelich G P, Arroliga A C, Matthay R A. Hereditary thrombophilia and venous thromboembolism. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 1998, 158(5 Pt 1): 1369–1373
Poort S R, Rosendaal F R, Reitsma P H, Bertina R M. A common genetic variation in the 3'-untranslated regionof the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombinlevels and an increase in venous thrombosis. Blood, 1996, 88(10): 3698–3703
Zhai Z, Wang C, Yang Y H, Pang B S, Xiao B, Liu Y M, Mao Y L, Weng X Z. The relationship between polymorphismsof prothrombin G20210 and pulmonary thromboembolism in Chinese Hanpopulation. Shoudu Yike Daxue Xuebao, 2006, (1): 1–5 (in Chinese)
Jun Z J, Ping T, Lei Y, Li L, Ming S Y, Jing W. Prevalence of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210Amutations in Chinese patients with deep venous thrombosis and pulmonaryembolism. Clin Lab Haematol, 2006, 28(2): 111–116
Chan D K, Hu G, Tao H, Owens D, Vun C M, Woo J, Chong B H. A comparisonof polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the prothrombin genebetween Chinese and Caucasians in Australia. Br J Haematol, 2000, 111(4): 1253–1255
Zhai Z G, Wang C, Yang Y H, Pang B S, Xiao B, Liu Y M, Mao Y L. Study onthe relationship between polymorphisms of susceptible genes in coagulationpathway related to pulmonary thromboembolism in Chinese Han population. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 2006, 27(2): 165–169 (in Chinese)
Zhai Z G, Wang C, Yang Y H, Pang B S, Xiao B, Liu Y M, Mao Y L, Weng X Z. Relationship between polymorphisms ofplasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter gene and pulmonary thromboembolismin Chinese Han population. Zhonghua YiXue Za Zhi, 2006, 86(19): 1313–1317 (in Chinese)
Han X M, Ren J F, Hao B, Cao W D, Liu X E, Hou L H, Guo Z P, Yu B, Wang X F, Ding Q L, Yang L H. Analysis of activated protein C resistance, factor V coagulationactivity and gene polymorphisms in patients with venous thromboembolism. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi, 2007, 15(3): 612–616 (in Chinese)
Lu Y, Zhao Y, Liu G, Wang X, Liu Z, Chen B, Hui R. Factor V geneG1691A mutation, prothrombin gene G20210A mutation, and MTHFR geneC677T mutation are not risk factors for pulmonary thromboembolismin Chinese population. Thromb Res, 2002, 106(1): 7–12
Lu Y, Hui R, Zhao Y. Insertion/deletion polymorphsim of theangiotensin I converting enzyme gene and pulmonary thromboembolismin Chinese population. Zhonghua Jie HeHe Hu Xi Za Zhi, 2001, 24(5): 265–268 (in Chinese)
Le Flem L, Mennen L, Aubry M L, Aiach M, Scarabin P Y, Emmerich J, Alhenc-Gelas M. Thrombomodulin promoter mutations, venous thrombosis,and varicose veins. Arterioscler ThrombVasc Biol, 2001, 21(3): 445–451
Uitte de Willige S, Van Marion V, Rosendaal F R, Vos H L, de Visser M C, Bertina R M. Haplotypes of the EPCR gene,plasma sEPCR levels and the risk of deep venous thrombosis. J Thromb Haemost, 2004, 2(8): 1305–1310
Zhai Z, Yin Y, Yang Y, Wang J, Wang C, Xi W. The association between thrombomodulin gene variationsand thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2009, 179: A3339
Nelson S M, Greer I A. Thrombophiliaand the risk for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy, delivery,and puerperium. Obstet Gynecol Clin NorthAm, 2006, 33(3): 413–427
Martinelli I, Taioli E, Battaglioli T, Podda G M, Passamonti S M, Pedotti P, Mannucci P M. Risk of venous thromboembolism after air travel: interactionwith thrombophilia and oral contraceptives. Arch Intern Med, 2003, 163(22): 2771–2774
Pang B S, Wang C, Zhai Z G, Yang Y H, Mao Y L, Huang X X, Zhu J. Changes ofblood coagulative and fibrinolytic systems and functions of pulmonaryvascular endothelium in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi, 2005, 28(10): 714–716 (in Chinese)
Pang B S, Wang C, Lu Y, Yang Y H, Xing G H, Mao Y L, Huang X X, Zhai Z G. Changes of blood coagulative and fibrinolytic systemand function of pulmonary vascular endothelium after therapy in patientswith acute pulmonary thromboembolism. ZhonghuaYi Xue Za Zhi, 2007, 87(43): 3074–3078 (in Chinese)
Yin Y D, Wang C, Zhai Z G, Pang B S, Yang Y H, Huang X X. Decreased plasma soluble thrombomodulin levels as a riskfactor for pulmonary thromboembolism. JThromb Thrombolysis, 2009, 27(3): 274–279
Hong M, Zhang X, Hu Y, Wang H, He W, Mei H, Yu J, Guo T, Song S. The potential biomarkers for thromboembolismdetected by SELDI-TOF-MS. Thromb Res, 2009, 123(3): 556–564
Yang G, Lu H, Gao J, Kou B, Yuan Y, Xu B. Low-molecular-weight heparin for preventing deep-veinthrombosis after total joint arthroplasty. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi, 2000, 38(1): 25–27 (in Chinese)
[1] Alexandra Urman,H. Dean Hosgood. Curbing the burden of lung cancer[J]. Front. Med., 2016, 10(2): 228-232.
[2] Yi Cao. Environmental pollution and DNA methylation: carcinogenesis, clinical significance, and practical applications[J]. Front. Med., 2015, 9(3): 261-274.
[3] Yingchen Li,Guoheng Hu,Qilai Cheng. Implantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for ischemic stroke: perspectives and challenges[J]. Front. Med., 2015, 9(1): 20-29.
[4] Feng Wang,Chen Chen,Daowen Wang. Circulating microRNAs in cardiovascular diseases: from biomarkers to therapeutic targets[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(4): 404-418.
[5] Xiao Liu, Hui Ren, Daizhi Peng. Sepsis biomarkers: an omics perspective[J]. Front Med, 2014, 8(1): 58-67.
[6] Lunxiu Qin. Osteopontin is a promoter for hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis: a summary of 10 years of studies[J]. Front Med, 2014, 8(1): 24-32.
[7] Zhiming Zhu, Peijian Wang, Shuangtao Ma. Metabolic hypertension: concept and practice[J]. Front Med, 2013, 7(2): 201-206.
[8] Chuanbao Zhang, Zhaoshi Bao, Wei Zhang, Tao Jiang. Progress on molecular biomarkers and classification of malignant gliomas[J]. Front Med, 2013, 7(2): 150-156.
[9] Renling Pei, Ye Xu, Yan Wei, Tao Ouyang, Jinfeng Li, Tianfeng Wang, Zhaoqing Fan, Tie Fan, Benyao Lin, Yuntao Xie. Association of SIPA1 545 C>T polymorphism with survival in Chinese women with metastatic breast cancer[J]. Front Med, 2013, 7(1): 138-142.
[10] Jin Gao, Ben Panizza, Newell W. Johnson, Scott Coman, Alan R. Clough. Basic consideration of research strategies for head and neck cancer[J]. Front Med, 2012, 6(4): 339-353.
[11] Marie-Germaine Bousser. Stroke prevention: an update[J]. Front Med, 2012, 6(1): 22-34.
[12] Qin-Yan GAO, Hui-Min CHEN, Jing-Yuan FANG, Jian-Qiu SHENG, Ping ZHENG, Cheng-Gong YU, Bo JIANG, . The first year follow-up after colorectal adenoma polypectomy is important: A multiple-center study in symptomatic hospital-based individuals in China[J]. Front. Med., 2010, 4(4): 436-442.
[13] Xiu-Liang TAO MM, Sheng-Hao TU MD, Ri-Bo XIONG MM, Yong-Hong HU BM, . Inhibition of TNF-alpha secretion from peripheral blood monocular cells by triptolid is associated with TNF-alpha-308 gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis patients[J]. Front. Med., 2010, 4(2): 220-224.
[14] Qiong YU PhD, Xiang-Fei MENG PhD, Jie-Ping SHI, Ya-Qin YU PhD, . Genetic association between the polymorphism of cytosolic PLA2 gene family and schizophrenia[J]. Front. Med., 2010, 4(1): 101-105.
[15] Li-Feng LIU MD, PhD, Qiong CHEN MD, PhD, Ying CHANG MD, PhD, Ju-Sheng LIN MD, PhD, Jin-Liang ZHANG MM, . Cyclooxygenase-2 gene-1195G/A genotype is associated with the risk of HBV-induced HCC: A case-control study in Han Chinese people[J]. Front. Med., 2010, 4(1): 90-95.
Full text