Please wait a minute...
Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

Front Med    2011, Vol. 5 Issue (1) : 26-32     DOI: 10.1007/s11684-011-0107-0
REVIEW |
Therapeutic potential of stem cell in liver regeneration
Jinzheng LI, Min LI, Bolin NIU, Jianping GONG()
Chongqing Key Laboratory of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010, China
Download: PDF(116 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract  

Liver transplantation is the only life-saving procedure for patients with end-stage liver disease. However, its potential benefits are hampered by many disadvantages, such as the relative shortage of donors, operative risks, and high costs. These issues have prompted the search for new alternative therapies for irreversible liver disease. Stem cell therapy, with the ability for self-renewal and potential for multilineage differentiation, is a promising alternative approach. Several studies have demonstrated that transplantation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells or hepatocyte-like cells derived from multipotent stem cells leads to donor cell-mediated repopulation of the liver and improved survival rates in experimental models of liver disease. However, a registered clinical application based on stem cell technology will take at least an additional 5 to 10 years because of some limitations; e.g. the lack of suitable cell sources and risk of teratoma formation. This review summarizes the general understanding of the therapeutic potentials of stem cells in liver disease, including the sources, mechanisms, and delivery methods of hepatic stem cells in liver regeneration, and discusses some challenges for their therapeutic application.

Keywords stem cell      liver disease      regenerative medicine     
Corresponding Authors: GONG Jianping,Email:gongjianping11@126.com   
Issue Date: 05 March 2011
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/10.1007/s11684-011-0107-0     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/Y2011/V5/I1/26
1 O’Leary J G, Lepe R, Davis G L. Indications for liver transplantation. Gastroenterology , 2008, 134(6): 1764-1776
doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2008.02.028 pmid:18471553
2 Kung J W, Forbes S J. Stem cells and liver repair. Curr Opin Biotechnol , 2009, 20(5): 568-574
doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2009.09.004 pmid:19837579
3 Ogawa S, Miyagawa S. Potentials of regenerative medicine for liver disease. Surg Today , 2009, 39(12): 1019-1025
doi: 10.1007/s00595-009-4056-z pmid:19997795
4 Ehnert S, Glanemann M, Schmitt A, Vogt S, Shanny N, Nussler N C, St?ckle U, Nussler A. The possible use of stem cells in regenerative medicine: dream or reality? Langenbecks Arch Surg , 2009, 394(6): 985-997
doi: 10.1007/s00423-009-0546-0 pmid:19644703
5 Alison M R, Islam S, Lim S. Stem cells in liver regeneration, fibrosis and cancer: the good, the bad and the ugly. J Pathol , 2009, 217(2): 282-298
doi: 10.1002/path.2453 pmid:18991329
6 Fausto N, Campbell J S, Riehle K J. Liver regeneration. Hepatology , 2006, 43 (Suppl 1): S45-S53
doi: 10.1002/hep.20969 pmid:16447274
7 Roskams T A, Theise N D, Balabaud C, Bhagat G, Bhathal P S, Bioulac-Sage P, Brunt E M, Crawford J M, Crosby H A, Desmet V, Finegold M J, Geller S A, Gouw A S, Hytiroglou P, Knisely A S, Kojiro M, Lefkowitch J H, Nakanuma Y, Olynyk J K, Park Y N, Portmann B, Saxena R, Scheuer P J, Strain A J, Thung S N, Wanless I R, West A B. Nomenclature of the finer branches of the biliary tree: canals, ductules, and ductular reactions in human livers. Hepatology , 2004, 39(6): 1739-1745
doi: 10.1002/hep.20130 pmid:15185318
8 Dorrell C, Grompe M. Liver repair by intra- and extrahepatic progenitors. Stem Cell Rev , 2005, 1(1): 61-64
doi: 10.1385/SCR:1:1:061 pmid:17132876
9 Lee J S, Heo J, Libbrecht L, Chu I S, Kaposi-Novak P, Calvisi D F, Mikaelyan A, Roberts L R, Demetris A J, Sun Z, Nevens F, Roskams T, Thorgeirsson S S. A novel prognostic subtype of human hepatocellular carcinoma derived from hepatic progenitor cells. Nat Med , 2006, 12(4): 410-416
doi: 10.1038/nm1377 pmid:16532004
10 Tanaka M, Okabe M, Suzuki K, Kamiya Y, Tsukahara Y, Saito S, Miyajima A. Mouse hepatoblasts at distinct developmental stages are characterized by expression of EpCAM and DLK1: drastic change of EpCAM expression during liver development. Mech Dev , 2009, 126(8-9): 665-676
doi: 10.1016/j.mod.2009.06.939 pmid:19527784
11 Okabe M, Tsukahara Y, Tanaka M, Suzuki K, Saito S, Kamiya Y, Tsujimura T, Nakamura K, Miyajima A. Potential hepatic stem cells reside in EpCAM+ cells of normal and injured mouse liver. Development , 2009, 136(11): 1951-1960
doi: 10.1242/dev.031369 pmid:19429791
12 Schmelzer E, Zhang L, Bruce A, Wauthier E, Ludlow J, Yao H L, Moss N, Melhem A, McClelland R, Turner W, Kulik M, Sherwood S, Tallheden T, Cheng N, Furth M E, Reid L M. Human hepatic stem cells from fetal and postnatal donors. J Exp Med , 2007, 204(8): 1973-1987
doi: 10.1084/jem.20061603 pmid:17664288
13 Sangan C B, Tosh D. Hepatic progenitor cells. Cell Tissue Res , 2010, 342(2): 131-137
doi: 10.1007/s00441-010-1055-8 pmid:20957497
14 Oertel M, Menthena A, Dabeva M D, Shafritz D A. Cell competition leads to a high level of normal liver reconstitution by transplanted fetal liver stem/progenitor cells. Gastroenterology , 2006, 130(2): 507-520
doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2005.10.049 pmid:16472603
15 Oertel M, Menthena A, Chen Y Q, Teisner B, Jensen C H, Shafritz D A. Purification of fetal liver stem/progenitor cells containing all the repopulation potential for normal adult rat liver. Gastroenterology , 2008, 134(3): 823-832
pmid:18262526
16 Mahieu-Caputo D, Allain J E, Branger J, Coulomb A, Delgado J P, Andreoletti M, Mainot S, Frydman R, Leboulch P, Di Santo J P, Capron F, Weber A. Repopulation of athymic mouse liver by cryopreserved early human fetal hepatoblasts. Hum Gene Ther , 2004, 15(12): 1219-1228
doi: 10.1089/hum.2004.15.1219 pmid:15684698
17 Kallis Y N, Alison M R, Forbes S J. Bone marrow stem cells and liver disease. Gut , 2007, 56(5): 716-724
doi: 10.1136/gut.2006.098442 pmid:17145739
18 Petersen B E, Bowen W C, Patrene K D, Mars W M, Sullivan A K, Murase N, Boggs S S, Greenberger J S, Goff J P. Bone marrow as a potential source of hepatic oval cells. Science , 1999, 284(5417): 1168-1170
doi: 10.1126/science.284.5417.1168 pmid:10325227
19 Gilchrist E S, Plevris J N. Bone marrow-derived stem cells in liver repair: 10 years down the line. Liver Transpl , 2010, 16(2): 118-129
doi: 10.1002/lt.21965 pmid:20104479
20 Houlihan D D, Newsome P N. Critical review of clinical trials of bone marrow stem cells in liver disease. Gastroenterology , 2008, 135(2): 438-450
doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2008.05.040 pmid:18585384
21 Levicar N, Pai M, Habib N A, Tait P, Jiao L R, Marley S B, Davis J, Dazzi F, Smadja C, Jensen S L, Nicholls J P, Apperley J F, Gordon M Y. Long-term clinical results of autologous infusion of mobilized adult bone marrow derived CD34+ cells in patients with chronic liver disease. Cell Prolif , 2008, 41 (Suppl 1): 115-125
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2184.2008.00491.x pmid:18181952
22 Tajima F, Tsuchiya H, Nishikawa K, Kataoka M, Hisatome I, Shiota G. Hepatocyte growth factor mobilizes and recruits hematopoietic progenitor cells into liver through a stem cell factor-mediated mechanism. Hepatol Res , 2010, 40(7): 711-719
doi: 10.1111/j.1872-034X.2010.00647.x pmid:20557370
23 Yamaguchi K, Itoh K, Masuda T, Umemura A, Baum C, Itoh Y, Okanoue T, Fujita J. In vivo selection of transduced hematopoietic stem cells and little evidence of their conversion into hepatocytes in vivo. J Hepatol , 2006, 45(5): 681-687
doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2006.04.012 pmid:16837099
24 Friedenstein A J, Chailakhjan R K, Lalykina K S. The development of fibroblast colonies in monolayer cultures of guinea-pig bone marrow and spleen cells. Cell Tissue Kinet , 1970, 3(4): 393-403
pmid:5523063
25 Lee K D, Kuo T K, Whang-Peng J, Chung Y F, Lin C T, Chou S H, Chen J R, Chen Y P, Lee O K. In vitro hepatic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Hepatology , 2004, 40(6): 1275-1284
doi: 10.1002/hep.20469 pmid:15562440
26 Liu Z J, Zhuge Y, Velazquez O C. Trafficking and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. J Cell Biochem , 2009, 106(6): 984-991
doi: 10.1002/jcb.22091 pmid:19229871
27 Aurich H, Sgodda M, Kaltwasser P, Vetter M, Weise A, Liehr T, Brulport M, Hengstler J G, Dollinger M M, Fleig W E, Christ B. Hepatocyte differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human adipose tissue in vitro promotes hepatic integration in vivo. Gut , 2009, 58(4): 570-581
doi: 10.1136/gut.2008.154880 pmid:19022918
28 Cho K A, Ju S Y, Cho S J, Jung Y J, Woo S Y, Seoh J Y, Han H S, Ryu K H. Mesenchymal stem cells showed the highest potential for the regeneration of injured liver tissue compared with other subpopulations of the bone marrow. Cell Biol Int , 2009, 33(7): 772-777
doi: 10.1016/j.cellbi.2009.04.023 pmid:19427913
29 Kuo T K, Hung S P, Chuang C H, Chen C T, Shih Y R, Fang S C, Yang V W, Lee O K. Stem cell therapy for liver disease: parameters governing the success of using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Gastroenterology , 2008; 134(7):2111-2121, 2121.e1-3
30 Banas A, Teratani T, Yamamoto Y, Tokuhara M, Takeshita F, Quinn G, Okochi H, Ochiya T. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a source of human hepatocytes. Hepatology , 2007, 46(1): 219-228
doi: 10.1002/hep.21704 pmid:17596885
31 Wang Z, Lu H, Wang Y C, Cong X Q. Human embryonic stem cells and liver diseases: from basic research to future clinical application. J Dig Dis , 2008, 9(1): 14-19
doi: 10.1111/j.1443-9573.2007.00319.x pmid:18251789
32 Cai J, Zhao Y, Liu Y, Ye F, Song Z, Qin H, Meng S, Chen Y, Zhou R, Song X, Guo Y, Ding M, Deng H. Directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into functional hepatic cells. Hepatology , 2007, 45(5): 1229-1239
doi: 10.1002/hep.21582 pmid:17464996
33 Dan Y Y, Yeoh G C. Liver stem cells: a scientific and clinical perspective. J Gastroenterol Hepatol , 2008, 23(5): 687-698
doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2008.05383.x pmid:18410603
34 Dalgetty D M, Medine C N, Iredale J P, Hay D C. Progress and future challenges in stem cell-derived liver technologies. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol , 2009, 297(2): G241-G248
doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00138.2009 pmid:19520740
35 Takahashi K, Yamanaka S. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell , 2006, 126(4): 663-676
doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.024 pmid:16904174
36 Okita K, Ichisaka T, Yamanaka S. Generation of germline-competent induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature , 2007, 448(7151): 313-317
doi: 10.1038/nature05934 pmid:17554338
37 Yu J, Vodyanik M A, Smuga-Otto K, Antosiewicz-Bourget J, Frane J L, Tian S, Nie J, Jonsdottir G A, Ruotti V, Stewart R, Slukvin I I, Thomson J A. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells. Science , 2007, 318(5858): 1917-1920
doi: 10.1126/science.1151526 pmid:18029452
38 Wernig M, Meissner A, Foreman R, Brambrink T, Ku M, Hochedlinger K, Bernstein B E, Jaenisch R. In vitro reprogramming of fibroblasts into a pluripotent ES-cell-like state. Nature , 2007, 448(7151): 318-324
doi: 10.1038/nature05944 pmid:17554336
39 Lowry W E, Richter L, Yachechko R, Pyle A D, Tchieu J, Sridharan R, Clark A T, Plath K. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from dermal fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA , 2008, 105(8): 2883-2888
doi: 10.1073/pnas.0711983105 pmid:18287077
40 Park I H, Zhao R, West J A, Yabuuchi A, Huo H, Ince T A, Lerou P H, Lensch M W, Daley G Q. Reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotency with defined factors. Nature , 2008, 451(7175): 141-146
doi: 10.1038/nature06534 pmid:18157115
41 Kim J B, Zaehres H, Wu G, Gentile L, Ko K, Sebastiano V, Araúzo-Bravo M J, Ruau D, Han D W, Zenke M, Sch?ler H R. Pluripotent stem cells induced from adult neural stem cells by reprogramming with two factors. Nature , 2008, 454(7204): 646-650
doi: 10.1038/nature07061 pmid:18594515
42 Carey B W, Markoulaki S, Hanna J, Saha K, Gao Q, Mitalipova M, Jaenisch R. Reprogramming of murine and human somatic cells using a single polycistronic vector. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA , 2009, 106(1): 157-162
doi: 10.1073/pnas.0811426106 pmid:19109433
43 Li W, Wei W, Zhu S, Zhu J, Shi Y, Lin T, Hao E, Hayek A, Deng H, Ding S. Generation of rat and human induced pluripotent stem cells by combining genetic reprogramming and chemical inhibitors. Cell Stem Cell , 2009, 4(1): 16-19
doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2008.11.014 pmid:19097958
44 Theise N D, Nimmakayalu M, Gardner R, Illei P B, Morgan G, Teperman L, Henegariu O, Krause D S. Liver from bone marrow in humans. Hepatology , 2000, 32(1): 11-16
doi: 10.1053/jhep.2000.9124 pmid:10869283
45 Alison M R, Poulsom R, Jeffery R, Dhillon A P, Quaglia A, Jacob J, Novelli M, Prentice G, Williamson J, Wright N A. Hepatocytes from non-hepatic adult stem cells. Nature , 2000, 406(6793): 257
doi: 10.1038/35018642 pmid:10917519
46 Sato Y, Araki H, Kato J, Nakamura K, Kawano Y, Kobune M, Sato T, Miyanishi K, Takayama T, Takahashi M, Takimoto R, Iyama S, Matsunaga T, Ohtani S, Matsuura A, Hamada H, Niitsu Y. Human mesenchymal stem cells xenografted directly to rat liver are differentiated into human hepatocytes without fusion. Blood , 2005, 106(2): 756-763
doi: 10.1182/blood-2005-02-0572 pmid:15817682
47 Jang Y Y, Collector M I, Baylin S B, Diehl A M, Sharkis S J. Hematopoietic stem cells convert into liver cells within days without fusion. Nat Cell Biol , 2004, 6(6): 532-539
doi: 10.1038/ncb1132 pmid:15133469
48 Willenbring H, Bailey A S, Foster M, Akkari Y, Dorrell C, Olson S, Finegold M, Fleming W H, Grompe M. Myelomonocytic cells are sufficient for therapeutic cell fusion in liver. Nat Med , 2004, 10(7): 744-748
doi: 10.1038/nm1062 pmid:15195088
49 Quintana-Bustamante O, Alvarez-Barrientos A, Kofman A V, Fabregat I, Bueren J A, Theise N D, Segovia J C. Hematopoietic mobilization in mice increases the presence of bone marrow-derived hepatocytes via in vivo cell fusion. Hepatology , 2006, 43(1): 108-116
doi: 10.1002/hep.21005 pmid:16374873
50 Rodi? N, Rutenberg M S, Terada N. Cell fusion and reprogramming: resolving our transdifferences. Trends Mol Med , 2004, 10(3): 93-96
doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2004.01.010 pmid:15106589
51 Dahlke M H, Popp F C, Larsen S, Schlitt H J, Rasko J E. Stem cell therapy of the liver—fusion or fiction? Liver Transpl , 2004, 10(4): 471-479
doi: 10.1002/lt.20121 pmid:15048788
52 Camargo F D, Finegold M, Goodell M A. Hematopoietic myelomonocytic cells are the major source of hepatocyte fusion partners. J Clin Invest , 2004, 113(9): 1266-1270
pmid:15124017
53 Krause P, Saghatolislam F, Koenig S, Unthan-Fechner K, Probst I. Maintaining hepatocyte differentiation in vitro through co-culture with hepatic stellate cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim , 2009, 45(5-6): 205-212
doi: 10.1007/s11626-008-9166-1 pmid:19184253
54 Woodrow K A, Wood M J, Saucier-Sawyer J K, Solbrig C, Saltzman W M. Biodegradable meshes printed with extracellular matrix proteins support micropatterned hepatocyte cultures. Tissue Eng Part A , 2009, 15(5): 1169-1179
doi: 10.1089/ten.tea.2008.0265 pmid:19072719
55 Wen F, Chang S, Toh Y C, Arooz T, Zhuo L, Teoh S H, Yu H. Development of dual-compartment perfusion bioreactor for serial coculture of hepatocytes and stellate cells in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-collagen scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater , 2008, 87(1): 154-162
doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.31086 pmid:18431752
56 Jindal R, Nahmias Y, Tilles A W, Berthiaume F, Yarmush M L. Amino acid-mediated heterotypic interaction governs performance of a hepatic tissue model. FASEB J , 2009, 23(7): 2288-2298
doi: 10.1096/fj.08-114934 pmid:19246486
57 Xiong A, Austin T W, Lagasse E, Uchida N, Tamaki S, Bordier B B, Weissman I L, Glenn J S, Millan M T. Isolation of human fetal liver progenitors and their enhanced proliferation by three-dimensional coculture with endothelial cells. Tissue Eng Part A , 2008, 14(6): 995-1006
doi: 10.1089/ten.tea.2007.0087 pmid:19230124
58 Hoshiba T, Cho C S, Murakawa A, Okahata Y, Akaike T. The effect of natural extracellular matrix deposited on synthetic polymers on cultured primary hepatocytes. Biomaterials , 2006, 27(26): 4519-4528
doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.04.014 pmid:16697038
59 Hoshiba T, Wakejima M, Cho C S, Shiota G, Akaike T. Different regulation of hepatocyte behaviors between natural extracellular matrices and synthetic extracellular matrices by hepatocyte growth factor. J Biomed Mater Res A , 2008, 85(1): 228-235
doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.31571 pmid:17688272
60 Hidaka M, Su G N, Chen J K, Mukaisho K, Hattori T, Yamamoto G. Transplantation of engineered bone tissue using a rotary three-dimensional culture system. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim , 2007, 43(2): 49-58
doi: 10.1007/s11626-006-9005-1 pmid:17570019
61 Chen Z, Qi L Z, Zeng R, Li H Y, Dai L J. Stem cells and hepatic cirrhosis. Panminerva Med , 2010, 52(2): 149-165
pmid:20517197
62 Russo F P, Alison M R, Bigger B W, Amofah E, Florou A, Amin F, Bou-Gharios G, Jeffery R, Iredale J P, Forbes S J. The bone marrow functionally contributes to liver fibrosis. Gastroenterology , 2006, 130(6): 1807-1821
doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2006.01.036 pmid:16697743
[1] Nan Ding,Jiafei Xi,Yanming Li,Xiaoyan Xie,Jian Shi,Zhaojun Zhang,Yanhua Li,Fang Fang,Sihan Wang,Wen Yue,Xuetao Pei,Xiangdong Fang. Global transcriptome analysis for identification of interactions between coding and noncoding RNAs during human erythroid differentiation[J]. Front. Med., 2016, 10(3): 297-310.
[2] Yuting Tan,Han Liu,Saijuan Chen. Mutant DNA methylation regulators endow hematopoietic stem cells with the preleukemic stem cell property, a requisite of leukemia initiation and relapse[J]. Front. Med., 2015, 9(4): 412-420.
[3] Lixia Gan,Wei Xiang,Bin Xie,Liqing Yu. Molecular mechanisms of fatty liver in obesity[J]. Front. Med., 2015, 9(3): 275-287.
[4] Lanping Xu,Huanling Zhu,Jianda Hu,Depei Wu,Hao Jiang,Qian Jiang,Xiaojun Huang. Superiority of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to nilotinib and dasatinib for adult patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in the accelerated phase[J]. Front. Med., 2015, 9(3): 304-311.
[5] Yingchen Li,Guoheng Hu,Qilai Cheng. Implantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for ischemic stroke: perspectives and challenges[J]. Front. Med., 2015, 9(1): 20-29.
[6] Hai Wang,Qian Zhang,Xiangdong Fang. Transcriptomics and proteomics in stem cell research[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(4): 433-444.
[7] Bao-Zhu Yuan,Junzhi Wang. The regulatory sciences for stem cell-based medicinal products[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(2): 190-200.
[8] Yang Yang, Xiaofei Han, Jingyun Guan, Xiangzhi Li. Regulation and function of histone acetyltransferase MOF[J]. Front Med, 2014, 8(1): 79-83.
[9] Douglas D. Fang, Joan Cao, Jitesh P. Jani, Konstantinos Tsaparikos, Alessandra Blasina, Jill Kornmann, Maruja E. Lira, Jianying Wang, Zuzana Jirout, Justin Bingham, Zhou Zhu, Yin Gu, Gerrit Los, Zdenek Hostomsky, Todd VanArsdale. Combined gemcitabine and CHK1 inhibitor treatment induces apoptosis resistance in cancer stem cell-like cells enriched with tumor spheroids from a non-small cell lung cancer cell line[J]. Front Med, 2013, 7(4): 462-476.
[10] Siming Yang, Kui Ma, Changjiang Feng, Yan Wu, Yao Wang, Sha Huang, Xiaobing Fu. Capacity of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into sweat gland-like cells: a preclinical study[J]. Front Med, 2013, 7(3): 345-353.
[11] Xiaodong Mo, Xiaojun Huang. Advancement of human leukocyte antigen-partially matched related hematopoietic stem cell transplantation[J]. Front Med, 2013, 7(3): 306-315.
[12] Beicheng Sun, Michael Karin. Inflammation and liver tumorigenesis[J]. Front Med, 2013, 7(2): 242-254.
[13] Douglas D. Fang, Danyi Wen, Yajun Xu. Identification of cancer stem cells provides novel tumor models for drug discovery[J]. Front Med, 2012, 6(2): 112-121.
[14] Siming Yang, Sha Huang, Changjiang Feng, Xiaobing Fu. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells: strategies, challenges, and potential for cutaneous regeneration[J]. Front Med, 2012, 6(1): 41-47.
[15] Shihua Wang, Xuebin Qu, Robert Chunhua Zhao. Mesenchymal stem cells hold promise for regenerative medicine[J]. Front Med, 2011, 5(4): 372-378.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed