Please wait a minute...
Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

Front. Med.    2014, Vol. 8 Issue (3) : 362-367     DOI: 10.1007/s11684-014-0363-x
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
An 84-month observational study of the changes in CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count of 110 HIV/AIDS patients treated with traditional Chinese medicine
Jian Wang1,Biyan Liang1,*(),Xiaoping Zhang1,Liran Xu2,Xin Deng3,Xiuhui Li4,Lu Fang5,Xinghua Tan6,Yuxiang Mao7,Guoliang Zhang8,Yuguang Wang9
1. TCM Center for AIDS Prevention and Treatment, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
2. The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450000, China
3. Ruikang Hospital Affiliated to Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530011, China
4. Beijing You’an Hospital, Beijing 100054, China
5. Yunnan Provinical Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming 650031, China
6. Guangzhou Eighth People’s Hospital, Guangzhou 510060, China
7. Hebei Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050011, China
8. Anhui Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230000, China
9. Beijing Ditan Hospital, Beijing 100015, China
Download: PDF(107 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract  

This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) by observing the changes in CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count of 110 cases with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treated continuously with TCM for 84 months. Information of 110 HIV/AIDS patients from 19 provinces and cities treated with TCM from 2004 to 2013 was collected. Changes in the indexes of CD4 counts (≤200, 201–350, 351–500 and>500 cells/mm3) at five time points (0, 12, 36, 60 and 84 months) and different treatments [TCM and TCM plus antiretroviral therapy (ART)] were compared. Repeated measures test indicated no interaction between group and time (P>0.05). Degrees of increasing and decreasing CD4 count of the two groups at four different frames were statistically significant compared with the baseline. The CD4 count between the two groups was not statistically significant. For CD4 count of≤200 cells/mm3, the mean CD4 count changes were 21 and 28 cells/mm3 per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. For CD4 count of 201–350 cells/mm3, the mean CD4 count changes were 6 and 25 cells/mm3 per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. For CD4 count of 351–500 cells/mm3, the mean CD4 count changes were -13 and -7 cells/mm3 per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. For CD4 count of>500 cells/mm3, the mean CD4 count changes were -34 and -17 cells/mm3 per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. Long-term use of TCM could maintain or slow the pace of declining CD4 counts in patients with HIV/AIDS, and may achieve lasting effectiveness.

Keywords AIDS      HIV      CD4      traditional Chinese medicine      linear models     
Corresponding Authors: Biyan Liang   
Online First Date: 02 September 2014    Issue Date: 09 October 2014
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/10.1007/s11684-014-0363-x     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/Y2014/V8/I3/362
Characteristicn (%)
Gender
Male28 (25.45%)
Female82 (74.55%)
Age, median years41.48±8.13
Marriage
Married103 (93.64%)
Unmarried5 (4.55%)
Divorced1 (0.91%)
Widowed1 (0.91%)
Education
Above college1 (0.91%)
Senior middle school4 (3.64%)
Junior high school62 (56.36%)
Primary school6 (5.45%)
Preschool37 (33.64%)
Profession
Farmer100 (90.91%)
Unemployment8 (7.27%)
Retirement1 (0.91%)
Small private business1 (0.91%)
Route of infection
Paid blood donation92 (83.64%)
Sexual transmission12 (10.91%)
Unknown reasons4 (3.64%)
Intravenous drug2(1.82%)
Had antiretroviral drugs
CD4 of≤200 cells/mm311 (42.31%)
CD4 of 201–350 cells/mm313 (29.55%)
CD4 of 351–500 cells/mm312 (46.15%)
CD4 of>500 cells/mm36 (42.86%)
Tab.1  Demographics of 110 HIV/AIDS patients
Time framexˉ±sMedian
0 month317.56±167.97298
12 months323.89±151.24325.5
36 months373.13±191.97355
60 months341.45±180.06331.5
84 months363.51±179.39343.5
Tab.2  Overall changes in CD4 count at different time frames in 110 HIV/AIDS patients
TimeTime × groupGroup
CD4 countMauchly’s WPFPFPFP
≤200 cells/mm30.4770.05614.1090.0000.1760.9500.2960.591
201–350 cells/mm30.4510.0007.4610.0001.2690.2842.9340.094
351–500 cells/mm30.7110.5722.5630.0432.8370.0281.0350.319
>500 cells/mm30.4340.4715.3600.0010.3750.8250.1000.757
Tab.3  Results of repeated measures test and multivariate ANOVA of general linear model
CD4 count (cells/mm3)Group0 month12 months36 months60 months84 months
≤200A(n = 15)124.67±41.02227.13±154.16299.00±184.83272.60±126.91279.60±148.93
B(n = 11)127.36±52.94244.00±130.99337.27±202.45291.27±184.40325.09±156.39
201–350A(n = 31)284.06±40.16298.81±91.12334.13±143.01332.29±168.93386.42±204.71
B(n = 13)265.69±42.03366.31±197.74427.31±228.36430.77±214.99459.46±194.24
351–500A(n = 14)405.21±38.79319.07±139.02308.79±129.11361.29±139.65299.57±128.94
B(n = 12)399.50±37.10400.75±138.24427.00±159.23318.05±154.32341.5±168.82
>500A(n = 8)641.83±89.78476.17±110.14518.83±244.36348.87±274.50389.17±98.30
B(n = 6)635.38±179.71422.38±171.92553.50±250.21424.75±236.80454.63±197.66
Tab.4  Changes in CD4 count at different time frames of the TCM group and TCM plus ART group
1 National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, China CDC. Work background of AIDS control and prevention in China. 2014. http://www.chinaids.org.cn/jkjy/sjazbr1/rdgz1/201312/t20131201_90825.htm
2 Hogg RS, Heath KV, Yip B, Craib KJ, O’Shaughnessy MV, Schechter MT, Montaner JS. Improved survival among HIV-infected individuals following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. JAMA1998; 279(6): 450-454
doi: 10.1001/jama.279.6.450 pmid: 9466638
3 Mocroft A, Vella S, Benfield TL, Chiesi A, Miller V, Gargalianos P, d’Arminio Monforte A, Yust I, Bruun JN, Phillips AN, Lundgren JD. Changing patterns of mortality across Europe in patients infected with HIV-1. EuroSIDA Study Group. Lancet1998; 352(9142): 1725-1730
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(98)03201-2 pmid: 9848347
4 Palella FJ Jr, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, Loveless MO, Fuhrer J, Satten GA, Aschman DJ, Holmberg SD. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med1998; 338(13): 853-860
doi: 10.1056/NEJM199803263381301 pmid: 9516219
5 Chou R, Huffman LH, Fu R, Smits AK, Korthuis PT; US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for HIV: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med2005; 143(1): 55-73
doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-143-1-200507050-00010 pmid: 15998755
6 Hawkins T. Appearance-related side effects of HIV-1 treatment. AIDS Patient Care STDS2006; 20(1): 6-18
doi: 10.1089/apc.2006.20.6 pmid: 16426151
7 d’Arminio Monforte A, Lepri AC, Rezza G, Pezzotti P, Antinori A, Phillips AN, Angarano G, Colangeli V, De Luca A, Ippolito G, Caggese L, Soscia F, Filice G, Gritti F, Narciso P, Tirelli U, Moroni M. Insights into the reasons for discontinuation of the first highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen in a cohort of antiretroviral na?ve patients. I.CO.N.A. Study Group. Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral-Na?ve Patients. AIDS2000; 14(5): 499-507
doi: 10.1097/00002030-200003310-00005 pmid: 10780712
8 Park IW, Han C, Song X, Green LA, Wang T, Liu Y, Cen C, Song X, Yang B, Chen G, He JJ. Inhibition of HIV-1 entry by extracts derived from traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants. BMC Complement Altern Med2009; 9(1): 29
doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-29 pmid: 19656383
9 Vickers A. Recent advances: complementary medicine. BMJ2000; 321(7262): 683-686
doi: 10.1136/bmj.321.7262.683 pmid: 10987776
10 Liu J. The use of herbal medicines in early drug development for the treatment of HIV infections and AIDS. Expert Opin Investig Drugs2007; 16(9): 1355-1364
doi: 10.1517/13543784.16.9.1355 pmid: 17714022
11 Wang J, Zou W, Liu Y. Use of traditional Chinese medicine in HIV/AIDS in China. J Biomed Sci Eng2010; 3(8): 828-831
doi: 10.4236/jbise.2010.38111
12 Chu CX, Xu YS, Li J, Zhao SP, Li YF. Analysis on first detection of CD4+ T lymphocytes for new HIV-infected persons in Kunming in 2011. Pract Prev Med (Shi Yong Yu Fang Yi Xue)2013; 20(6): 705-707 (in Chinese)
13 Xu LR, Li FZ, He Y, Guo JZ, Wang D. Sixty- month clinical observation of HIV carriers/ AIDS patients treated with Yiaikang capsule in terms of theirs CD4+ T counts and viral loads. Chin J AIDS STD (Zhongguo Ai Zi Bing Xing Bing)2010; 16(3): 231-233 (in Chinese)
14 Wang J, Liu Y, Zou W, Xu LR, Fang L, Wang YG, Zhang GL, Lu JM, Zhou J. Clinical observation of effect of traditional Chinese herbs on CD4 count in 807 people living with HIV/AIDS. Chin J AIDS STD (Zhongguo Ai Zi Bing Xing Bing)2010; 16(3): 208-210 (in Chinese)
15 Wang J, Liang BY, Lu JM, Zhang XP, Xu LR, Deng X, Li XH, Fang L, Tan XH, Mao YX, Zhang GL. A sixty-months study of the change of CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count treated with traditional Chinese medicine in 565 HIV/AIDS patients. Chin J AIDS STD (Zhongguo Ai Zi Bing Xing Bing)2013; 19(7): 468-471 (in Chinese)
16 Ma YC, Qin GM, Zheng GY, Liu L, Zhang LL, Liu G, Mao XY. Study on combined test with two kinds of different format HIV-Ab ELISAs as a substitute for western blot. Chin J STD/AIDS Prev Cont (Zhongguo Xing Bing Ai Zi Bing Fang Zhi)2002; 8(6): 335-336 (in Chinese)
17 AIDS group of Society of Infectious Diseases, CMA. Guidelines for treating AIDS. Chin J Infect Dis (Zhonghua Chuan Ran Bing Za Zhi)2006; 24(2): 137 (in Chinese)
18 Experts Group of Treating HIV/AIDS with TCM of National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China. Clinical Technology Solutions of National Free Treating HIV/AIDS with TCM Program (Trial). Health Office Medical Care Administration File [2005] No. 19 (in Chinese)
19 Finney DJ. Repeated measurements: what is measured and what repeats? Stat Med1990; 9(6): 639-644
doi: 10.1002/sim.4780090610 pmid: 2218167
20 Yu SL, Xiang HY. Analysis of Variance and SAS Program of Repeated Data. Beijing: Science Press, 2004: 12-40 (in Chinese)
21 Liu L, Gao Y. Study on the correlation between traditional Chinese medicine syndrome and short-term prognosis of ischemic stroke using logistic regression model and repeated-measures analysis of variance. J Chin Integr Med (Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao)2012; 10(9): 983-990 (in Chinese)
doi: 10.3736/jcim20120906 pmid: 22979929
22 Qiu H, Jin GQ, Jin RF, Zhao WK. Analysis of variance of repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS. J Chin Integr Med (Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao)2007; 5(1): 101-105 (in Chinese)
doi: 10.3736/jcim20070121 pmid: 17214947
23 Zhao HX, Zhang FJ. Opportunities and challenges of treating HIV/AIDS with TCM plus western medicine. Chin J AIDS STD (Zhongguo Ai Zi Bing Xing Bing)2008; 14(4): 425-427 (in Chinese)
24 Badri M, Ehrlich R, Wood R, Maartens G. Initiating co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients in Africa: an evaluation of the provisional WHO/UNAIDS recommendations. AIDS2001; 15(9): 1143-1148
doi: 10.1097/00002030-200106150-00009 pmid: 11416716
25 Cen YW, Fu LC, Tan XH, Zhang MM, Ma BY. Investigation of TCM syndrome in HIV/AIDS patients of Guangdong. Chin Arch Tradit Chin Med (Zhonghua Zhong Yi Yao Xue Kan)2008; 26(5): 958-961 (in Chinese)
26 Wang J, Liang BY, Yan SY, Lu JM, Xu LR, Wang YG, Fang L, Zhang GL, Li XH, Mao YX, Deng X, Li XD, Wang JW. Clinical observation on 8946 AIDS cases treated by traditional Chinese medicine. J Tradit Chin Med (Zhong Yi Za Zhi)2011; 52(5): 395-398 (in Chinese)
[1] Yunfang Liu,Zhiping Yang,Jing Cheng,Daiming Fan. Barriers and countermeasures in developing traditional Chinese medicine in Europe[J]. Front. Med., 2016, 10(3): 360-376.
[2] Yan Ma,Kehua Zhou,Jing Fan,Shuchen Sun. Traditional Chinese medicine: potential approaches from modern dynamical complexity theories[J]. Front. Med., 2016, 10(1): 28-32.
[3] Yan Ma,Shuchen Sun,Chung-Kang Peng. Applications of dynamical complexity theory in traditional Chinese medicine[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(3): 279-284.
[4] Yixin Zhong,Baoyan Liu,Hua Qu,Qi Xie. Methodological challenges to human medical study[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(3): 328-336.
[5] Li Ma,Baoyan Liu,Qi Xie,Shusong Mao,Zhiwei Cui. Ontological reconstruction of the clinical terminology of traditional Chinese medicine[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(3): 358-361.
[6] Runshun Zhang,Yinghui Wang,Baoyan Liu,Guangli Song,Xuezhong Zhou,Shizhen Fan,Xishui Pan. Clinical data quality problems and countermeasure for real world study[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(3): 352-357.
[7] Xuezhong Zhou,Yubing Li,Yonghong Peng,Jingqing Hu,Runshun Zhang,Liyun He,Yinghui Wang,Lijie Jiang,Shiyan Yan,Peng Li,Qi Xie,Baoyan Liu. Clinical phenotype network: the underlying mechanism for personalized diagnosis and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(3): 337-346.
[8] Junhua Zhang,Boli Zhang. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine in big data era[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(3): 321-327.
[9] Guanli Song,Yinghui Wang,Runshun Zhang,Baoyan Liu,Xuezhong Zhou,Xiaji Zhou,Hong Zhang,Yufeng Guo,Yanxing Xue,Lili Xu. Experience inheritance from famous specialists based on real-world clinical research paradigm of traditional Chinese medicine[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(3): 300-309.
[10] Ping Liu, Songlin Liu, Gang Chen, Ping Wang. Understanding channel tropism in traditional Chinese medicine in the context of systems biology[J]. Front Med, 2013, 7(3): 277-279.
[11] Bingxue Shang, Zhifei Cao, Quansheng Zhou. Progress in tumor vascular normalization for anticancer therapy: challenges and perspectives[J]. Front Med, 2012, 6(1): 67-78.
[12] Miao Jiang, Cheng Xiao, Gao Chen, Cheng Lu, Qinglin Zha, Xiaoping Yan, Weiping Kong, Shijie Xu, Dahong Ju, Pu Xu, Youwen Zou, Aiping Lu. Correlation between cold and hot pattern in traditional Chinese medicine and gene expression profiles in rheumatoid arthritis[J]. Front Med, 2011, 5(2): 219-228.
[13] Changhua Liu, Man Gu. Protecting traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine: concepts and proposals[J]. Front Med, 2011, 5(2): 212-218.
[14] Zhenji Li, Chunbo Xu. The fundamental theory of traditional Chinese medicine and the consideration in its research strategy[J]. Front Med, 2011, 5(2): 208-211.
[15] Huimin Gao, Zhimin Wang, Yujuan Li, Zhongzhi Qian. Overview of the quality standard research of traditional Chinese medicine[J]. Front Med, 2011, 5(2): 195-202.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed