Please wait a minute...
Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

Front Med    2013, Vol. 7 Issue (3) : 306-315     DOI: 10.1007/s11684-013-0279-x
Advancement of human leukocyte antigen-partially matched related hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Xiaodong Mo, Xiaojun Huang()
Peking University People’s Hospital & Institute of Hematology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Beijing 100044, China
Download: PDF(173 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is one of the most effective options for hematological malignancies, and human leukocyte antigen-partially matched related donors (PMRDs) are a valuable option for HSCT. Several protocols (with or without ex vivo T-cell depletion (TCD)) have been established worldwide. TCD including CD34+ positive selection and CD3/CD19 depletion has successfully overcome the human leukocyte antigen disparity. However, TCD is associated with prolonged immune deficiencies, increased risks of infectious complications, and high transplantation-related mortality. PMRD HSCT without ex vivo TCD is well developed, and numerous patients have benefitted from it. Here, we review the literature on PMRD HSCT.

Keywords partially matched related donor      hematopoietic stem cell transplantation      allogeneic     
Corresponding Authors: Huang Xiaojun,   
Issue Date: 05 September 2013
URL:     OR
Perugia protocolTuebingen protocol
Number of patients10461
Age, median(range) (year)33 (9-64)46 (19-65)
Disease status, high-risk, number (%)104 (100)61 (100)
Transplantation procedureCD34 + cell positive selected G-PB graftsCD3/CD19 depleted G-PB grafts
Transplant outcomes
Acute GVHD, grade II–IV8%46%
Chronic GVHD7%18%
Relapse16% in patients HSCT in CR, and 51% in those HSCT in relapse31% at 2 years
Transplant-related mortality36.5%42% at 2 years
Leukemia-related mortality48% and 46% for AML and ALL, respectively25% at 2 years
Overall survivalNA28% at 2 year
Tab.1  Comparison of main protocols designed by different groups in PMRD HSCT with TCD []
Cell populationCD34 selectionCD3/CD19 depletion
Total cell number, pre5.8 × 10105.0 × 1010
Total cell number, post0.03 × 10101.5 × 1010
T cells0.11%0.003%
T-cell depletion4.6 log4.4 log
CD19+ cellsNot done0.003%
Stem cell purity97.5%0.97%
Stem cell recovery78%59%
NK cells/kg0.003 × 10635 × 106
Monocytes/kg0.3 × 106130 × 106
Granulocytes/kg0.3 × 10638 × 106
Tab.2  Graft composition between CD34 selection and CD3/CD19 depletion []
PekingUniversity [5]DukeUniversity [56]MinnesotaUniversity Minnesota[55]Pusan NationalUniversity [59]
Number of patients820495083
Age, median(range) (year)25 (3-57)48 (17-66)48 (7-70)40 (16-70)
Disease status, high risk, number (.%)195 (25.8)30 (61)4 (8)35 (42)
Conditioning regimenAra-C/BU/CY/Me-CCNU/ATGCY/FLU/ alemtuzumabCY/FLU/TBIBU/FLU/ATG
Transplant outcomes
Acute GVHD, grade II–IV42.9% at day 10016%40% at day 10020%
Chronic GVHD52.9% at 2 years14%13% at 1 year34%
Relapse18.0% at 2 yearsNA45% at 1 yearAL: CR1:27%;CR2/CR3: 32%;Refrectroy: 79%; MDS: 20%
Transplant-related mortality18.1% at 3 years31%7% at 1 year18%
Leukemia-related mortality67.3% at 3 years43% at 1 year48% at 1 yearAL:CR1:60%;CR2/CR3:53%; Refrectory:9%; MDS:53%
Overall survival63.2% at 3 years31% at 1 year62% at 1 yearAL:CR1:60%;CR2/CR3:41%; Refrectory:9%; MDS:53%
Tab.3  Comparison of main protocols designed by different group in PMRD HSCT without TCD
1 Aversa F, Tabilio A, Terenzi A, Velardi A, Falzetti F, Giannoni C, Iacucci R, Zei T, Martelli MP, Gambelunghe C, . Successful engraftment of T-cell-depleted haploidentical “three-loci” incompatible transplants in leukemia patients by addition of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells to bone marrow inoculum. Blood 1994; 84(11): 3948–3955
2 Aversa F, Tabilio A, Velardi A, Cunningham I, Terenzi A, Falzetti F, Ruggeri L, Barbabietola G, Aristei C, Latini P, Reisner Y, Martelli MF, Felicini R, Falcinelli F, Carotti A, Perruccio K, Ballanti S, Santucci A, Gambelunghe C. Treatment of high-risk acute leukemia with T-cell-depleted stem cells from related donors with one fully mismatched HLA haplotype. N Engl J Med 1998; 339(17): 1186–1193
doi: 10.1056/NEJM199810223391702 pmid:9780338
3 Aversa F, Terenzi A, Tabilio A, Falzetti F, Carotti A, Ballanti S, Felicini R, Falcinelli F, Velardi A, Ruggeri L, Aloisi T, Saab JP, Santucci A, Perruccio K, Martelli MP, Mecucci C, Reisner Y, Martelli MF. Full haplotype-mismatched hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: a phase II study in patients with acute leukemia at high risk of relapse. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23(15): 3447–3454
doi: 10.1200/JCO.2005.09.117 pmid:15753458
4 Lang P, Bader P, Schumm M, Feuchtinger T, Einsele H, Führer M, Weinstock C, Handgretinger R, Kuci S, Martin D, Niethammer D, Greil J. Transplantation of a combination of CD133+ and CD34+ selected progenitor cells from alternative donors. Br J Haematol 2004; 124(1): 72–79
doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2141.2003.04747.x pmid:14675410
5 Chang YJ, Huang XJ. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with unmanipulated granulocyte colony stimulating factor mobilized marrow and blood grafts. Curr Opin Hematol 2012; 19(6): 454–461
doi: 10.1097/MOH.0b013e3283582322 pmid:22918403
6 Bethge WA, Haegele M, Faul C, Lang P, Schumm M, Bornhauser M, Handgretinger R, Kanz L. Haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in adults with reduced-intensity conditioning and CD3/CD19 depletion: fast engraftment and low toxicity. Exp Hematol 2006; 34(12): 1746–1752
doi: 10.1016/j.exphem.2006.08.009 pmid:17157172
7 Bethge WA, Faul C, Bornh?user M, Stuhler G, Beelen DW, Lang P, Stelljes M, Vogel W, H?gele M, Handgretinger R, Kanz L. Haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in adults using CD3/CD19 depletion and reduced intensity conditioning: an update. Blood Cells Mol Dis 2008; 40(1): 13–19
doi: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.07.001 pmid:17869547
8 Federmann B, H?gele M, Pfeiffer M, Wirths S, Schumm M, Faul C, Vogel W, Handgretinger R, Kanz L, Bethge WA. Immune reconstitution after haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation: impact of reduced intensity conditioning and CD3/CD19 depleted grafts. Leukemia 2011; 25(1): 121–129
doi: 10.1038/leu.2010.235 pmid:20944677
9 Lu DP, Dong L, Wu T, Huang XJ, Zhang MJ, Han W, Chen H, Liu DH, Gao ZY, Chen YH, Xu LP, Zhang YC, Ren HY, Li D, Liu KY. Conditioning including antithymocyte globulin followed by unmanipulated HLA-mismatched/haploidentical blood and marrow transplantation can achieve comparable outcomes with HLA-identical sibling transplantation. Blood 2006; 107(8): 3065–3073
doi: 10.1182/blood-2005-05-2146 pmid:16380454
10 Wang Y, Liu DH, Liu KY, Xu LP, Zhang XH, Han W, Chen H, Chen YH, Wang FR, Wang JZ, Sun YQ, Huang XJ. Long-term follow-up of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without in vitro T cell depletion for the treatment of leukemia: nine years of experience at a single center. Cancer 2013;119(5):978–985
doi: 10.1002/cncr.27761 pmid:23097265
11 Chang YJ, Xu LP, Liu DH, Liu KY, Han W, Chen YH, Yu Wang, Chen H, Wang JZ, Zhang XH, Zhao XY, Huang XJ. Platelet engraftment in patients with hematologic malignancies following unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplantation: effects of CD34+ cell dose and disease status. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2009; 15(5): 632–638
doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2009.02.001 pmid:19361756
12 Lazarus HM, Koc ON, Devine SM, Curtin P, Maziarz RT, Holland HK, Shpall EJ, McCarthy P, Atkinson K, Cooper BW, Gerson SL, Laughlin MJ, Loberiza FR Jr, Moseley AB, Bacigalupo A. Cotransplantation of HLA-identical sibling culture-expanded mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells in hematologic malignancy patients. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2005; 11(5): 389–398
doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2005.02.001 pmid:15846293
13 Liu K, Chen Y, Zeng Y, Xu L, Liu D, Chen H, Zhang X, Han W, Wang Y, Zhao T, Wang J, Wang J, Han Q, Zhao C, Huang X. Coinfusion of mesenchymal stromal cells facilitates platelet recovery without increasing leukemia recurrence in haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a randomized, controlled clinical study. Stem Cells Dev 2011; 20(10): 1679–1685
doi: 10.1089/scd.2010.0447 pmid:21142788
14 Huang XJ, Liu DH, Liu KY, Xu LP, Chen H, Han W, Chen YH, Wang JZ, Gao ZY, Zhang YC, Jiang Q, Shi HX, Lu DP. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without in vitro T-cell depletion for the treatment of hematological malignancies. Bone Marrow Transplant 2006; 38(4): 291–297
doi: 10.1038/sj.bmt.1705445 pmid:16883312
15 Huang XJ, Xu LP, Liu KY, Liu DH, Wang Y, Chen H, Chen YH, Han W, Wang JZ, Chen Y, Zhang XH, Shi HX, Wang FR, Tang FF. Partially matched related donor transplantation can achieve outcomes comparable with unrelated donor transplantation for patients with hematologic malignancies. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15(14): 4777–4783
doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-0691 pmid:19584148
16 Huang XJ, Liu DH, Liu KY, Xu LP, Chen H, Han W, Chen YH, Zhang XH, Lu DP. Treatment of acute leukemia with unmanipulated HLA-mismatched/haploidentical blood and bone marrow transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2009; 15(2): 257–265
doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2008.11.025 pmid:19167686
17 Finke J, Bethge WA, Schmoor C, Ottinger HD, Stelljes M, Zander AR, Volin L, Ruutu T, Heim DA, Schwerdtfeger R, Kolbe K, Mayer J, Maertens JA, Linkesch W, Holler E, Koza V, Bornh?user M, Einsele H, Kolb HJ, Bertz H, Egger M, Grishina O, Socié G; ATG-Fresenius Trial Group. Standard graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with or without anti-T-cell globulin in haematopoietic cell transplantation from matched unrelated donors: a randomised, open-label, multicentre phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2009; 10(9): 855–864
doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(09)70225-6 pmid:19695955
18 Basara N, Baurmann H, Kolbe K, Yaman A, Labopin M, Burchardt A, Huber C, Fauser AA, Schwerdtfeger R. Antithymocyte globulin for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease after unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia: results from the multicenter German cooperative study group. Bone Marrow Transplant 2005; 35(10): 1011–1018
doi: 10.1038/sj.bmt.1704957 pmid:15821768
19 Huang XJ. HLA-mismatched/haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a field in which Chinese doctors are making great contributions. Chin Med J (Engl) 2010; 123(10): 1235–1240
20 Luo XH, Chang YJ, Xu LP, Liu DH, Liu KY, Huang XJ. The impact of graft composition on clinical outcomes in unmanipulated HLA-mismatched/haploidentical hematopoietic SCT. Bone Marrow Transplant 2009; 43(1): 29–36
doi: 10.1038/bmt.2008.267 pmid:18776927
21 Zhao XY, Chang YJ, Xu LP, Liu DH, Liu KY, Huang XJ. Association of natural killer cells in allografts with transplant outcomes in patients receiving G-CSF-mobilized PBSC grafts and G-CSF-primed BM grafts from HLA-haploidentical donors. Bone Marrow Transplant 2009; 44(11): 721–728
doi: 10.1038/bmt.2009.73 pmid:19377516
22 Chang YJ, Zhao XY, Huo MR, Huang XJ. Expression of CD62L on donor CD4(+) T cells in allografts: correlation with graft-versus-host disease after unmanipulated allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation. J Clin Immunol 2009; 29(5): 696–704
doi: 10.1007/s10875-009-9293-9 pmid:19462221
23 Zhao XY, Xu LL, Lu SY, Huang XJ. IL-17-producing T cells contribute to acute graft-versus-host disease in patients undergoing unmanipulated blood and marrow transplantation. Eur J Immunol 2011; 41(2): 514–526
doi: 10.1002/eji.201040793 pmid:21268020
24 Huo MR, Xu LP, Li D, Liu DH, Liu KY, Chen H, Han W, Chen YH, Wang Y, Wang JZ, Zhang XH, Zhao XY, Huang XJ. The effect of HLA disparity on clinical outcome after HLA-haploidentical blood and marrow transplantation. Clin Transplant 2012; 26(2): 284–291
doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0012.2011.01499.x pmid:21919963
25 Zhao XY, Huang XJ, Liu KY, Xu LP, Liu DH. Prognosis after unmanipulated HLA-haploidentical blood and marrow transplantation is correlated to the numbers of KIR ligands in recipients. Eur J Haematol 2007; 78(4): 338–346
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0609.2007.00822.x pmid:17378893
26 Chang YJ, Zhao XY, Huo MR, Xu LP, Liu DH, Liu KY, Huang XJ. Influence of lymphocyte recovery on outcome of haploidentical transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Medicine (Baltimore) 2009; 88(6): 322–330
doi: 10.1097/MD.0b013e3181c167e2 pmid:19910746
27 Chang YJ, Zhao XY, Huo MR, Xu LP, Liu DH, Liu KY, Huang XJ. Clinical impact of absolute lymphocyte count on day 30 after unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplantation for pediatric patients with hematological malignancies. Am J Hematol 2011; 86(2): 227–230
doi: 10.1002/ajh.21921 pmid:21264916
28 Huang XJ, Liu DH, Liu KY, Xu LP, Chen H, Han W. Donor lymphocyte infusion for the treatment of leukemia relapse after HLA-mismatched/haploidentical T-cell-replete hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Haematologica 2007; 92(3): 414–417
doi: 10.3324/haematol.10570 pmid:17339194
29 Huang XJ, Wang Y, Liu DH, Xu LP, Chen H, Chen YH, Han W, Shi HX, Liu KY. Modified donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) for the prophylaxis of leukemia relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with advanced leukemia—feasibility and safety study. J Clin Immunol 2008; 28(4): 390–397
doi: 10.1007/s10875-008-9193-4 pmid:18347959
30 Wang Y, Liu DH, Xu LP, Liu KY, Chen H, Zhang XH, Chen YH, Han W, Wang FR, Wang JZ, Yan CH, Huang XJ. Prevention of relapse using granulocyte CSF-primed PBPCs following HLA-mismatched/haploidentical, T-cell-replete hematopoietic SCT in patients with advanced-stage acute leukemia: a retrospective risk-factor analysis. Bone Marrow Transplant 2012; 47(8): 1099–1104
doi: 10.1038/bmt.2011.213 pmid:22056641
31 Schnittger S, Weisser M, Schoch C, Hiddemann W, Haferlach T, Kern W. New score predicting for prognosis in PML-RARA+, AML1-ETO+, or CBFBMYH11+ acute myeloid leukemia based on quantification of fusion transcripts. Blood 2003; 102(8): 2746–2755
doi: 10.1182/blood-2003-03-0880 pmid:12842988
32 Weisser M, Kern W, Rauhut S, Schoch C, Hiddemann W, Haferlach T, Schnittger S. Prognostic impact of RT-PCR-based quantification of WT1 gene expression during MRD monitoring of acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia 2005; 19(8): 1416–1423
doi: 10.1038/sj.leu.2403809 pmid:15920493
33 Zhao XS, Jin S, Zhu HH, Xu LP, Liu DH, Chen H, Liu KY, Huang XJ. Wilms’ tumor gene 1 expression: an independent acute leukemia prognostic indicator following allogeneic hematopoietic SCT. Bone Marrow Transplant 2012; 47(4): 499–507
doi: 10.1038/bmt.2011.121 pmid:21643023
34 Kern W, Danhauser-Riedl S, Ratei R, Schnittger S, Schoch C, Kolb HJ, Ludwig WD, Hiddemann W, Haferlach T. Detection of minimal residual disease in unselected patients with acute myeloid leukemia using multiparameter flow cytometry for definition of leukemia-associated immunophenotypes and determination of their frequencies in normal bone marrow. Haematologica 2003; 88(6): 646–653
35 Zhao XS, Liu YR, Zhu HH, Xu LP, Liu DH, Liu KY, Huang XJ. Monitoring MRD with flow cytometry: an effective method to predict relapse for ALL patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ann Hematol 2012; 91(2): 183–192
doi: 10.1007/s00277-011-1285-1 pmid:21710165
36 Yan CH, Liu DH, Liu KY, Xu LP, Liu YR, Chen H, Han W, Wang Y, Qin YZ, Huang XJ. Risk stratification-directed donor lymphocyte infusion could reduce relapse of standard-risk acute leukemia patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood 2012; 119(14): 3256–3262
doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-09-380386 pmid:22337715
37 Huang XJ, Xu LP, Liu KY, Liu DH, Chen H, Han W, Chen YH, Wang JZ, Chen Y, Zhang XH, Shi HX, Lu DP. HLA-mismatched/haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without in vitro T cell depletion for chronic myeloid leukemia: improved outcomes in patients in accelerated phase and blast crisis phase. Ann Med 2008; 40(6): 444–455
doi: 10.1080/07853890801908903 pmid:18608121
38 Chen Y, Liu K, Xu L, Chen H, Liu D, Zhang X, Shi H, Han W, Wang Y, Zhao T, Wang J, Wang J, Huang X. HLA-mismatched hematopoietic SCT without in vitro T-cell depletion for myelodysplastic syndrome. Bone Marrow Transplant 2010; 45(8): 1333–1339
doi: 10.1038/bmt.2009.351 pmid:20062100
39 Wang Y, Liu DH, Xu LP, Liu KY, Chen H, Chen YH, Han W, Shi HX, Huang XJ. Superior graft-versus-leukemia effect associated with transplantation of haploidentical compared with HLA-identical sibling donor grafts for high-risk acute leukemia: an historic comparison. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2011; 17(6): 821–830
doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.08.023 pmid:20831895
40 Chang YJ, Zhao XY, Huo MR, Xu LP, Liu DH, Liu KY, Huang XJ. Immune reconstitution following unmanipulated HLA-mismatched/haploidentical transplantation compared with HLA-identical sibling transplantation. J Clin Immunol 2012; 32(2): 268–280
doi: 10.1007/s10875-011-9630-7 pmid:22173879
41 Luo XH, Huang XJ, Li D, Liu KY, Xu LP, Liu DH. Immune reconstitution to cytomegalovirus following partially matched-related donor transplantation: impact of in vivo T-cell depletion and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-primed peripheral blood/bone marrow mixed grafts. Transpl Infect Dis 2013; 15(1): 22–33
doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2012.00722.x pmid:22372613
42 Smith KA. Interleukin-2: inception, impact, and implications. Science 1988; 240(4856): 1169–1176
doi: 3131876" target="_blank">10.1126/science. pmid:3131876 pmid:3131876
43 Chang YJ, Zhao XY, Huang XJ. Effects of the NK cell recovery on outcomes of unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplantation for patients with hematologic malignancies. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2008; 14(3): 323–334
doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2007.12.497 pmid:18275899
44 Mo XD, Xu LP, Liu DH, Chen YH, Han W, Zhang XH, Chen H, Wang Y, Wang JZ, Liu KY, Huang XJ. Patients receiving HLA-haploidentical/partially matched related allo-HSCT can achieve desirable health-related QoL that is comparable to that of patients receiving HLA-identical sibling allo-HSCT. Bone Marrow Transplant 2012; 47(9): 1201–1205
doi: 10.1038/bmt.2011.250 pmid:22231459
45 Huang XJ, Chang YJ. Unmanipulated HLA-mismatched/haploidentical blood and marrow hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2011; 17(2): 197–204
doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.03.006 pmid:20302961
46 Jun HX, Jun CY, Yu ZX. In vivo induction of T-cell hyporesponsiveness and alteration of immunological cells of bone marrow grafts using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Haematologica 2004; 89(12): 1517–1524
47 Chang YJ, Zhao XY, Huo MR, Huang XJ. Expression profiles of adhesion molecules on na?ve T cells in bone marrow grafts of healthy donors treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Transpl Immunol 2009; 21(4): 228–233
doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2009.05.005 pmid:19467326
48 Huang XJ, Chang YJ, Zhao XY. Maintaining hyporesponsiveness and polarization potential of T cells after in vitro mixture of G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood grafts and G-CSF primed bone marrow grafts in different proportions. Transpl Immunol 2007; 17(3): 193–197
doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2006.10.002 pmid:17331846
49 Huang XJ, Zhao J, Zhao XY, Chang YJ. Treating donor mice with rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF promotes transplant-tolerance and preserves the effects of GVL after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Leuk Res 2009; 33(1): 123–128
doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2008.06.009 pmid:18653235
50 Xu LP, Liu KY, Liu DH, Chen H, Han W, Chen YH, Wang Y, Huang XJ. The inferiority of G-PB to rhG-CSF-mobilized blood and marrow grafts as a stem cell source in patients with high-risk acute leukemia who underwent unmanipulated HLA-mismatched/haploidentical transplantation: a comparative analysis. Bone Marrow Transplant 2010; 45(6): 985–992
doi: 10.1038/bmt.2009.311 pmid:19898505
51 Huang W, Li H, Gao C, Bo J, Wang Q, Zhao Y, Jing Y, Wang S, Zhu H, Dou L, Wang L, Yu L. Unmanipulated HLA-mismatched/haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for high-risk hematologic malignancies. Transfusion 2012; 52(6): 1354–1362
doi: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03478.x pmid:22233440
52 Lang P, Handgretinger R. Haploidentical SCT in children: an update and future perspectives. Bone Marrow Transplant 2008; 42(Suppl 2): S54–S59
doi: 10.1038/bmt.2008.285 pmid:18978746
53 Klingebiel T, Cornish J, Labopin M, Locatelli F, Darbyshire P, Handgretinger R, Balduzzi A, Owoc-Lempach J, Fagioli F, Or R, Peters C, Aversa F, Polge E, Dini G, Rocha V; Pediatric Diseases and Acute Leukemia Working Parties of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Results and factors influencing outcome after fully haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with very high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: impact of center size: an analysis on behalf of the Acute Leukemia and Pediatric Disease Working Parties of the European Blood and Marrow Transplant group. Blood 2010; 115(17): 3437–3446
doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-03-207001 pmid:20040760
54 Gonzalez-Vicent M, Perez A, Abad L, Sevilla J, Ramirez M, Diaz MA. Graft manipulation and reduced-intensity conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from mismatched unrelated and mismatched/haploidentical related donors in pediatric leukemia patients. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2010; 32(3): e85–e90
doi: 10.1097/MPH.0b013e3181cf813c pmid:20216238
55 Liu D, Huang X, Liu K, Xu L, Chen H, Han W, Chen Y, Zhang X, Jiang Q. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without in vitro T cell depletion for treatment of hematological malignancies in children. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2008; 14(4): 469–477
doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2008.02.007 pmid:18342790
56 Rizzieri DA, Koh LP, Long GD, Gasparetto C, Sullivan KM, Horwitz M, Chute J, Smith C, Gong JZ, Lagoo A, Niedzwiecki D, Dowell JM, Waters-Pick B, Liu C, Marshall D, Vredenburgh JJ, Gockerman J, Decastro C, Moore J, Chao NJ. Partially matched, nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation: clinical outcomes and immune reconstitution. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25(6): 690–697
doi: 10.1200/JCO.2006.07.0953 pmid:17228020
57 Brunstein CG, Fuchs EJ, Carter SL, Karanes C, Costa LJ, Wu J, Devine SM, Wingard JR, Aljitawi OS, Cutler CS, Jagasia MH, Ballen KK, Eapen M, O’Donnell PV; Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network. Alternative donor transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning: results of parallel phase 2 trials using partially HLA-mismatched related bone marrow or unrelated double umbilical cord blood grafts. Blood 2011; 118(2): 282–288
doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-03-344853 pmid:21527516
58 Munchel A, Kesserwan C, Symons HJ, Luznik L, Kasamon YL, Jones RJ, Fuchs EJ. Nonmyeloablative, HLA-haploidentical bone marrow transplantation with high dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. Pediatr Rep 2011; 3( Suppl 2): e15
doi: 10.4081/pr.2011.s2.e15 pmid:22053277
59 Lee KH, Lee JH, Lee JH, Kim DY, Seol M, Lee YS, Kang YA, Jeon M, Hwang HJ, Jung AR, Kim SH, Yun SC, Shin HJ. Reduced-intensity conditioning therapy with busulfan, fludarabine, and antithymocyte globulin for HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation in acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood 2011; 118(9): 2609–2617
doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-02-339838 pmid:21715313
[1] Lanping Xu,Huanling Zhu,Jianda Hu,Depei Wu,Hao Jiang,Qian Jiang,Xiaojun Huang. Superiority of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to nilotinib and dasatinib for adult patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in the accelerated phase[J]. Front. Med., 2015, 9(3): 304-311.
[2] Quan LI MD , Weiming LI MD , Ping ZOU MD , Jian ZHANG BM , . Gene and protein expression of proteinase-activated receptor-1, 2 in a murine model of acute graft host disease[J]. Front. Med., 2009, 3(3): 309-315.
Full text