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Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

Front. Med.    2015, Vol. 9 Issue (1) : 100-107     DOI: 10.1007/s11684-014-0372-9
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Prevalence and determinations of physical inactivity among public hospital employees in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study
Xinjian Li1,*(),Minna Cheng1,Hao Zhang2,Ting Ke2,Yisheng Chen1
1. Department of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention of Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China
2. Shanghai Trade Union for Hospital Employees, Shanghai 200040, China
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Abstract  

This study aims to explore the prevalence and determinations of physical inactivity among hospital employees in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional study of 4612 employees aged 19 to 68 years was conducted through stratified cluster sampling from different classes of Shanghai hospitals in 2011. The total physical activity was evaluated using the metabolic equivalent according to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Among the participants, 38.5%, 32.3%, and 64.6% of the employees are inactive at work, commuting, and taking leisure time, respectively. Up to 41.8% of the men and 37.8% of the women (P = 0.012) are physically inactive. When the age and educational level are adjusted, male doctors and medical technicians show a higher percentage of physical inactivity than male workers in logistics (P = 0.001). Among females, employees who are working in second- and third-class hospitals show a higher proportion of physical inactivity than those who are working in community health care centers. Logistic regression analyses show that the odds ratios (ORs) of leisure-time physical inactivity associated with the intensity of physical activity at work are 2.259, 2.897, and 4.266 for men (P<0.001) and 2.456, 3.259, and 3.587 for women (P<0.001), respectively. The time during commuting activities is significantly associated with leisure-time physical inactivity in either sex (OR= 2.116 for men and 2.173 for women, P<0.001). Hospital employees, particularly doctors and medical technicians, show a higher proportion of physical inactivity than other inhabitants in Shanghai. The time and intensity of activity at work and commuting are associated with leisure-time activities.

Keywords prevalence      determination, employee      public hospital      cross-sectional study      physical inactivity     
Corresponding Authors: Xinjian Li   
Just Accepted Date: 24 October 2014   Online First Date: 11 December 2014    Issue Date: 02 March 2015
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/10.1007/s11684-014-0372-9     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/Y2015/V9/I1/100
Characteristic Men, n (%) Women, n (%)
(total number 1203) (total number 3409)
Age (year)
<30 303 (25.2) 1346 (39.5)
30-39 421 (35.0) 1227 (36.0)
40-49 234 (19.5) 614 (18.0)
50-69 245 (20.4) 222 (6.5)
Educational level
High school and the following 194 (16.1) 786 (23.1)
College 206 (17.1) 1392 (40.8)
Undergraduate 527 (43.8) 911 (26.7)
Graduate 276 (22.9) 320 (9.4)
Occupation
Doctor 715 (59.4) 707 (20.7)
Nurse - 2031 (59.6)
Manager 91 (7.6) 196 (5.7)
Worker in logistics 152 (12.6) 70 (2.1)
Medical technician 245 (20.4) 405 (11.9)
Grade of working hospital
Third class 560 (46.6) 1746 (51.2)
Second class 543 (45.1) 1400 (41.1)
CHCC 100 (8.3) 263 (7.7)
Tab.1  Demographic characteristics of participants
Men Women Both
n % (95% CI) n % (95% CI) n % (95% CI)
Inactive at work 510 42.4 (39.6-45.2) 1264 37.1 (35.5-38.7) 1774 38.5 (37.1-39.9)
Inactive at commuting 432 35.9 (33.2-38.6) 1059 31.1 (29.5-32.6) 1491 32.3 (31.0-33.7)
Inactive at leisure time 640 53.2 (50.4-56.1) 2338 68.6 (67.0-70.1) 2978 64.6 (63.2-66.0)
Tab.2  Distribution of participants classified as doing no work, commuting, and leisure-time physical inactivity by sex and overall
Men Women
n % (95% CI) n % (95% CI)
Total 511 41.8 (39.0-44.6) 1287 37.8 (36.1-39.4)
Age group (year)
<30 114 36.0 (30.5-41.4) 541 40.2 (37.6-42.8)
30-39 212 49.6 (44.9-54.4) 465 37.9 (35.2-40.6)
40-49 96 41.0 (34.7-47.4) 213 34.7 (30.9-38.5)
50-59 89 36.3 (30.3-42.4) 68 30.6 (24.5-36.7)
c2 = 18.805, P<0.001 c2 = 10.664, P = 0.014
Education
High school and the following 60 30.4 (23.9-36.9) 270 34.4 (31.0-37.7)
College 86 39.8 (33.1-46.6) 534 38.4 (35.8-40.9)
Undergraduate 224 42.1 (37.9-46.4) 361 39.6 (36.4-42.8)
Graduate 141 50.7 (44.8-56.7) 122 38.1 (32.8-43.5)
c2 = 20.085, P<0.001 c2 = 5.470, P = 0.140
Occupation
Doctor 327 45.7 (42.1-49.4) 276 39.0 (35.4-42.6)
Nurse 0 - 762 37.5 (35.4-39.6)
Manager 38 41.8 (31.4-52.1) 73 37.2 (30.4-44.1)
Worker in logistics 40 26.3 (19.2-33.4) 25 35.7 (24.2-47.2)
Medical technician 98 40.0 (33.8-46.2) 151 37.3 (32.6-42.0)
c2 = 19.854, P = 0.001 c2 = 0.728, P = 0.948
Hospital grade
Third class 255 44.6 (40.5-48.8) 702 40.2 (37.9-42.5)
Second class 218 39.6 (35.5-43.7) 513 36.6 (34.1-39.2)
CHCC 38 38.0 (28.3-47.7) 72 27.4 (22.0-32.8)
c2 = 2.826, P = 0.243 c2 = 17.256, P<0.001
Tab.3  Proportion of participants with total physical inactivity by age, sex, education, occupation, and hospital grade
Men Women
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Age group (year)
<30 Ref. Ref.
30-39 1.666 1.225-2.266 0.874 0.740-1.032
40-49 1.208 0.840-1.737 0.775 0.631-0.952
50-59 1.346 0.882-2.054 0.695 0.502-0.960
Education
High school and the following Ref. Ref.
College 1.241 0.764-2.017 1.112 0.919-1.345
Undergraduate 1.187 0.705-1.998 1.122 0.885-1.422
Graduate 1.462 0.804-2.659 0.876 0.610-1.259
Occupation
Doctor 1.949 1.182-3.213 1.207 0.700-2.080
Nurse - - 0.968 0.584-1.604
Manager 1.759 0.951-3.253 1.002 0.561-1.791
Worker in logistics Ref. Ref.
Medical technician 1.663 1.016-2.721 1.029 0.601-1.763
Hospital grade
Third class 1.196 0.741-1.931 1.790 1.324-2.421
Second class 1.063 0.671-1.685 1.487 1.100-2.010
CHCC Ref. Ref.
Tab.4  Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for total physical inactivity
Crude OR Adjusted OR
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Men
Activity at work
Low or inactivity Ref. Ref
Only moderate intensity 2.588 1.949-3.436 2.259 1.675-3.045
Only vigorous intensity 2.910 1.516-5.586 2.897 1.482-5.666
Moderate and vigorous intensity 4.453 3.217-6.162 4.266 3.015-6.037
Travel to and from workplaces
<10 min continuously Ref.
≥10 min continuously 2.645 2.005-3.488 2.116 1.572-2.848
Women
Activity at work
Low or inactivity Ref. Ref.
Only moderate intensity 2.668 2.187-3.254 2.456 1.999-3.017
Only vigorous intensity 3.241 1.919-5.474 3.259 1.910-5.561
Moderate and vigorous intensity 3.791 2.960-4.855 3.587 2.778-4.631
Travel to and from workplaces
<10 min continuously Ref. Ref.
≥10 min continuously 2.647 2.162-3.241 2.173 1.763-2.680
Tab.5  ORs and 95% CI for inactivity during leisure-time based on occupation and commuting physical activity categories by sex
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