Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

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The predictive value of chromosome 8p deletion for metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma: a summary of works in 10 years
QIN Lunxiu, TANG Zhaoyou, GUAN Xinyuan, YE Qinghai, JIA Huliang, REN Ning
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 211-215.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0041-y

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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents an extremely poor prognostic cancer, which is mainly due to the high frequency of metastasis/recurrence after surgical operation. Exploring the molecular mechanisms involved in HCC metastasis could be helpful in the prediction and early diagnosis of HCC recurrence and could also provide new therapeutic targets for HCC metastasis. In the recent decade, we analyzed the genomic aberrations of the clinical specimens, as well as the metastatic models and cell lines of human HCC to identify the genetic markers related to HCC metastasis and to verify their clinical values in the prediction and control of metastasis of HCC. Using the comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) technique, we compared the differences of chromosomal aberrations between primary HCC tumors and their matched metastatic lesions, and found that chromosome 8p deletions might contribute to HCC metastasis. This novel finding was further confirmed by comparison between nude mice models of HCC with different metastatic potentials. By the more sensitive genome-wide microsatellite analysis, 8p deletion was defined to 8p23.3 and 8p11.2, which are two likely regions harboring metastasis-related genes of HCC. Using ‘8p-specific’ microarrays, two novel metastatic suppressors (HTPAP and MRSA) were identified, and were proven to suppress in vitro invasion and in vivo metastasis of HCC. Clinical studies indicate that 8p deletion detected in HCC or circulating plasma DNA of patients is a useful predictor for metastatic recurrence and prognosis, even for patients with early stage HCC. These novel findings are regarded as important advances in the study of the molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis, which provide not only a holistic view on the molecular cytogenetic bases of HCC metastasis, but also candidate regions for further study to identify metastatic suppressor genes.
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Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and its role in hepatocellular carcinoma
ZHANG Xufeng, YU Liang, LU Yi
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 216-228.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0042-x

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Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway has been identified as a key cellular pathway in embryogenesis and disease, including cancers. In recent years, more and more interacting components have been observed and their exact functions approached, thus ensuring the most complicated understanding of this pathway in normal organism development and disorders. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with a deeply understanding of this pathway, more and more genes which contribute to aberrant activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway has recently been identified and their exact roles in HCC pursued. In this review, we will focus on a mostly updated understanding of this pathway and its observed role in HCC by emphasizing the gene defects identified to promote tumorigenesis and development.
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Current progress on scaffolds of tissue engineering heart valves
DONG Nianguo, SHI Jiawei, CHEN Si, HONG Hao, HU Ping
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 229-234.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0043-9

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Tissue engineering heart valves (TEHV) may be the most promising valve substitute, but the study has been relatively stagnant in the recent five years due to the special position, function and mechanical property of heart valves. It is one of the key factors to select an ideal scaffold material in the construction of TEHV. And this article will briefly review the current research and progress on the scaffolds of TEHV, especially based on Chinese works.
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Effect of inhibiting tyrosine kinase Src expression on protein phosphatase 2A and tau phosphorylation
LIU Rong, ZENG Ji, ZHOU Xinwen, WANG Jianzhi, PEI Jinjing
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 235-238.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0044-8

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1The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of tyrosine kinase Src on Tyrosine 307(Y307) phosphorylation, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity, and on tau phosphorylation. Specific Src siRNA was transfected into cultured mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells to inhibit the expression of Src protein, and the phosphorylation levels of PP2A Y307 and tau at different sites, as well as PP2A activity were detected at different time points after siRNA transfection. Twelve hours after siRNA transfection, the protein level of Src was dramatically decreased, with decreased PP2A Y307 phosphorylation. However, the total PP2A protein level was also decreased, together with a decreased PP2A activity. Tau was hyperphosphorylated at the Ser198/199/202 sites. Multiple factors may be involved in the cellular regulation of PP2A activity. Inhibiting Src expression could induce inactivation of PP2A and tau hyperphosphorylation.
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Effects of hypoxia on mRNA expression of housekeeping genes in rat brain tissue and primary cultured neural cells
YANG Yingzhong, MA Lan, GE Rili, FAN Wenhong, ZHU Lingling, ZHAO Tong, WU Yan, FAN Ming
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 239-243.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0045-7

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Internal standards are critical for quantitative RNA analyses. Housekeeping genes are often used as internal standards with the assumption that their expression levels remain relatively constant in different experimental conditions. In this study, four commonly used housekeeping genes, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ?-actin, 28S rRNA and 18S rRNA were selected to test whether this assumption is tenable under hypoxic conditions. We tested the RNA expression level of these four genes in different hypoxic conditions. Rats subjected to acute hypoxia for 2 hours were used for tissue detection. Primary cultured neural stem cells from E13 fetal rats were treated with 3% O2 or 10% O2 for 24 hours for in vitro experiments. In both experiments, expression levels of 28S rRNA and 18S rRNA were constant, independent of hypoxia types. However, expression levels of GAPDH and ?-actin were all changed in all kinds of hypoxic conditions. In particular, the mRNA expression level of GAPDH was increased by 43.4% under 3% O2 hypoxic conditions. These results suggest that 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA are reliable internal controls for comparative analyses of transcription under hypoxia. GAPDH appears particularly unfavorable for this purpose in hypoxic conditions.
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Effects of combined procedure and devascularization alone on hyperdynamics of the portal venous system in patients with portal hypertension
HUA Rong, SUN Yongwei, WU Zhiyong
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 244-247.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0046-6

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Shunts and devascularizations have totally different effects on the hemodynamics of the portal venous system. The actual results of pericardial devascularization (PCDV) alone and conventional splenorenal shunt combined with pericardial devascularization (combined procedure, CP) should be determined by more clinical observations. This study aimed to evaluate effects on hemodynamics in the portal venous system after CP and PCDV only. In 20 patients who received CP and 18 who received PCDV, hemodynamic parameters of the portal venous system were studied by magnetic resonance angiography 1 week before and 2 weeks after operation. Free portal pressure (FPP) was continuously detected by a transducer during the operations. Compared to the preoperative data, a decreased flow in the portal vein (PVF) [(563.12 ± 206.42) mL/min vs (1080.63 ± 352.85) mL/min, P < 0.05], a decreased portal vein diameter (PVD) [(1.20 ± 0.11) cm vs (1.30 ± 0.16) cm, P < 0.01], a decreased FPP [(21.50 ± 2.67) mmHg vs (29.88 ± 2.30) mmHg, P < 0.01] and an increased flow in the superior mesenteric vein (SMVF) [(1105.45 ± 309.03) mL/min vs (569.13 ± 178.46) mL/min, P < 0.05] were found in the CP group after operation; a decreased PVD [(1.27 ± 0.16) cm vs (1.40 ± 0.23) cm, P < 0.05], a decreased PVF [(684.60 ± 165.73) mL/min vs (1175.64 ± 415.09) mL/min, P < 0.05], a decreased FPP [(24.40 ± 3.78) mmHg vs (28.80 ± 3.56) mmHg, P < 0.05] and an increased SMVF [(697.91 ± 121.83) mL/min vs (521.30 ± 115.82) mL/min, P < 0.05] were observed in the PCDV group. After operation, PVF in the CP group [(563.12 ± 206.42) mL/min vs (684.60 ± 165.73) mL/min, P > 0.05] had no significant decrease, while FPP [(21.50 ± 2.67) mmHg vs (24.40 ± 3.78) mmHg, P < 0.01] had a significant decrease as compared with that in the PCDV group. PVF and FPP could be decreased by both surgical procedures, but the effect of decreasing FPP was much better in the combined procedure than in PCDV alone. Further, there was no significant difference in PVF between the two groups. It is suggested that the combined surgical procedure could integrate the advantages of shunting with those of devascularization, as well as maintaining the normal anatomic structure of hepatic portal system, thus it should be one of the best choices for patients with portal hypertension when surgical interventions are considered.
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Beneficial effect of arginine vasopressin on hemorrhagic shock through improving the vascular reactivity
LI Tao, YANG Guangming, XU Jing, LIU Jiancang, LIU Liangming
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 248-254.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0047-5

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The vascular reactivity and calcium sensitivity were decreased following hemorrhagic shock. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) was beneficial to endotoxic, infectious/septic and hemorrhagic shock. Our previous studies found that Rho kinase played an important role in the occurrence of calcium desensitization following shock. It was reported that AVP was with stimulation effect of Rho kinase. So we hypothesized that AVP might have beneficial effect on shock via activation of Rho kinase to regulate the calcium sensitivity and vascular reactivity. Hemorrhagic shock (40 mmHg for 2 h) Wistar rats in vivo were adopted to observe the effects of small dose of AVP on hemodynamics, 24-h survival rate, the pressor effect of norepinephrine (NE) and the contractility of superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Isolated SMAs from hemorrhagic shock rats were adopted to observe the effects of AVP on vascular reactivity and calcium sensitivity and its relationship to Rho kinase with an isolated organ perfusion system. The results show that AVP at the concentration of 0.1 U/kg and 0.4 U/kg significantly improved the hemodynamic parameters and the 24-h survival rate of hemorrhagic shock rats. Meanwhile, these dosages of AVP significantly increased the pressor effect of NE and the contractile response of SMA to NE. Y-27632 (3 ?g/kg), a Rho kinase specific inhibitor, abolished the beneficial effects of AVP. In vitro, the calcium sensitivity and vascular reactivity of SMA to calcium and NE were significantly decreased following hemorrhagic shock. AVP at the concentration of 0.5 nmol/L and 5 nmol/L significantly increased the calcium sensitivity and vascular reactivity. These effects of AVP were abolished by Y-27632 (10 ?mol/L). Taken together, the results suggest that AVP at 0.1 U/kg and 0.4 U/kg is beneficial to hemorrhagic shock by improving the vascular reactivity, which involves activation of Rho kinase.
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Mechanism of hepatocellular damage in rat caused by low serum selenium
LU Yi, QU Bo, LIU Chang, YU Liang, Liu Xuemin, WANG Haohua, JIANG An, ZHANG Xiaogang
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 255-258.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0048-4

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The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanism of hepatocellular damage in rats caused by low serum selenium. Thirty six rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A (fed with low-selenium diet from the Keshan Disease area with the content of selenium being 0.017 mg/kg); group B [fed with selenium-supplemented diet and 0.3 mg/L selenium (Na2SeO3) was added to the drinking water]. Both were respectively fed for 12 weeks. At the end of the 12th week, the levels of serum selenium, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in hepatic tissue were measured; the hepatocellular ultrastructure and apoptosis were observed as well. The levels of serum selenium and GPX in group A were markedly lower than those in group B. MDA level in group A was significantly higher than that in group B. Under the electron microscope (EM), the mitochondria were remarkably changed in group A. The rate of liver cell apoptosis appeared much higher in group A as well. It indicated that the damage caused by selenium deficiency was through the process of oxidation. Selenium deficiency led to apoptosis of hepatocytes where oxidative damage to mitochondria might be the cause.
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A meta-analysis of randomized trials of maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillation efficacy against recurrence of T1G3 bladder tumor
PAN Jiangang, ZHOU Xing, CHEN Zhiguang, HAN Ruifa
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 259-263.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0049-3

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Meta-analysis was used to determine whether maintenance intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) could reduce recurrence after transurethral resection of tumor 1 grade 3 (T1G3) superficial bladder cancer. All available published data of randomized clinical trials comparing transurethral resection plus intravesical BCG to either resection alone or resection plus another treatment on the treatment results in patients with superficial bladder cancer of T1G3 were selected for analysis. Both the fixed effects model and random effects model were applied, and the odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the effect size estimate. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias determination were performed by funnel plots and comparing ORs of different models. Within the follow-up period, 375 of 915 (41.0%) BCG-treated patients and 332 of 733 (45.3%) non-BCG-treated patients developed tumor recurrence. In the combined results, a statistically significant difference in the ORs for tumor recurrence between the two treatment groups was found (randomized model combined effect OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.83, P = 0.003). The stratified meta-analysis did not show any statistically significant confounding effects on the results when stratified by BCG strains. The randomized model combined effect OR of Pasteur F and other strains were 0.50 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.95, P = 0.04) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.99, P = 0.04), respectively. Therefore, we came to the conclusion that adjuvant maintenance instillation BCG combined with transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) is an effective conservative treatment for preventing recurrence of T1G3 bladder cancer.
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Spontaneous firing properties of rat medial vestibular nucleus neurons in brain slices by infrared visual patch clamp technique
XIA Jiao, KONG Weijia, ZHU Yun, ZHOU Yan, ZHANG Yu, GUO Changkai
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 264-268.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0050-x

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Domestic application of infrared patch clamp techniques on brain slices is limited. The key of the technique is to prepare high-quality brain slices. The present paper describes the preparation procedure of brainstem slices and the spontaneous firing properties of rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons. By infrared differential interference contrast technique, neurons of rat MVN were visualized directly at the depth of 50–100 ?m underneath the surface of slices. Firing activities of MVN neurons were recorded by the whole-cell patch clamp technique in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) and low Ca2+ - high Mg2+ fluid. The firing mode was more irregular and depressive in low Ca2+ - high Mg2+ fluid than in ACSF. According to the averaged waveform of action potentials, cells were classified as the neurons with monophasic after-hyperpolarization potential (AHP), and the neurons with biphasic AHP. The resting membrane potential (RMP), input resistance (Rin) and membrane capacitance (Cm) of neurons were recorded and compared between groups. With infrared videomicroscopy, patch clamp recordings could be made under direct observation in freshly prepared brainstem slices. The discharge activities of MVN neurons were spontaneous and the firing mode was modulated by extracellular calcium concentration. The basic membrane properties of two types of neurons were not significantly different, while the differences in waveform might play a role in the segregation between tonic and kinetic cells.
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Using RAPD in genotyping and transmission detection
ZHANG Tiejun, ZHOU Xiaoming, ZHANG Tao, YU Shunzhang, JIANG Qingwu, CHEN Yue
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 269-275.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0051-9

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The aim of this paper is to develop an applicable Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPD) method for genotyping Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain, and discuss the possibility of using the RAPD method to trace N. gonorrhoeae strain transmission route. Four different pretreatment methods were used on the N. gonorrhoeae genomic DNA component, and the best adaptive extract method was selected for RAPD. Different RAPD primers sequence was used for amplification and their differentiating capabilities for N. gonorrhoeae strains were compared. Applicable RAPD primer was selected for N. gonorrhoeae genotyping and then applied into transmission detection. The results show that the so called cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method for extracting genomic DNA could give integrated genomic DNA and give out relatively better RAPD fingerprint maps, subsequently, using selected RAPD primer could give out a group of amplification polymerase chain reaction bands. The fingerprint maps from different N. gonorrhoeae strains were distinctive. Some main segments were common to all the N. gonorrhoeae strains tested. Some segments were different among the N. gonorrhoeae strains. According to the fingerprint maps and similarity index of different N. gonorrhoeae isolates, isolates from a pair of sex-partners were very similar. Based on these findings, the best extracting method and suitable RAPD primer were chosen. The RAPD fingerprint maps could type N. gonorrhoeae effectively and could be used as an additional approach in molecular epidemiology for tracing infection sources.
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Analyses of levels of thyroid hormones and its receptor expression in puerperants and newborns from an e-waste dismantling site
JU Ying, CHEN Lan, JIANG Qi, YANG Kedi, CHEN Xuemin, XU Guojian, LI Liping
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 276-282.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0052-8

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In this study, the serum levels, including thyroid hormones free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine(FT4),thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH)among the subjects from the exposed group (n = 48) and the control group (n = 45) were detected by immuno radiometric assay (IRMA). The expression levels of TR?1, TR?1, TSHR mRNA in placentas and umbilical cords were detected by fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR (FQ-PCR). The correlations between the thyroid hormone levels in maternal serum and umbilical serum, and between the expression levels of its receptors mRNA in placentas and umbilical cords were determined. We found that the FT4 levels of both maternal serum and umbilical cord serum in the exposed group were lower than those in the control (P < 0.05). However, the increased TSH levels in the exposed group had statistically significance compared to those in the control group (P < 0.05). The TR?1 and TR?1 mRNA levels both in placentas and umbilical cords in the exposed group were lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05 and 0.01). However, the TSHR mRNA levels in the exposed group were significantly different compared to those in the control group (P < 0.01). The serum FT4 and TSH levels of parturient women were positively correlated with those of the newborns in both groups (P < 0.05 and 0.01). The mRNA levels of TR?1, TR?1 and TSHR in the placentas were positively correlated with those in umbilical cords in both groups (P < 0.01). The findings suggest that some environmental pollutants existing in the electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling region may affect the health of local parturient women and newborns, representing changes both in serum levels of thyroid hormones and in mRNA expression of its receptors.
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662 A/G gene variation in human tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 9 (TNFRSF9)
QU Yanchun, YANG Ze, SUN Liang, JI Linong
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 283-285.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0053-7

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The aim of this paper is to report a new coding variance of the TNFRSF9 gene, a candidate for autoimmune diseases. We found the variation in two families with type 2 diabetes mellitus by D-HPLC mutation screening method and confirmed our results by direct sequencing and PCR-RFLP. Although without changing the amino acid coding, the variance may have an effect on codon usage and play a role in disease development, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, we cannot define the role of this variance because the frequency of the minor allele is low in the Chinese population and no homozygote of the variance was found. More research in multiple populations will be necessary to define the role of this variance.
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Serum erythropoietin and transferrin in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome
LU Hongzhu, LIU Dan, ZHANG Wanming, YUAN Yuesha, KUANG Hongyan, WANG Lin, FAN Qihong
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 286-289.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0054-6

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Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is characterized by marked urinary excretion of albumin and other intermediate-sized plasma proteins, such as transferrin and vitamin D-binding protein. Some cases even develop anemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in serum iron, transferrin, and erythropoietin, and the relationships between serum and urine transferrin and erythropoietin. Thirty-seven children with INS and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy children were investigated. The indexes related to iron metabolism, including serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, and hematological parameters [hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)], and urinary transferrin and erythropoietin were measured in 37 children with INS before treatment and at the remission stage. Thirty-five age- and sex-matched healthy children served as controls. Serum iron levels (18.8 ± 3.8) ?mol/L in INS patients before treatment were significantly lower than those of the healthy controls (22.2 ± 3.8) ?mol/L and those measured at the remission stage (21.0 ± 3.5) ?mol/L (all P < 001). Serum transferrin levels in INS patients before therapy (1.9 ± 0.3) g/L also decreased compared with the healthy controls (3.1 ± 0.5) g/L and the measures at the remission stage (2.9 ± 0.6) g/L (all P < 0.01). In contrast, serum TIBC and transferrin saturation were significantly higher in INS patients before treatment than in the healthy controls [TIBC (56.4 ± 9.2) ?mol/L vs (50.7 ± 6.8) ?mol/L, P < 0.01; transferrin saturation (55.7±9.2)% vs (46.4 ± 8.2)%, P < 0.01] and they were also higher than the measures at remission stage [(51.9 ± 7.7) ?mol/L and (47.4 ± 13.3) ?mol/L] (all P < 0.01). Serum transferrin was positively correlated with serum albumin (r = 0.609, P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with urinary transferrin (r = -0.550, P < 0.01) in INS patients before treatment. We conclude that serum iron, transferrin and erythropoietin levels are markedly decreased in INS patients, which may be partially related to the urinary loss of these indexes.
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Treatment of gingival hyperplasia induced by cyclosporine A
MA Jingzhi, LI Ming, CAO Yingguang
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 290-294.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0055-5

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The clinical therapy for cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced gingival hyperplasia (GH) and the pathological changes in hyperplastic gingival tissues were investigated. Nine cases of CsA-induced GH after renal transplantation were subjected to periodontal non-surgical treatment and surgical treatment and were followed up. Gingival index (GI), dental plaque index (PLI) and GH degree (GHD) at different time points were measured. Under light and electron microscopy, the pathological changes in hyperplastic gingival tissues were observed. The CsA concentrations in gingival tissues and blood were determined by using fluorescence polarization immunoassay with TDxFLx monoclonal antibody. The results showed that GI, PLI and GHD in patients with GH declined after periodontal treatment. Two patients suffered from different degrees of GH during the 6 months to 54 months post-transplantation. Under transmission electron microscopy, fibroblasts in the hyperplastic gingival tissues were enlarged, cytoplasmic rough endoplasmic reticula were abundant and expanded slightly, and a few fibroblasts with early apoptotic changes were seen. The concentrations of CsA in hyperplastic gingival tissues were from 351.00 to 1345.47 ng/mL, which were significantly higher than in the blood of the same patients taken at the same time points. It was concluded that GI and PLI declined after periodontal treatment in combination with surgical treatment in patients taking CsA for a long time, but in some patients, GH recurred. The fact that the concentration of CsA in hyperplastic gingival tissues is higher than in blood awaits further studies.
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Setting up a heart rate alarm limit to decrease oculocardiac reflex during strabismus surgery in children
ZHANG Kangkang, GU Enhua, LU Junjie
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 295-297.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0056-4

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The aim of this paper is to investigate a method which may decrease the incidence and severity of oculocardiac reflex (OCR) without drugs. One hundred and sixty children undergoing strabismus surgery were allocated to two groups using double-blind randomization. OCR was defined as a decrease of more than 10% from the baseline heart rate during operation. An alarm sounded and a lamp flashed as soon as OCR occurred in group I, and neither of the above happened in group II. OCR occurred (1.151 ± 0.858) times in group I and (2.287 ± 1.371) times in group II (P < 0.05). Heart rate decreased by (23 ± 19) bpm in group I and (35 ± 28) bpm in group II (P < 0.05). The duration of OCR in group I and group II was (4.36 ± 4.26)s and (7.62 ± 6.41)s, respectively (P < 0.05). The recovery time for group I and group II was (15.36 ± 13.28)s and (32.36 ± 19.57)s, respectively (P < 0.05). The numbers of times of interruption were 8 in group I (10%) and 26 in group II (32%) (P < 0.01). This method significantly decreased the incidence and severity of OCR during strabismus surgery in children.
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Effect of IL-10 on formation of foam cell induced by ox-LDL
WANG Fei, DAI Yalei, XU Ting, XU Bo, WANG Kaifeng
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 298-302.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0057-3

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Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease that causes various cardiovascular complications. It has been realized that cellular and humoral immunity plays crucial roles in atherogenic lesion formation. In this study the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) on the formation of foam cells during the early stages of atherosclerosis have been investigated. Macrophage was induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) treatment on THP-1 cells. The cells were further stimulated by ox-LDL, ox-LDL plus LPS, ox-LDL plus IL-10 and LPS. By using an oil red O staining technique, the formation of foam cells was evaluated by lipid granules formation in the cells. The ratio of foam cell formation was increased from (9.77 ± 1.70)% to (16.27 ± 2.27)% after 24 h stimulation with ox-LDL, and the increase was observed with incubating time. The foam cells were significantly increased in the presence of LPS in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum increase of about 40% was observed. However, the significant elevation by LPS was abrogated when IL-10 was added. These results indicated that IL-10 can effectively prevent the formation of foam cells induced by ox-LDL with or without LPS. This study demonstrates that ox-LDL can cause foam cell formation from macrophages in vitro. LPS can significantly accelerate this event. IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, can inhibit the effect of ox-LDL and LPS. These results indicate that inflammatory effects in blood vessels can speed up foam cell formation. The inhibitive effect of IL-10 is an important factor for delaying atherosclerosis processes.
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Estrogenic activities of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate
JIN Qiumei, LI Yan, SUN Zengrong
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 303-308.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0058-2

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Phthalate esters are widespread in the environment. They have been described as being one of the most abundant man-made environmental contaminants that may be adverse to human health. Particularly, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) has been shown to cause reproductive and developmental toxicity and is suspected to be an endocrine disruptor. The primary objective of this study is to determine the estrogenic activity of DEHP. Estrogenic activities of DEHP were studied by in vitro assays of human breast cancer MCF-7 cell proliferation. Estrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells were grown in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Five days before the addition of the test compounds, the cells were washed by phosphate balanced solution (PBS), and the medium was substituted with a phenol red-free RPMI1640 medium containing 5% dextral charcoal-stripped Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS). Fresh medium was added to the respective test compounds and the control cell received only the vehicle (ethanol). The proliferation of MCF-7 cell was analyzed by the MTT assay, growth curves, mitotic index and colony forming efficiency. Compared with the ethanol control cells, the proliferation of tested cells treated with DEHP, like estradiol, was significantly enhanced and the activity of the cell proliferation reached the maximum at 1 × 10-3 mol/L DEHP. The relative proliferative potency of DEHP was 0.000 001 with a relative proliferative effect of 97.32%. During the log phase, the mitotic index of the tested cells treated with DEHP and estradiol was significantly increased. The cell cloning efficiency was enhanced, which was treated by 10-3 mol/L DEHP only for 48 hours. The results show a time-dependent and dose-dependent model. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate enhanced the proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in vitro and might demonstrate an estrogenic activity.
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Observation of a higher JAK2 V617F homozygous mutated clone in polycythemia vera compared to essential thrombocythemia
LIU Hongxing, TONG Chunrong, CAI Peng, GU Jiangying, LIN Yuehui, TENG Wen, WANG He, ZHANG Ying, ZHU Ping
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 309-313.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0059-1

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Single-tube bi-directional allele specific amplification (SB-ASA) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) assays were developed and performed for JAK2V617F detection on 40 polycythemia vera (PV) samples, 31 essential thrombocythemia (ET) samples, 40 acute leukemia samples, and 40 healthy control samples. Differences between detect limitations of the two assays and their influence on the mutation detection rate were analyzed. The results showed that in some samples, the JAK2V617F burden was as low as nearly 1%, and thus more JAK2V617F-positive samples were detected by RQ-PCR than by SB-ASA assay due to the former higher detect limitation. Mutation allele ratios in PV and ET samples and their relevance to biological characteristics were also analyzed. The results showed that the mutation allele ratio was 0.436 ± 0.261 in PV, higher than the 0.216 ± 0.207 in ET; percentage of certainly homozygous mutation carriers in PV was 40.54%, higher than the 10% in ET. However, statistical analysis showed no relevance between mutation allele burden and sex or age. Our result shows that the pathogenesis of PV and ET may be related to the mutation allele burden of JAK2V617F.
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Effect of Feixian Recipe on laminin, collagen I and III in rats with pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin
ZHANG Xiaomei, JIANG Liangduo, ZHANG Wei, WU Jianjun, LU Xiangfeng
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 314-316.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0060-8

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The aim of this paper is to observe the effect of the Feixian Recipe on pulmonary fibrosis in rats. A rat model with pulmonary fibrosis was established by intratracheal injection of bleomycin. On days 14, 28 and 45, the contents of laminin, collagen I and collagen III in lung tissue homogenate in the model group, the sham operated group, the Feixian group and the prednisone group were measured. The contents of laminin and collagen I and III were decreased significantly by the Feixian Recipe. Feixian Recipe has a significant therapeutic effect on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.
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Vein of Galen malformations - report of 2 cases and literature review
CAI Chunquan, ZHANG Qingjiang, SHEN Changhong
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (3): 317-322.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0061-7

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Vein of Galen malformations (VGMs) are rare, consisting approximately 1% of intracranial vascular malformations, but nearly one third of pediatric vascular malformations, which can cause severe morbidity and mortality in infants and older children, but more particularly in neonates. We presented 2 patients with VGMs which were confirmed by characteristic clinical symptoms and neuroradiological findings (including CT, MRI and/or angiography). One patient underwent embolization followed by CT, MRI and conventional angiography. The patient’s neurological and cognitive status was normal at present. The other neonate died of congestive heart failure 36 h after birth.
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