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Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

Front. Med.    2014, Vol. 8 Issue (4) : 477-483     DOI: 10.1007/s11684-014-0346-y
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Gender differences in the relationship between plasma lipids and fasting plasma glucose in non-diabetic urban Chinese population: a cross-section study
Jie Zheng1,Yuzhen Gao2,Yuejuan Jing3,Xiaoshuang Zhou3,4,Yuanyuan Shi3,4,Yanhong Li3,4,Lihua Wang3,4,Ruiying Wang2,Maolian Li2,Chuanshi Xiao5,Yafeng Li3,4,*(),Rongshan Li4,6,*()
1. School of Nursing, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001 China
2. Department of Cardiology, Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China
3. Department of Nephrology and Hemodialysis Center, Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China
4. Shanxi Renal Disease Research Institution, Taiyuan 030001, China
5. Department of Cardiology, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China
6. Department of Nephrology and Hemodialysis Center, Shanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Taiyuan 030012, China
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Abstract  

The association between dyslipidemia and elevated fasting glucose in type 2 diabetes is well known. In non-diabetes, whether this association still exists, and whether dyslipidemia is an independent risk factor for high fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels are not clear. This cross-sectional study recruited 3460 non-diabetic Chinese subjects (1027 men, and 2433 women, aged 35–75 years old) who participated in a health survey. Men and women were classified into tertiles by levels of plasma lipids respectively. In women, the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was decreased with increased HDL-C. A stepwise increase in HDL-C was associated with decreasing FPG levels (lowest tertiles, FPG: 5.376±0.018; middle tertiles, 5.324±0.018; highest tertiles, 5.276±0.018 mmol/L; P=0.001). Reversely, FPG levels increased from lowest tertiles to highest tertiles of LDL-C, TC, and TG. we found that women in the first tertile with lower HDL-C level had a 1.75-fold increase in risk of IFG compared with non-diabetic women in the third tertile with higher HDL-C level (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.20--2.56). In men, no significant association was found. We took age, BMI, waist/hip ratio, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical exercise as adjusted variables. In Chinese non-diabetic women, dyslipidemia is independently associated with high levels of FPG; TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C are predictors of IFG independent of BMI and waist/hip ratio.

Keywords dyslipidemia      plasma lipids      plasma fasting glucose      impaired fasting glucose      non-diabetes     
Corresponding Authors: Yafeng Li   
Online First Date: 15 July 2014    Issue Date: 18 December 2014
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/10.1007/s11684-014-0346-y     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/Y2014/V8/I4/477
Characteristics Male (n = 1027) Female (n = 2433)
1st (n = 343) 2nd (n = 342) 3rd (n = 342) Ptrend 1st (n = 811) 2nd (n = 811) 3rd (n = 811) Ptrend
Mean±SD
Age 57.3±10.9 57.5±10.6 59.3±11.0 0.013 56.0±10.4 56.4±10.6 55.3±10.9 0.103
SBP (mmHg) 125.0±17.9 124.7±18.9 124.2±19.8 0.847 125.6±20.3 124.9±20.0 121.3±20.1 <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 80.9±9.9 79.8±10.2 78.6±10.6 0.016 78.3±10.4 77.8±10.1 76.2±9.7 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 26.2±3.2 25.4±3.1 23.9±3.3 <0.001 26.1±3.3 25.3±3.4 24.0±3.6 <0.001
WHR 0.93±0.05 0.92±0.05 0.90±0.06 <0.001 0.88±0.06 0.86±0.06 0.84±0.06 <0.001
TC (mmol/L) 4.63±0.82 5.09±0.80 5.26±0.95 <0.001 4.87±0.87 5.28±0.94 5.51±1.02 <0.001
TG (mmol/L) 2.39±1.81 2.03±1.34 1.59±1.56 <0.001 2.37±1.50 1.89±1.22 1.43±1.06 <0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 0.98±0.09 1.21±0.06 1.57±0.24 <0.001 1.10±0.11 1.36±0.07 1.73±0.23 <0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.69±0.61 2.97±0.57 2.89±0.71 <0.001 2.74±0.66 2.98±0.68 2.98±0.76 <0.001
FPG (mmol/L) 5.39±0.54 5.38±0.55 5.34±0.56 0.523 5.41±0.54 5.33±0.53 5.23±0.48 <0.001
n (%)
Smoking status 0.151 0.274
Never 111 (32.4) 137 (40.1) 132 (38.6) 786 (96.9) 798 (98.4) 790 (97.4)
Former 66 (19.2) 59 (17.3) 71 (20.8) 6 (0.7) 4 (0.5) 8 (1.0)
Current 16 6(48.4) 146 (42.7) 139 (40.6) 19 (2.3) 9 (1.1) 13 (1.6)
Drinking status 0.068 0.309
Never 168 (49.0) 186 (54.4) 160 (46.8) 794 (97.9) 799 (98.5) 793 (97.8)
Former 41 (12.0) 32 (9.4) 27 (7.9) 4 (0.5) 5 (0.6) 2 (0.2)
Current 134 (39.1) 124 (36.3/()e) 155 (45.3) 13 (1.6) 7 (0.9) 16 (2.0)
Physical exercise 0.003 0.709
Seldom 137 (39.9) 122 (35.7) 104 (30.4) 296 (36.5) 285 (35.1) 283 (34.9)
Occasional 57 (16.6) 54 (15.8) 39 (11.4) 123 (15.2) 118 (14.5) 136 (16.8)
Always 149 (43.4) 166 (48.5) 199 (58.2) 392 (48.3) 408 (50.3) 392 (48.3)
Education 0.021 0.003
≤Primary education 2 (0.6) 3 (0.9) 6 (1.8) 45 (5.5) 33 (4.1) 31 (3.8)
<Bachelor degree 235 (68.5) 256 (74.9) 265 (77.5) 640 (78.9) 645 (79.5) 602 (74.2)
≥Bachelor degree 106 (30.9) 83 (24.3) 71 (20.8) 126 (15.5) 133 (16.4) 178 (21.9)
IFG 38 (11.1) 38 (11.1) 34 (9.9) 0.853 100 (12.3) 69 (8.5) 45 (5.5) <0.001
Tab.1  Gender-specific baseline characteristics of the 3460 non-diabetic subjects categorized into tertiles by HDL-C level
Male Female
FPG (mmol/L)(Mean±SEM) Ptrend Pairwise comparisons (P) FPG (mmol/L)(Mean±SEM) Ptrend Pairwise comparisons (P)
1st 2nd 1st 2nd
HDL-C
1st T 5.370±0.030 0.961 5.376±0.018 0.001
2nd T 5.375±0.029 0.902 5.324±0.018 0.036
3rd T 5.363±0.030 0.876 0.779 5.276±0.018 <0.001 0.056
LDL-C
1st T 5.355±0.030 0.735 5.287±0.018 0.001
2nd T 5.365±0.029 0.806 5.307±0.018 0.442
3rd T 5.387±0.030 0.444 0.593 5.378±0.018 <0.001 0.004
TC
1st T 5.362±0.029 0.724 5.273±0.018 <0.001
2nd T 5.357±0.029 0.920 5.323±0.018 0.048
3rd T 5.388±0.029 0.523 0.457 5.379±0.018 <0.001 0.026
TG
1st T 5.340±0.030 0.412 5.266±0.018 <0.001
2nd T 5.369±0.029 0.502 5.304±0.018 0.132
3rd T 5.398±0.030 0.183 0.475 5.405±0.018 <0.001 <0.001
Tab.2  Sex-specific adjusted mean of fasting glucose among categories of lipid
women
β t P
Age 0.155 6.576 <0.001
BMI 0.105 4.647 <0.001
WHR 0.093 3.879 <0.001
TC -0.002 -0.038 0.969
TG 0.070 2.537 0.011
HDL-C -0.074 -2.757 0.006
LDL-C 0.119 2.185 0.029
Smoking -0.034 -1.749 0.080
Drinking <0.001 -0.009 0.992
Exercise -0.033 -1.596 0.111
Education -0.016 -0.769 0.442
Tab.3  Independent factors associated with FPG in woman non-diabetes in multivariable linear regression models
Men Women
OR 95%CI OR 95%CI
HDL-C
3rd T 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
2nd T 1.06 0.64–1.76 1.27 0.85–1.89
1st T 0.94 0.56–1.59 1.75 1.20–2.56
Ptrend 0.897 0.012
LDL-C
1st T 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
2nd T 0.89 0.53–1.49 1.10 0.75–1.62
3rd T 1.07 0.66–1.76 1.42 0.98–2.05
Ptrend 0.754 0.133
TC
1st T 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
2nd T 0.74 0.45–1.24 1.03 0.70–1.51
3rd T 0.96 0.60–1.56 1.43 0.99–2.06
Ptrend 0.471 0.079
TG
1st T 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
2nd T 1.16 0.68–1.97 0.98 0.64–1.48
3rd T 1.41 0.83–2.39 1.61 1.09–2.36
Ptrend 0.434 0.005
Tab.4  ORs of IFG according to plasma lipids concentration among men and women
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