Please wait a minute...
Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

Front. Med.    2014, Vol. 8 Issue (3) : 279-284     DOI: 10.1007/s11684-014-0367-6
REVIEW |
Applications of dynamical complexity theory in traditional Chinese medicine
Yan Ma1,2,Shuchen Sun3,Chung-Kang Peng1,4,*()
1. Division of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Biotechnology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
2. Sleep Center, Eye Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100040, China
3. Department of Otolaryngology, Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, China
4. Center for Dynamical Biomarkers and Translational Medicine, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan, China
Download: PDF(109 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract  

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been gradually accepted by the world. Despite its widespread use in clinical settings, a major challenge in TCM is to study it scientifically. This difficulty arises from the fact that TCM views human body as a complex dynamical system, and focuses on the balance of the human body, both internally and with its external environment. As a result, conventional tools that are based on reductionist approach are not adequate. Methods that can quantify the dynamics of complex integrative systems may bring new insights and utilities about the clinical practice and evaluation of efficacy of TCM. The dynamical complexity theory recently proposed and its computational algorithm, Multiscale Entropy (MSE) analysis, are consistent with TCM concepts. This new system level analysis has been successfully applied to many health and disease related topics in medicine. We believe that there could be many promising applications of this dynamical complexity concept in TCM. In this article, we propose some promising applications and research areas that TCM practitioners and researchers can pursue.

Keywords traditional Chinese medicine      Multiscale Entropy      dynamical complexity      system level      applications     
Corresponding Authors: Chung-Kang Peng   
Online First Date: 09 September 2014    Issue Date: 09 October 2014
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/10.1007/s11684-014-0367-6     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/Y2014/V8/I3/279
1 National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NIH. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction. 2010. Available from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam/chinesemed.htm?lang=en
2 Matuk C. Seeing the body: the divergence of ancient Chinese and western medical illustration. J Biocommun2006; 32(1): 8
3 Xutian S, Zhang J, Louise W. New exploration and understanding of traditional Chinese medicine. Am J Chin Med2009; 37(3): 411–426
doi: 10.1142/S0192415X09006941 pmid: 19606504
4 Kaptchuk T. The Web That Has No Weaver: understanding Chinese medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000
5 Jordan JB, Tu X. Advances in heroin addiction treatment with traditional Chinese medicine: a systematic review of recent Chinese language journals. Am J Chin Med2008; 36(3): 437–447
doi: 10.1142/S0192415X08005886 pmid: 18543379
6 Zhang NL, Yuan S, Chen T, Wang Y. Statistical validation of traditional chinese medicine theories. J Altern Complement Med2008; 14(5): 583–587
doi: 10.1089/acm.2007.7019 pmid: 18554082
7 Costa M, Goldberger AL, Peng CK. Multiscale entropy analysis of complex physiologic time series. Phys Rev Lett2002; 89(6): 068102
doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.068102 pmid: 12190613
8 Costa M, Goldberger AL, Peng CK. Multiscale entropy analysis of biological signals. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys2005; 71(2 Pt 1): 021906
doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.71.021906 pmid: 15783351
9 Peng CK, Costa M, Goldberger AL. Adaptive data analysis of complex fluctuations in physiologic time series. Adv Adapt Data Anal2009; 1(1): 61–70
doi: 10.1142/S1793536909000035 pmid: 20041035
10 Nyquist H. Thermal agitation of electric charge in conductors. Phys Rev1928; 21: 4
11 Wayne PM, Manor B, Novak V, Costa MD, Hausdorff JM, Goldberger AL, Ahn AC, Yeh GY, Peng CK, Lough M, Davis RB, Quilty MT, Lipsitz LA. A systems biology approach to studying Tai Chi, physiological complexity and healthy aging: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Contemp Clin Trials2013; 34(1): 21–34
doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2012.09.006 pmid: 23026349
12 Bari V, Valencia JF, Vallverdu M, Girardengo G, Bassani T, Marchi A, Calvillo L, Caminal P, Cerutti S, Brink PA, Crotti L, Schwartz PJ, Porta A. Refined multiscale entropy analysis of heart period and QT interval variabilities in long QT syndrome type-1 patients. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc2013; 2013: 5554–5557
pmid: 24110995
13 Wu HT, Hsu PC, Lin CF, Wang HJ, Sun CK, Liu AB, Lo MT, Tang CJ. Multiscale entropy analysis of pulse wave velocity for assessing atherosclerosis in the aged and diabetic. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng2011; 58(10): 2978–2981
doi: 10.1109/TBME.2011.2159975 pmid: 21693413
14 Ho YL, Lin C, Lin YH, Lo MT. The prognostic value of non-linear analysis of heart rate variability in patients with congestive heart failure—a pilot study of multiscale entropy. PLoS ONE2011; 6(4): e18699
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018699 pmid: 21533258
15 Baumert M, Javorka M, Seeck A, Faber R, Sanders P, Voss A. Multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis of QT interval and heart rate variability during normal pregnancy. Comput Biol Med2012; 42(3): 347–352
doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2011.03.019 pmid: 21530956
16 Turianikova Z, Javorka K, Baumert M, Calkovska A, Javorka M. The effect of orthostatic stress on multiscale entropy of heart rate and blood pressure. Physiol Meas2011; 32(9): 1425–1437
doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/32/9/006 pmid: 21799239
17 Trunkvalterova Z, Javorka M, Tonhajzerova I, Javorkova J, Lazarova Z, Javorka K, Baumert M. Reduced short-term complexity of heart rate and blood pressure dynamics in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1: multiscale entropy analysis. Physiol Meas2008; 29(7): 817–828
doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/29/7/010 pmid: 18583725
18 Papaioannou VE, Chouvarda I, Maglaveras N, Dragoumanis C, Pneumatikos I. Changes of heart and respiratory rate dynamics during weaning from mechanical ventilation: a study of physiologic complexity in surgical critically ill patients. J Crit Care2011; 26(3): 262–272
doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2010.07.010 pmid: 20869842
19 Bell IR, Howerter A, Jackson N, Aickin M, Bootzin RR, Brooks AJ. Nonlinear dynamical systems effects of homeopathic remedies on multiscale entropy and correlation dimension of slow wave sleep EEG in young adults with histories of coffee-induced insomnia. Homeopathy2012; 101(3): 182–192
doi: 10.1016/j.homp.2012.05.007 pmid: 22818237
20 Catarino A, Churches O, Baron-Cohen S, Andrade A, Ring H. Atypical EEG complexity in autism spectrum conditions: a multiscale entropy analysis. Clin Neurophysiol2011; 122(12): 2375–2383
doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2011.05.004 pmid: 21641861
21 Mizuno T, Takahashi T, Cho RY, Kikuchi M, Murata T, Takahashi K, Wada Y. Assessment of EEG dynamical complexity in Alzheimer’s disease using multiscale entropy. Clin Neurophysiol2010; 121(9): 1438–1446
doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2010.03.025 pmid: 20400371
22 Takahashi T, Cho RY, Mizuno T, Kikuchi M, Murata T, Takahashi K, Wada Y. Antipsychotics reverse abnormal EEG complexity in drug-naive schizophrenia: a multiscale entropy analysis. Neuroimage2010; 51(1): 173–182
doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.02.009 pmid: 20149880
23 Takahashi T, Cho RY, Murata T, Mizuno T, Kikuchi M, Mizukami K, Kosaka H, Takahashi K, Wada Y. Age-related variation in EEG complexity to photic stimulation: a multiscale entropy analysis. Clin Neurophysiol2009; 120(3): 476–483
doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2008.12.043 pmid: 19231279
24 Heisz J J, McIntosh AR. Applications of EEG neuroimaging data: event-related potentials, spectral power, and multiscale entropy. J Vis Exp2013; (76): e50131
doi: 10.3791/50131
25 Papaioannou VE, Chouvarda IG, Maglaveras NK, Baltopoulos GI, Pneumatikos IA. Temperature multiscale entropy analysis: a promising marker for early prediction of mortality in septic patients. Physiol Meas2013; 34(11): 1449–1466
doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/34/11/1449 pmid: 24149496
26 Papaioannou VE, Chouvarda IG, Maglaveras NK, Pneumatikos IA. Temperature variability analysis using wavelets and multiscale entropy in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, and septic shock. Crit Care2012; 16(2): R51
doi: 10.1186/cc11255 pmid: 22424316
27 Isteni?, R, Kaplanis PA, Pattichis CS, Zazula D. Multiscale entropy-based approach to automated surface EMG classification of neuromuscular disorders. Med Biol Eng Comput2010; 48(8): 773–78120490940
doi: 10.1007/s11517-010-0629-7
28 Zhang X, Chen X, Barkhaus PE, Zhou P. Multiscale entropy analysis of different spontaneous motor unit discharge patterns. IEEE J Biomed Health Inform2013; 17(2): 470–476
doi: 10.1109/JBHI.2013.2241071 pmid: 24235117
29 Huang CW, Sue PD, Abbod MF, Jiang BC, Shieh JS. Measuring center of pressure signals to quantify human balance using multivariate multiscale entropy by designing a force platform. Sensors (Basel)2013; 13(8): 10151–10166
doi: 10.3390/s130810151 pmid: 23966184
30 Fernandez JW, Shim VB, Hunter PJ. Integrating degenerative mechanisms in bone and cartilage: a multiscale approach. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc2012; 2012: 6616–6619
pmid: 23367446
31 Khandoker AH, Karmakar CK, Begg RK, Palaniswami M. Wavelet-based multiscale analysis of minimum toe clearance variability in the young and elderly during walking. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc2007; 2007: 1558–1561
doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.2007.4352601 pmid: 18002267
32 Gruber AH, Busa MA, Gorton III GE, Van Emmerik RE, Masso PD, Hamill J. Time-to-contact and multiscale entropy identify differences in postural control in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Gait Posture2011; 34(1): 13–18
doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.02.015 pmid: 21478018
33 Yang AC, Tsai SJ. Is mental illness complex? From behavior to brain. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry2013; 45: 253–257
doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2012.09.015 pmid: 23089053
34 Yang AC, Tsai SJ. Complexity of mental illness: a new research dimension. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry2013; 45: 251–252
doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.01.018 pmid: 23380171
35 Takahashi T. Complexity of spontaneous brain activity in mental disorders. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry2013; 45: 258–266
doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2012.05.001 pmid: 22579532
36 Wu HT, Lo MT, Chen GH, Sun CK, Chen JJ. Novel application of a multiscale entropy index as a sensitive tool for detecting subtle vascular abnormalities in the aged and diabetic. Comput Math Methods Med2013; 2013: 645702
doi: 10.1155/2013/645702 pmid: 23509600
37 Viceconti M, Taddei F, Van Sint Jan S, Leardini A, Cristofolini L, Stea S, Baruffaldi F, Baleani M. Multiscale modelling of the skeleton for the prediction of the risk of fracture. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon)2008; 23(7): 845–852
doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2008.01.009 pmid: 18304710
38 Liang WK, Lo MT, Yang AC, Peng CK, Cheng SK, Tseng P, Juan CH. Revealing the brain’s adaptability and the transcranial direct current stimulation facilitating effect in inhibitory control by multiscale entropy. Neuroimage2014; 90: 218–234
doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.12.048 pmid: 24389016
39 Kang HG, Costa MD, Priplata AA, Starobinets OV, Goldberger AL, Peng CK, Kiely DK, Cupples LA, Lipsitz LA. Frailty and the degradation of complex balance dynamics during a dual-task protocol. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci2009; 64(12): 1304–1311
doi: 10.1093/gerona/glp113 pmid: 19679739
40 Lu A, Jiang M, Zhang C, Chan K. An integrative approach of linking traditional Chinese medicine pattern classification and biomedicine diagnosis. J Ethnopharmacol2012; 141(2): 549–556
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.08.045 pmid: 21896324
41 Jiang M, Lu C, Zhang C, Yang J, Tan Y, Lu A, Chan K. Syndrome differentiation in modern research of traditional Chinese medicine. J Ethnopharmacol2012; 140(3): 634–642
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.033 pmid: 22322251
42 Wang JH. Traditional Chinese medicine and the positive correlation with homeostatic evolution of human being: based on medical perspective. Chin J Integr Med2012; 18(8): 629–634
doi: 10.1007/s11655-012-1170-3 pmid: 22855040
43 Fan XJ, Yu H, Ren J. Homeostasis and compensatory homeostasis: bridging western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. Curr Cardiol Rev2011; 7(1): 43–46
doi: 10.2174/157340311795677671 pmid: 22294974
44 Roberti di Sarsina P, Alivia M, Guadagni P. Traditional, complementary and alternative medical systems and their contribution to personalisation, prediction and prevention in medicine-person-centred medicine. EPMA J2012; 3(1): 15
doi: 10.1186/1878-5085-3-15 pmid: 23126628
45 Yang HJ, Shen D, Xu HY, Lu P. A new strategy in drug design of Chinese medicine: theory, method and techniques. Chin J Integr Med2012; 18(11): 803–806
doi: 10.1007/s11655-012-1270-x pmid: 23086484
46 Wang M, Lamers RJ, Korthout HA, van Nesselrooij JH, Witkamp RF, van der Heijden R, Voshol PJ, Havekes LM, Verpoorte R, van der Greef J. Metabolomics in the context of systems biology: bridging traditional Chinese medicine and molecular pharmacology. Phytother Res2005; 19(3): 173–182
doi: 10.1002/ptr.1624 pmid: 15934013
[1] Yunfang Liu,Zhiping Yang,Jing Cheng,Daiming Fan. Barriers and countermeasures in developing traditional Chinese medicine in Europe[J]. Front. Med., 2016, 10(3): 360-376.
[2] Yan Ma,Kehua Zhou,Jing Fan,Shuchen Sun. Traditional Chinese medicine: potential approaches from modern dynamical complexity theories[J]. Front. Med., 2016, 10(1): 28-32.
[3] Jian Wang,Biyan Liang,Xiaoping Zhang,Liran Xu,Xin Deng,Xiuhui Li,Lu Fang,Xinghua Tan,Yuxiang Mao,Guoliang Zhang,Yuguang Wang. An 84-month observational study of the changes in CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count of 110 HIV/AIDS patients treated with traditional Chinese medicine[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(3): 362-367.
[4] Yixin Zhong,Baoyan Liu,Hua Qu,Qi Xie. Methodological challenges to human medical study[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(3): 328-336.
[5] Li Ma,Baoyan Liu,Qi Xie,Shusong Mao,Zhiwei Cui. Ontological reconstruction of the clinical terminology of traditional Chinese medicine[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(3): 358-361.
[6] Runshun Zhang,Yinghui Wang,Baoyan Liu,Guangli Song,Xuezhong Zhou,Shizhen Fan,Xishui Pan. Clinical data quality problems and countermeasure for real world study[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(3): 352-357.
[7] Xuezhong Zhou,Yubing Li,Yonghong Peng,Jingqing Hu,Runshun Zhang,Liyun He,Yinghui Wang,Lijie Jiang,Shiyan Yan,Peng Li,Qi Xie,Baoyan Liu. Clinical phenotype network: the underlying mechanism for personalized diagnosis and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(3): 337-346.
[8] Junhua Zhang,Boli Zhang. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine in big data era[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(3): 321-327.
[9] Guanli Song,Yinghui Wang,Runshun Zhang,Baoyan Liu,Xuezhong Zhou,Xiaji Zhou,Hong Zhang,Yufeng Guo,Yanxing Xue,Lili Xu. Experience inheritance from famous specialists based on real-world clinical research paradigm of traditional Chinese medicine[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(3): 300-309.
[10] Ping Liu, Songlin Liu, Gang Chen, Ping Wang. Understanding channel tropism in traditional Chinese medicine in the context of systems biology[J]. Front Med, 2013, 7(3): 277-279.
[11] Bingxue Shang, Zhifei Cao, Quansheng Zhou. Progress in tumor vascular normalization for anticancer therapy: challenges and perspectives[J]. Front Med, 2012, 6(1): 67-78.
[12] Miao Jiang, Cheng Xiao, Gao Chen, Cheng Lu, Qinglin Zha, Xiaoping Yan, Weiping Kong, Shijie Xu, Dahong Ju, Pu Xu, Youwen Zou, Aiping Lu. Correlation between cold and hot pattern in traditional Chinese medicine and gene expression profiles in rheumatoid arthritis[J]. Front Med, 2011, 5(2): 219-228.
[13] Changhua Liu, Man Gu. Protecting traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine: concepts and proposals[J]. Front Med, 2011, 5(2): 212-218.
[14] Zhenji Li, Chunbo Xu. The fundamental theory of traditional Chinese medicine and the consideration in its research strategy[J]. Front Med, 2011, 5(2): 208-211.
[15] Huimin Gao, Zhimin Wang, Yujuan Li, Zhongzhi Qian. Overview of the quality standard research of traditional Chinese medicine[J]. Front Med, 2011, 5(2): 195-202.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed