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Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

Front Med    2014, Vol. 8 Issue (1) : 58-67     DOI: 10.1007/s11684-014-0318-2
REVIEW |
Sepsis biomarkers: an omics perspective
Xiao Liu1,2, Hui Ren2(), Daizhi Peng1()
1. Institute of Burn Research, Southwest Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China; 2. School of Nursing, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China
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Abstract  

Sepsis is a common cause of death in hospitalized patients worldwide. The early detection of sepsis remains a great challenge for clinicians, and delayed diagnosis frequently undermines treatment efforts, thereby contributing to high mortality. Omics technologies allow high-throughput screening of sepsis biomarkers. This review describes currently available and novel sepsis biomarkers in the context of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. The combination of these technologies can help refine the diagnosis of sepsis. This review paper serves as a reference for future studies that employ an integrated, multi-omics approach to disease identification.

Keywords sepsis      biomarker      genomics      transcriptomics      proteomics      metabolomics     
Corresponding Authors: Ren Hui,Email:renhui_tmmu@163.com; Peng Daizhi,Email:dzpengmd@126.com   
Issue Date: 26 April 2014
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/10.1007/s11684-014-0318-2     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/Y2014/V8/I1/58
OmicsBiomarkers(reference)MethodsPatients/animals(reference)Sensiti-vity (%)Specifi-city (%)Cut-off pointAUCChangesClinical relevance(reference)
GeneticsSNPTLR1 [22]CD14 [2427]IL-6, TLR4, and TNF-α [27]Genotyping and logisticregression analysisGenotyping and logisticregression analysisGenotyping and logistic regression analysis1961 trauma patients14 septic patients and 30 healthy controls [24]514 critically ill patients[25]58 severely injured blunt trauma patients[26]228 burn patients[27]228 burn patients [27]NANANANANANANANANANANANA-7202G+ 742A/G(Asn248Ser) -260C→T IL-6-174 G→C TLR4+ 896A→GTNF-α -308G→AAssociation with increased mortality after traumatic injury and sepsis.1. No association with an increased risk of severe sepsis in trauma patients[24,26]2. Association with increased susceptibility to sepsis[27]3. Higher -260TT genotype frequency in ICU survivor patients[25]Association with increased risk for severe sepsis after burn injury
TranscriptomicsGene expression miRNAsA panel of 42 sepsis gene expression markers [51]Affymetrix array and multiplex tandem PCRMixed inflammation group (28 sepsis and 38 postsurgical patients in ICU) and 20 healthy controlsNANANA0.92NAA novel molecular biomarker test has the capacity for early detection of sepsis through patient monitoring
IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-a, FasL and CCL2 mRNA expression [50]qRT-PCR92 ICU patients91.4380.2NANANAProvide a generic indicator of sepsis and help its early diagnosis
miR-150 [63,64]Genome-wide miRNA profiling by microarray/qRT-PCR17 sepsis patients and 32 healthy controls [63]40 sepsis patients, 20 SIRS patients, and 20 health controls [64]NANANANAThe miR-150 levels in both leukocytes and plasma correlate with the aggressiveness and prognosis of sepsis and can be used as a marker of early diagnosis
miR-143 [65]qPCR40 sepsis patients, 20 SIRS patients, and 20 healthy controlsNANANANAThe expression level of miR-143 may be a marker for judging the severity of sepsis and its prognosis
miR-146a[67];miR-223 [67]qPCR50 sepsis patients, 30 SIRS patients, and 20 healthy controls63.380100100-2.98-1.890.8040.858Serum microRNAs might be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis and reflecting severity of sepsis
miR-574-5p[66]Genome-wide scan and qRT-PCR assay12 surviving and 12 nonsurviving sepsis patients for microarray scan; 118 sepsis patients for validated by qRT-PCR78.131.840.2280.932The miR-574-5p combined with SOFA scores and sepsis stage provides a prognostic predictor of sepsis patients
ProteomicsYKL-40[72]HPLC, SDS-PAGE; ELISA45 sepsis or septic shock patients and 22 healthy controls and 23 patients who received off-pump coronary artery bypass graftingNANANANAYKL-40 may be involved in the pathophysiology of sepsis and may be a biomarker of sepsis
MetabolomicsAcetoacetate, alanine, creatine, phosphoethanolamine, formate [75]NMR-based metabolic profiling14 rats underwent cecal ligation and puncture as septic group;14 rats with sham procedure as control group100100NANA↑(serum)↑(serum)↑(serum)↓(serum)NMR metabolomics analysis is a potentially useful technique for sepsis diagnosis
Linoleic acid,oleic acid,stearic acid,docosahexaenoic acid,docosapentaenoic acidlinolenic acid [74]HPLC/MS assays23 surviving and 22 nonsurviving septic rats;25 sham-operated ratsNANANANA↓(serum)↓(serum)↓(serum)↑(serum)↑(serum)↑(serum)A model for outcome predication was built with high sensitivity and specificity
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