Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

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Liver surgery and transplantation in China: Progress and Challenges
LAU W Y, LAI E C H
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 1-5.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0001-y

Abstract   PDF (264KB)
From the limited but available information, we traced the history of developments of liver surgery and transplantation in China. Liver surgery first started in the late 1950s in China, and it soon flourished mainly because of the great demand in liver surgery and the emergence of a number of giants in liver surgery. We recognized and honoured the important contributions of these Chinese pioneers in portal hypertension, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation.
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The stem cell and tissue engineering research in Chinese ophthalmology
GE Jian, LIU Jingbo
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 6-10.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0002-x

Abstract   PDF (246KB)
Much has been considerably developed recently in the ophthalmic research of stem cell (SC) and tissue engineering (TE). They have become closer to the clinical practice, standardized and observable. Leading edge research of SC and TE on the ocular surface reconstruction, neuroregeneration and protection, and natural animal model has become increasingly available. However, challenges remain on the way, especially on the aspects of function reconstruction and specific differentiation. This paper reviews the new developments in this area with an intention of identifying research priorities for the future.
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Developing effective tumor vaccines: basis, challenges and perspectives
XU Qingwen, CHEN Weifeng
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 11-19.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0003-9

Abstract   PDF (291KB)
A remarkable advance in tumor immunology during the last decade is the elucidation of the antigenic basis of tumor recognition and destruction. A variety of tumor antigens have been identified using several strategies including conventional experiments and newly developed bioinformatics. Among these antigens, cancer/testis antigen (CT antigen) is considered to be the most promising target for immunotherapy by vaccination. Successful immunotherapy of tumors requires understanding of the natural relationship between the immune system and tumor in the status of differentiation, invasion and maturation. Continued progress in development of effective cancer vaccines depends on the identification of appropriate target antigens, the establishment of optimal immunization strategies without harmful autoimmune responses and the ability of manipulating tumor microenvironment to circumvent immune suppression and to augment the anti-tumor immune response.
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Surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with cirrhotic esophageal varices and hypersplenism: a 184 case report
JIANG Bin, CHEN Xiaoping, HUANG Zhiyong, ZHANG Zhiwei, HE Songqing, WANG Shaofa, WU Zaide, QIU Fazu
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 24-29.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0005-7

Abstract   PDF (371KB)
In treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with advanced cirrhosis, one of the most difficult problems is concomitant esophageal varices and hypersplenism. Whether these conditions should be treated surgically in association with HCC resection is still in debate. To elucidate whether esophageal devascularization or splenectomy is beneficial when simultaneously performed with liver resection in HCC patients with both varices and hypersplenism, HCC patients (n = 184) with esophageal varices and hypersplenism received one of the three treatments: simultaneous liver resection and esophageal devascularization (Group I, n = 41); simultaneous liver resection and splenectomy (Group II, n = 61); liver resection only (Group III, n = 82). The incidences of postoperative complications of the three groups were 31.7%, 29.5% and 24.4%, respectively, with no significant difference among them. The 5-year tumor-free survival rates for the group I, group II and group III were 34.1%, 36.1% and 37.8%, respectively. Variceal bleeding caused death by only 4.2% in group I, but by 14.3% in group II and 23.2% in group III. The survival rates in the group I and the group II were comparable to those in the group III, however, the recurrences of postoperative fatal variceal bleeding in group I and group II were significantly lower than those in group III. The results suggest that HCC patients with esophageal varices and hypersplenism should undergo hepatic resection plus esophageal devascularization or splenectomy if radical resection of HCC can be expected.
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Splenic autotransplantation and oesophageal transection anastomosis in patients with portal hypertension (26 years clinical observation)
CHEN Jisheng, HUO Jinshan, ZHANG Hongwei, SHANG Changzhen, CHEN Rufu, ZHANG Jie, Obetien Mapudengo, CHEN Yajin, ZHANG Lei
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 30-35.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0006-6

Abstract   PDF (395KB)
The surgical treatment methods for cirrhosis patients complicated with portal hypertension are complicated. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a new treatment strategy: splenic auto-transplantation and oesophageal transection anastomosis on 274 patients from three aspects: clinical observation, splenic immunology and portal dynamics. From 1979 to 2005, 274 cirrhosis patients with portal hypertension who underwent the new treatment strategy were followed up to observe different clinical indexes, which were then compared with those of the traditional surgery treatment. From 1999 to 2002, a randomized control trial (RCT) was performed on 40 patients to compare their immune function after operation. From 1994 to 2004, another RCT was carried out on 28 patients to compare the portal dynamics through three-dimensional dynamic contrast enhanced MR angiography (3D DEC MRA) investigation after operation. Among 274 patients (mean age 41.8 years), the emergency operative mortality (4.4%), selective operative mortality (2.2%), complication rate (17.9%), morbidity of hepatic encephalopathy (<1%), bleeding rate of portal hypertension gastritis (PHG) (9.1%), and morbidity of hepatic carcinoma (8%) were similar to those under traditional operation; the spleen immunology function (Tuftsin, IgM) decreased among the groups 2 months after operation. Through 3D DCE MRA, the cross section area, the velocity and volume of blood flow of main portal vein decrease significantly after operation in both groups, the auto transplantation group was significantly lower in velocity and volume of blood flow than in the control group. Splenic auto transplantation and esophageal transection anastomosis are a safe, effective, and reasonable treatment strategy for portal hypertension with varicial bleeding. It can not only correct hypersplenism but also completely stanch blood, and auto transplanted spleen in the retroperitoneal space can preserve immune function and establish abroad collateral circulation.
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Alleviation of cell damage in experimental ANP in rats by administration of chondroitin-sulfate reduces
HE Zhongye, GUO Renxuan, LI Yang, XIE Chengyao, LIU Nan, SONG Wen
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 36-40.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0007-5

Abstract   PDF (385KB)
In order to explore the effects of retrograde infusion of chondroitin-sulfate via the pancreatic duct on cytoprotection and attenuation of oxidative damage during acute necrotic pancreatitis (ANP), male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: A, B (experimental groups) and C (sham operation, control group). The rats in group A was subjected to retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate via the pancreatic duct, and those in group B received chondroitin-sulfate therapy after ANP induction. All rats in three groups were killed at 6 h. The levels of malondialdehyde (MAD), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and serum amylase (SAM) were measured. The morphologic changes in pancreatic tissues were observed. It was found that the level of SAM was increased in group A and group B, with corresponding pathological changes of ANP. The levels of ATP, GSH and SOD in group A were decreased markedly and MDN increased significantly as compared with those in group B (P<0.01). In group B, the histopathologic damage was attenuated to a certain extent in comparison to that in group A. It was concluded that endogenous antioxidants were significantly reduced and lipid peroxidation increased during ANP. Retrograde infusion of chondroitin-sulfate via pancreatic duct could alleviate the pancreatic cell damage as a sort of scavengers of oxygen free radicals.
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Immunotherapeutic effects on murine pancreatic carcinoma by β-elemene combined with dendritic cells modified with genes encoding interleukin-23
TAN Guang, WANG Zhongyu, CHE Luanqing, YIN Shuo
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 41-45.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0008-4

Abstract   PDF (400KB)
The dendritic cell vaccine is a treatment vaccine with potent clinical applications. Functional cytokines can enhance dendritic cell anti-tumor immune responses. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of bone marrow-deriv
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Effect of end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture in pancreatic surgery
ZHANG Xuewen, XUAN Wei, JIANG Tao, JI Degang, YANG Yongsheng, ZHANG Dan, XIE Yingjun, MENG Zihui, ZHAO Jisheng
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 46-48.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0009-3

Abstract   PDF (370KB)
The aim of this paper is to summarize the methods of pancreaticojejunostomy in the pancreatic operation and to study the safety and feasibility of a new operative method called end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture to prevent fistula of pancreaticojejunostomy. Eight-three patients with pancreaticoduodenectomy in the 3rd Hospital, Jilin University from 2001 January to 2006 April were reviewed. The incidences of pancreatic fistula with different types of pancreaticojejunostomy were compared. The overall incidence rate of pancreatic fistula was 26.5% (22/83). No pancreatic fistula occurred in end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture. The incidence rate of the fistula following end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture was significantly lower than that of traditional end-to-end pancreaticojejunostomy [40%, (10/25), P<0.01] and end-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy [27.3%, (12/44), P<0.05], but no significant difference (P>0.05) between traditional end-to-end pancreaticojejunostomy and end-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy was discovered. End-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture has a definite effect on avoiding pancreatic fistula following pancreaticojejunostomy and is worth being recommended. But the cases were limited, so this method would still need to be observed and confirmed further in the future.
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Construction of 6HRE-GFAP-Baxα system specific for glioma gene therapy
TIAN Yongji, LI Guilin, GAO Jun, WANG Renzhi, KONG Yanguo, ZHANG Zhenxing, LI Shifang, TIAN Shiqiang, DOU Wanchen, ZHANG Bo
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 49-53.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0010-x

Abstract   PDF (341KB)
The aim of this paper is to construct a specific and high-performance gene therapy system for glioma. We constructed a combined promoter 6HRE-GFAP (Hypoxia Responsive Element, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein) by gene recombination techniques according to the hypoxia microenvironment in glioma and tested its efficacy and specificity in cultured cells, and then constructed GFAP-Baxα gene expressing system and determined its promoting of apoptosis in glioma cells. Our primary results showed that in U251 and BT325 cell lines, the activity of GFAP promoter was 16.40 and 4.73-fold of the promoter of hTERT (Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase), respectively. The activities of 6HRE-GFAP-promoter increased by 3.08 and 1.30-fold under 2% O2 condition compared with those under 18% O2 condition, while under 0.2% O2 condition increased by 8.90 and 2.69-fold, respectively. The glioma cells showed typical apoptotic signs 90 hours after the transient transfection of GFAP-Baxα. In these primary experiments, it showed that 6HRE-GFAPBaxα system could promote glioma cell apoptosis. It was specific and effective for glioma gene therapy.
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Measurement of bone alkaline phosphatase and relative study with osteosarcoma
YANG Zhiping, LI Jianmin, LI Xin, HUO Yanqing, SUN Guangzhi
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 54-57.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0011-9

Abstract   PDF (314KB)
The objective of this paper is to explore the value of bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) for diagnosing osteosarcoma, evaluating the effect of the chemotherapy, judging the prognosis and supervising the relapse and metastasis. The immunoassay was used to check the BALP of the blood serum that was from 42 primary osteosarcoma patients. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in blood serum was checked with auto biochemistry equipment. The biopsy tissue and the lesion resected in operation were treated with pathology and histological response was counted. The patients were followed up from five months to 49 months with an average of 24.3 months. Eighteen cases relapsed and transferred, among which, 16 of them were dead, and others were survival to the end of the follow-up. BALP was more sensitive than ALP in diagnosing osteosarcoma (P = 0.015). Fifteen cases decreased to normal value in ALP after preoperative chemotherapy, and 34 cases decreased in BALP. Both ALP and BALP in all cases decreased to normal value in postoperative. There was significant difference in positive correlation between the decrease of BALP and the increase of histological response (P = 0.001, r = 0.642). In the followup, there was significant difference in BALP between the group of relapse and transfer and the group of free disease survival (P = 0.000). As a check marker in blood serum, BALP, reflecting the process of ossification, has a higher sensitivity than ALP. It has applied value in the diagnosis of osteosarcoma, reflection of the effect of chemotherapy and forecast the prognosis.
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Clinical analysis of 275 cases of acute drug-induced liver disease
LI Lei, JIANG Wei, WANG Jiyao
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 58-61.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0012-8

Abstract   PDF (330KB)
In order to analyze the causative drugs, clinical manifestation and pathological characteristics of the patients with acute drug-induced liver disease, from January 2000 to December 2005, 275 cases diagnosed as acute drug-induced liver diseases according to Maria Criterion and hospitalized in Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University were retrospectively reviewed. Each was determined by drug history, clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory tests and therapeutic effects. In 41 cases, the diagnosis was confirmed by liver biopsy. The proportion of acute drug-induced liver disease among all of the acute liver injuries was annually increased. The most common drugs which induced acute liver injuries were traditional Chinese herb medicine (23.3%, 64/275 cases), antineoplastics (15.3%, 42/275), hormones and other immunosuppressant agents (13.8%, 38/275), antihypertensive drugs and other cardiovascular drugs (10.2%, 28/275), NSAIDs (8.7%, 24/275) respectively. Hepatocellular injury was the predominant type in these cases (132 cases, 48%). The principal clinical manifestation included nausea (54.8%), fatigue (50.2%), jaundice (35.6%). 27.9% patients were asymptomatic. Most patients were cured with good prognosis. The total effective rate was 94.2% after treatment. The clinicians should pay attention to the prevention, diagnosis and therapy of drug-induced liver disease.
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Evaluation of the effect of myocardial perfusion after percutaneous coronary intervention in coronary artery disease by using intracoronary myocardial contrast echocardiography and two other angiographic techniques
WANG Hong, HUANG Lan, JIN Jun, SONG Yaoming, GENG Zhaohua, YU Xuejun, QIN Jun, ZHAO Gang, GAO Yunhua, LIU Zheng
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 62-67.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0013-7

Abstract   PDF (279KB)
Detection of abnormal myocardial perfusion is crucial to the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after they have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of myocardial perfusion by three different methods intra-coronary myocardial contrast echocardiography (ICMCE), corrected thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count (CTFC), and coronary blood flow velocity (BFV) and to determine the value of these different methods in the evaluation of the effect of myocardial perfusion post-PCI. For the study sixty-eight patients were divided into four groups based on selective coronary angiography results: group A (normal coronary artery), group B (75% 95% coronary artery stenosis), group C (coronary artery stenosis >95%) and group D (acute total coronary occlusion). The effect of myocardial reperfusion was evaluated using the above mentioned three methods 15 min after PCI. IC-MCE was also performed before PCI in group D. The quantitative parameters of MCE involved: contrast peak intensity, time to peak intensity and area under the curve, representing myocardial blood volume, reperfusion velocity and myocardial blood flow, respectively. No difference was found in CTFC between the coronary artery stenosis group and the normal group. BFV was slower in group D than in group A (P<0.05). The myocardial blood volume and the myocardial blood flow of the IC-MCE quantitative parameters were markedly lower in group C compared with those in group A (P<0.05), and there were significant differences in the three MCE parameters between group D and group A (P<0.05). For those patients with acute or total occlusion, the levels of myocardial perfusion before and after PCI were similar, as determined by IC-MCE and visually analyzed from 61 segments (P<0.05). Quantitative IC-MCE evaluation of myocardial reperfusion is more accurate than with the other two methods. Moreover, with qualitative IC-MCE the level of myocardial reperfusion can be viewed directly and rapidly. Thus, the IC-MCE method is of great value to coronary artery disease (CAD) patients undergoing PCI, especially for those with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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Association of metabolic syndrome with arterial compliance in children and adolescents
ZHANG Li, MI Jie, LI Ming, JIANG Benyu
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 68-73.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0014-6

Abstract   PDF (329KB)
The association of metabolic syndrome (MS) with arterial compliance in children and adolescents was explored. 337 subjects (188 men and 149 women) aged 6 18 (10.95?3.01) years, out of Beijing Child Metabolic Syndrome Study , were divided into three case groups (one component, two components, three & more components of MS) and one control group based on the Cook s MS definition in children and adolescents. Measurements including anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, serum lipid profile were done. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was calculated for estimating individual insulin resistance. Arterial compliance was measured using digital pulse wave analyzing method from the pulse trace machine (Micro medical, London), and then the stiffness index (SI) was determined. The mean value of SI in MS group was significant higher than that in control group [(7.69?1.63) vs (6.25?0.86) m/s, P<0.01]. With the increase of the clustering of MS components, SI and HOMA-IR were gradually increased. After taking account of gender, age and pubertal development, the partial correlation analysis showed that the amount of components of MS and HOMA-IR were positively correlated with SI (both P values were less than 0.05). The arterial compliance of MS group was significantly lowered in children and adolescents, and with the increase of the clustering of MS components, arterial compliance was gradually decreased. It was suggested that arterial compliance assessment in children and adolescents was important for early prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
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Histopathological study of congenital aortic valve malformations in 32 children
HUANG Ping, WANG Hongwei, LI Yanping, CHENG Peixuan, LIU Qingjun, ZHANG Zhenlu, LIU Jianying
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 74-78.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0015-5

Abstract   PDF (440KB)
The histopathological characteristics of congenital aortic valve malformations in children were investigated. All the native surgically excised aortic valves from 32 pediatric patients suffering from symptomatic aortic valve dysfunction due to congenital aortic valve malformations between January 2003 and December 2005 were studied macroscopically and microscopically. The patients  medical records were reviewed and the clinical information was extracted. The diagnosis was made by the clinical presentation, preoperative echocardiography, intraoperative examination, and postoperative histopathological study, excluding rheumatic or degenerative aortic valve diseases, infective endocarditis and primary connective tissue disorders, e.g. Marfan syndrome. Among 32 children with congenital aortic valve malformations, the age was ranged from six to 18 years, with a mean of 14.9 years, and there were 27 boys and five girls (male: female = 5.4:1). There were five cases of aortic stenosis (AS, 15.62%), 25 cases of aortic insufficiency (AI, 78.13%) and two cases of AS-AI (6.25%), without other valve diseases. Twenty cases still had other congenital heart diseases: ventricular septal defect (19 cases), patent ductus arteriosus (two cases), double-chambered right ventricle (one case), aneurysm of the right anterior aortic sinus of valsalva (three cases). Histopathological examination indicated that the cusps became thickening with unequal size, irregular shape (coiling and prolapse edge), enhanced hardness, and partly calcification. Microscopic investigation revealed the unsharp structure of valve tissue, fibrosis, myxomatous, reduced collagen fiber, rupture of elastic fibers, different degrees of infiltration of inflammatory cells, secondary calcareous and lipid deposit, and secondary fibrosis. Congenital aortic valve malformations in children involve males more than females, mostly associated with other congenital heart diseases. Aortic insufficiency is more common in children with congenital aortic valve malformations. Histopathologically, the leaflets of aortic valve are mainly myxomatous, thickening with unequal size, irregular shape (coiling and prolapse edge), reduced collagen fiber, rupture of elastic fibers, without small vessel proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis and calcification rarely seen.
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Ultraviolet-B induced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, transferrin receptor through EGFR/PI3K/AKT/DEC1 pathway
LI Yanhua, BI Zhigang
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 79-86.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0016-4

Abstract   PDF (423KB)
The aim of this research was to explore the effects and signaling pathway of ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation on the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and transferrin receptor (TfR). HIF-1α protein was measured by Western blot method. Expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phosphor-EGF-R and TfR after UVB irradiation were determined with flow cytometry. After UVB irradiation, mRNA levels of HIF-1α and TfR were detected by real time-PCR. Results showed that compared with control groups, UVB was able to induce HIF1α and TfR protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HaCat cells (P<0.05). TfR mRNA was expressed in a dose-dependent manner and reached a peak at the 8th hour in HaCat cells (P<0.05) whereas HIF-1α mRNA expression was not affected by UVB treatment (P>0.05). The EGFR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was required for the induction of HIF-1α and TfR expression induced by UVB. UVB induced activation of EGFR in HaCat cells and EGFR regulated expression of TfR and HIF-1α. EGFR (-/-) MEF did not increase the HIF1 expression following UVB irradiation (P>0.05). In contrast, EGFR (+/+) MEF strongly enhanced HIF1α expression after UVB irradiation (P<0.05). PD153035, a selective inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase, inhibited the TfR protein expression in UVB-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). PI3K inhibitors, LY294002 and wortmannin, inhibited HIF-1? and TfR expressions induced by UVB (P<0.05). The DEC1 (-/-) Ha-Cat cells did not increase their TfR and HIF-1α expressions following UVB irradiation (P>0.05). In contrast, DEC1 (+/+) HaCat cells strongly enhanced TfR and HIF-1? protein expression after UVB irradiation (P<0.05). We conclude that UVB induces TfR and HIF-1αexpressions via EGFR/PI3K/AKT/DEC1 signaling pathway.
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Effect of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury on leptin and orexin-A levels
LIN Ji, YAN Guangtao, HAO Xiuhua, ZHANG Kai, GAO Xiaoning, LIAO Jie
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 87-92.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0017-3

Abstract   PDF (356KB)
The aim of this paper is to explore the effect of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury on leptin and orexin-A levels in peripheral blood and central secretory tissues, and to examine the roles of leptin and orexin-A in acute inflammatory responses. An intestinal I/R injury model of rats was made; the rats were grouped according to the time of after 60 min ischemia. Radioimmunoassay was employed to detect the levels of leptin in serum and adipose tissue and orexin-A levels in plasma and hypothalamus. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mRNA expressions of adipose leptin and hypothalamus orexin-A. Compared with the levels before the injury, serum leptin in 60 min ischemia/30 min reperfusion (I60´R30´) group decreased and that of I60´R360´ group increased. Compared with sham-operation group (sham group) after injury, serum leptin level of I60´R360´ group increased, adipose leptin levels of I60´R30´ and I60´R90´ decreased, and adipose leptin in I60´R360´ group increased. After the injury, adipose leptin mRNA expressions of I60´R30´, I60´R240´ and I60´R360´ increased, whereas that of I60´R150´ group decreased as compared with the sham group. There was no significant difference in the protein levels of orexin-A, either between plasma and hypothalamus or between pre- and post-I/R injury. Compared with sham group, hypothalamus orexin-A mRNA expressions of I60´R30´ and I60´R90´ decreased gradually after the injury, with that of I60´R150´ group reaching the lowest, and those of I60´R240´ and I60´R360´ recovering gradually, although they were still significantly lower than that of sham group. Leptin and orexin-A respond to intestinal I/R injury in a time-dependent manner, with leptin responding more quickly than orexin-A does, and both of them may contribute to the metabolic disorders in acute inflammation.
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Expression and bioinformatic analysis of lymphoma-associated novel gene KIAA0372
BAI Xiangyang, TANG Duozhuang, ZHU Tao, SUN Lishi, YAN Lingling, LU Yunping, ZHOU Jianfeng, MA Ding
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 93-98.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0018-2

Abstract   PDF (608KB)
The purpose of this study was to explore the differentially expressed genes in lymph-node cells (LNC) of lymphomas and reactive lymph node hyperplasia, and to perform an initial bioinformatic analysis on a novel gene, KIAA0372, which is highly expressed in the LNC of lymphomas. mRNA extracted from LNC of lymphomas and reactive lymph node hyperplasia were respectively marked with biotin and hybridized with Gene Expression Chips, resulting in differentially expressed genes. Initial bioinformatic analysis was then performed on a novel gene named KIAA0372, whose function has not yet been explored. Its structure and genomic location, its product s physical and chemical properties, subcellular localization and functional domains, were also predicted. Further, a systematic evolution analysis was performed on similar proteins from among several species. Using Gene Expression Chips, many differentially expressed genes were uncovered. Efficient bioinformatic analysis has fundamentally determined that KIAA0372 is an extracellular protein which may be involved in TGF-β signaling. Microarray is an efficient and high throughput strategy for detection of differentially expressed genes. And KIAA0372 is thought to be a potential target for tumor research using bioinformatic analysis.
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MSI/LOH and extron expression of the FHIT gene in gastric carcinoma
XIAO Yuping, MAO Lili, HAN Chengbo, LI Jinyi, XU Lei, XIN Yan
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 99-103.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0019-1

Abstract   PDF (376KB)
We detected loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instabilities (MSI), as well as extron expression of the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene in gastric carcinoma (GC), in order to evaluate their association with clinicopathological processes in gastric carcinogenesis. LOH and MSI of the FHIT were detected by using PCR at 4 microsatellite loci: D3S 1300, D3S 4103, D3S 1481, D3S 1234 in cancer tissues from 50 patients with primary GC, with normal mucosa acting as matched controls. FHIT transcripts were detected by nested RT-PCR in 30 cases of GC and their products were sequenced. Results show that the average frequencies of LOH and MSI of the FHIT gene in GC were 32.4% and 26.4%, respectively. There was no correlation between LOH and MSI of the FHIT gene in GC and the histological characteristics of gastric carcinoma (Bormann s or Lauren s classification). LOH of the FHIT gene in GC was related to depth invasiveness, and its frequency in GC where serosa was penetrated was significantly higher than that in GC without serosa penetration (73.5% vs 37.5%, P<0.05). The frequency of MSI in GC without lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that in GC with lymph node metastasis (66.7% vs 34.3%, P<0.05). Aberrant transcripts were found in 11/30 GC tissues. Sequencing analysis of the aberrant fragments found a RT-PCR product missing exons 5 7 in one case of GC, and another product missing exons 4 7. Four of 10 (40.0%) cases of primary GC showed absent or decreased expression of the FHIT protein as compared to their matched normal tissues. The findings in this study suggest that LOH and MSI of FHIT gene may induce aberrant extron expression, which might play a role in gastric carcinogenesis.
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Effects of hemin and thermal stress exposure on JWA expression
ZHAO Ming, CHEN Rui, LI Aiping, ZHOU Jianwei
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 104-108.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0020-8

Abstract   PDF (381KB)
To investigate the expression of JWA after hemin and (or) thermal stress exposure, we treated K562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia cells) cells with different doses of hemin and thermal stress using different exposure times. The expression of JWA protein was determined by Western blot analysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out to determine JWA mRNA expression. JWA promoter transcription activity analysis was performed by chloramphenicol acetyl transferase-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (CAT-ELISA). The expression of JWA protein was significantly increased by up to (3.23±0.57) folds compared to the control in K562 cells after hemin treatment (50 µM for one week), and a similar pattern was observed in the cells after treatment with thermal stress (42 °C) for 2 hours [increased by (8.00±1.73) folds]. The expression of JWA mRNA was also significantly elevated by up to (1.37±0.06) folds in K562 cells treated with hemin (30 µM for 48 hours), and a similar regulatory pattern [increased by (1.87±0.13) folds] was observed with thermal stress exposure (42 °C) for 30 minutes. However, a combined antagonistic effect was observed in the treatment of K562 cells with hemin (30 µM, 48 h) followed by thermal stress (42 °C, 30 min). CAT-ELISA further confirmed that either hemin or thermal stress treatment could up-regulate JWA transcription activity, however, the effects could be counteracted partly by treatment with a combination of both. Hemin and thermal stress might regulate JWA expression via distinct intracellular signal transduction pathways.
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Meta-analysis of the diagnostic efficiency of frequency-doubling technology for primary glaucoma
LIU Ting, HE Xiangge
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 109-114.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0021-7

Abstract   PDF (435KB)
The overall diagnostic capabilities and utility of frequency-doubling technology (FDT) in patients with primary glaucoma, which was diagnosed by standard automated perimetry (SAP) and/or optic disc appearance as the gold standard, were assessed. A comprehensive electric retrieval in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, BIOSIS, Previews, HMIC, IPA, OVID, CNKI, CBMdisc, VIP information, CMCC, CCPD, SSreader, 21dmedia and manual retrieval in related textbooks, journals, congress articles and their references at home and abroad were performed to identify relevant articles in English or Chinese. The corresponding references were retrieved by means of electric retrieval and manual retrieval from different databases or materials. Criteria for inclusion or exclusion were established according to validity criteria for diagnostic studies published by the Cochrane Methods Group on Screening and Diagnostic Tests. The quality of the included articles was then assessed and characteristics were extracted. Statistical analysis was performed with Meta Test version 0.6 software to test the heterogeneity of the included articles. The appropriate effects model was selected to calculate pooled weighted sensitivity and specificity. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was drawn and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed. Twenty-one studies out of 206 retrieved articles were included, with a total of 3172 patients. The reported sensitivity of FDT ranged from 0.51 to 1.00, and specificity from 0.58 to 1.00. The pooled weighted sensitivity and specificity of FDT with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) after correction for standard error were 0.86 (0.80 0.90) and 0.87 (0.81 0.91), respectively. The AUC of SROC was 93.01%. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated no disproportionate influences of individual studies. The included articles are of good quality and FDT can be a highly efficient diagnostic test for primary glaucoma based on Meta-analysis.
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Not asthma, but GERD: case report
WANG Zhonggao
Front. Med.. 2007, 1 (1): 115-119.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-007-0022-6

Abstract   PDF (312KB)
Asthma is a disorder of the lungs characterized by increased responsiveness of the airways, as manifested by episodes of wheezing and increased resistance to expiratory airflow because of varying degrees of smooth muscle contraction, edema of the mucosa, and mucus in the lumen of the bronchi and bronchioles. The stimuli vary widely and include antigens, infection, air pollutants, respiratory tract irritants, exercise, and emotional factors. This condition is completely different from distress breathing because of laryngotracheal spasm. One of its causes is the gastric content reflux through the pharynx to the larynx because of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), in addition to the typical human avian flu that may cause immediate suffocation by laryngospasm owing to acute larygotrachitis. A patient suffered from GERD without esophageal symptoms, which was diagnosed and treated as bronchial asthma during his five emergency admissions. The admissions were because of episodic attacks of severe air hunger owing to an extreme throat tightening. The patient was being treated for as long as two years. After the correct diagnosis was made and treatment of laporascopic fundaplication was performed, the longstanding bronchial asthma , after all, completely disappeared. The concept of not asthma, but GERD  seems undervalued, unappreciated, even misunderstood among patients with intractable asthma. Therefore, such a case is reported in detail, similar cases are mentioned briefly as well, and a mechanism responsible for GERD-originated larryngo- or laryngotracho-spasm is proposed.
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