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Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

Front Med    2012, Vol. 6 Issue (4) : 381-387     DOI: 10.1007/s11684-012-0229-z
A novel intravenous general anesthetic--- emulsified isoflurane: from bench to bedside
Cheng Zhou, Jin Liu()
Department of Anesthesiology and Translational Neuroscience Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
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Application of volatile anesthetics greatly alters modern medicine. There are obvious advantages of volatile anesthetics such as strong anesthetic potency, rapid onset and elimination through respiration system. Isoflurane is one of the most widely used volatile anesthetics in clinic. Emulsified isoflurane, the emulsion of isoflurane, is a novel intravenous general anesthetic. With the development of emulsified isoflurane in the past fifteen years, its utility has spread from intravenous general anesthesia to various fields including regional anesthesia, organ protection, as well as anesthetic pharmacological study. In this review, we will summarize literatures of emulsified isoflurane about its history, clinical application and future potential utility in the above mentioned fields.

Keywords emulsified isoflurane (EI)      general anesthesia      regional anesthesia      organ protection      anesthetic pharmacological study     
Corresponding Authors: Liu Jin,   
Issue Date: 05 December 2012
URL:     OR
Administration typeSpeciesED50 (ml/kg isoflurane)LD50 (ml/kg isoflurane)OnsetDurationTI
Intravenous [20]Rats0.0560.168Within 5 s (bolus)22±15 s3.00
Intravenous [14,21]Dogs0.077NA58±9 s (infusion)105±61 sNA
Intraperitoneal [25]Rats0.571.262.6±1.0 min28±11 min2.24
Oral [26]Rats1.38NA15–20 min60 min maxNA
Tab.1  General anesthetic effects of emulsified isoflurane in animal models
SpeciesEC50 (%)Comparison to lidocaineEffect at 8%
Epidural [32]RabbitsNASimilar to 1% LidoLonger than 1% Lido1.4±0.7 min68±13 min
Subarachnoid [33]DogsNASimilar to 1% LidoSimilar to 1% Lido22±4 s45±10 min
IVRA [34]Rats4.467±0.375Similar to 0.5% LidoSimilar to 0.5% Lido1.0±0.0 min28.0±13.9 min
Nerve block [35]Toads5.46Slower than 1% LidoShorter than 1% Lido5–7 min9–10 min
Tab.2  Regional anesthetic effects of emulsified isoflurane
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