Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

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Crk-associated substrate, vascular smooth muscle and hypertension
TANG Dale
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 323-331.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0062-6

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Hypertension is characterized by vascular smooth muscle constriction and vascular remodeling involving cell migration, hypertrophy and growth. Crk-associated substrate (CAS), the first discovered member of the adapter protein CAS family, has been shown to be a critical cellular component that regulates various smooth muscle functions. In this review, the molecular structure and protein interactions of the CAS family members are summarized. Evidence for the role of CAS in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle contractility is presented. Contraction stimulation induces CAS phosphorylation on Tyr-410 in arterial smooth muscle, creating the binding site for the Src homology (SH) 2/SH3 protein CrkII, which activates neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP)-mediated actin assembly and force development. The functions of CAS in cell migration, hypertrophy and growth are also summarized. Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl), c-Src, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), protein tyrosine phosphatase-proline, glutamate, serine and threonine sequence protein (PTP-PEST) and SHP-2 have been documented to coordinate the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of CAS. The downstream signaling partners of CAS in the context of cell motility, hypertrophy, survival and growth are also discussed. These new findings establish the important role of CAS in the modulation of vascular smooth muscle functions. Furthermore, the upstream regulators of CAS may be new biologic targets for the development of more effective and specific treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension.
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Achievements in burn surgery over the past 50 years in China
WANG Shiliang
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 332-336.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0063-5

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This paper reflects on the advancements of clinical and scientific research in the field of burn surgery in China. It includes emergency care of massive burns, resuscitation, anti-infection, prevention and cure of internal organ injuries, metabolic and nutritional support, wound repair and rehabilitation, and special types of burns; it also covers pathology, microbiology, immunology, cell biology, molecular biology, and tissue engineering.
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Current techniques for assessing developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides
GAO Yu, TIAN Ying, SHEN Xiaoming
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 337-343.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0064-4

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Organophosphates (OPs) and Pyrethroids (PRY) have been widely used in agriculture and in the home as broad spectrum insecticides, but may produce considerable risk to human health, especially to children. Children are more susceptible to environmental exposure, and concern about the neurotoxic effects of pesticide exposure on children is increasing. There is a need for better understanding of the potential developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides. Techniques for assessing developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides will continue to be developed, rendering a need for flexibility of testing paradigms. Current techniques used in evaluating the developmental neurotoxicity of OPs and PRY are presented in this review. These include: (1) In vitro techniques (PC12 cells, C6 cells and other cell models); (2) Non-mammalian models (sea urchins, zebrafish and other non-mammalian models); and (3) In vivo mammalian models (morphological techniques, neurobehavioral assessments and biomarkers).
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Mirror system based therapy for autism spectrum disorders
CHEN Wei, ZHANG Jing, DING Jun
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 344-347.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0065-3

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This paper reviews the present theories and empirical research of autisms’ cognitive research and mirror systems and introduces a new hypothesis about the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD): autistic mirror neuron dysfunction hypothesis. ASD subjects show obvious lack of the activation of the mirror system during the task of observation or emotional cognition. It is significant to investigate the mirror system for revealing the causes of autism and it is also helpful for developing new ways to diagnose or treat this disorder.
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Soy food consumption in relation to breast cancer modified by menopause status
YANG Rong, ZHANG Bin, YANG Shaoping, ZHANG Dan, DU Yukai
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 348-351.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0066-2

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It has been found that lifestyle and diet are associated with the development of cancers. The mortality of breast cancer in Wuhan city is increasing, according to the statistics of recent years. This case control study was aimed to provide data for alimentary therapeutics for breast carcinomas. It included a case group (n = 196) and an age frequency-matched control group (n = 202). A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain information on usual food consumption. The results indicate that intake of soy foods more than 5 times per week was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, especially in premenopausal women. The adjusted OR was 0.294 [95% CI was (0.158–0.546), P = 0.000]. Our results indicate that alimentary therapeutics for breast cancer can be adjusted by status of menopause.
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Predication of increased plasma homocysteine level on the prognosis of Chinese patients with first-onset ischemic stroke
YAN Jiangtao, SHAO Jiaomei, WANG Daowen, YUE Zhengliang, HUI Rutai
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 352-355.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0067-1

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Epidemiological studies show that increased plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) level was an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between tHcy level and prognosis of first-onset stroke in Chinese people. One hundred ninety six patients with first-onset ischemic stroke and ninety-five patients with first-onset hemorrhagic stroke were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into two groups in terms of tHcy level (< 18 ?mol/L and ≥ 18 ?mol/L). The plasma tHcy level was detected by a high performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection. All the patients underwent a 5-year follow-up. Survival analysis shows that the probability of death or new vascular events in the ischemic stroke patients with high tHcy level (≥ 18 ?mol/L) was significantly higher than that in the counterparts with lower tHcy level (< 18 ?mol/L) (50.9% and 28.7%, respectively, P = 0.004). The relative risk of death or new vascular events was 2.363 (95% CI, 1.209 to 4.617, P = 0.012) in ischemic stroke patients with high tHcy levels(≥ 18 ?mol/L) compared to those with a lower tHcy level (< 18 ?mol/L). The increased tHcy level was significantly associated with the risk of death or new vascular events (OR, 2.492, 95% CI, 1.148 to 5.407, P = 0.021) in patients with ischemic stroke in the exclusion of the influence of other risk factors such as gender, age, body mass index, plasma cholesterol level, the history of hypertension, diabetes or smoking. However, in the patients with hemorrhagic stroke, there was no significant difference in the probability of death or new vascular events between patients with a high tHcy level and those with a lower tHcy level (33.3% and 28.2%, respectively, P = 0.546). Increased tHcy level was an independent risk factor for a worse outcome in patients with first-onset ischemic stroke, but not in hemorrhagic stroke patients.
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Effect of arsenic trioxide on proliferation and apoptosis of U266 cells and its relationship with the expression variation of VEGF
ZHAN Rong, YU Qinghong, HUANG Haobo
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 356-360.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0068-0

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The aim of this article is to explore the effect of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on the proliferation and apoptosis of myeloma cell line U266 and its relationship with the expression variation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The viability and apoptosis of U266 cells were observed by methylthiazolyl- tetrazolium (MTT) assay and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL). The effect of As2O3 on the VEGF expression of U266 cells were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. We found that As2O3 could significantly inhibit the growth of U266 cells, and the concentration for 50% growth inhibition (IC50) was 2 ?mol/L. After treatment with 2, 5, 10 ?mol/L As2O3 for 36 hours, dose-dependent apoptosis of U266 cells was observed. After treatment with 2, 5, 10 ?mol/L As2O3 for 72 hours, a dose-dependent reduction of VEGF in the supernatant of U266 cells culture was found. As far as single cells are concerned, nevertheless, the expression of VEGF mRNA did not vary. So we draw the conclusion that As2O3 could induce the apoptosis of U266 cells and inhibit their proliferation, decrease the tumor load, and lead to the reduction of VEGF in the culture supernatant, but not change the expression of VEGF in single U266 cells.
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Reliability of foam posturography in assessment of postural balance in the patients with vertigo
LIU Bo, KONG Weijia
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 361-365.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0069-z

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The postural balance is a important aspect of assessment in vestibular rehabilitation therapy. As the computerized dynamic posturography, the foam posturography performed by using foam in posturography is a useful measurement tool for postural balance. Then, the reliability of foam posturography is critical in clinic. To our knowledge, there is no report about the test-retest reliability of foam posturography in the patients with vertigo in China. The foam posturography was taken on the patients with vertigo in stable state and repeated in 3 to 5 days. In the two assessments of test and retest, all subjects stood under 4 sensory conditions, such as firm surface with eyes open (T1), firm surface with eyes closed (T2), foam surface with eyes open (T3) and foam surface with eyes closed (T4) for 30 seconds respectively. The average sway velocity (SV) of center of pressure (COP) under feet of upright standing was recorded as research parameter. The results of patients with vertigo were compared with those of normal subjects. It demonstrated that all normal subjects did not fall in the two assessments. There were 10 of 34 patients with vertigo at least fell one time during the two assessments, and the SVs of these subjects did not taken the analysis of test-retest reliability. The results showed that: (1) The interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of all 49 subjects including normal subjects and patients without falling were 0.887–0.973 according to the T1–T4 between two assessment. (2) The SVs between the normal subjects and patients were significantly different in the T2 (t = 2.018, P = 0.049) and T4 (t = 3.905, P < 0.001) in the first assessment and in the T4 (t = 3.715, P = 0.001) in the second. And (3) the cases of falling between two assessments were not significant different (?2 = 0.073, P = 0.787) in the patients with vertigo. It is concluded from this study that the foam posturography has high test-retest reliability to assess the postural balance in the patients with vertigo in stable state, indicating the foam posturography can be used as the valid means to assess the improvement of postural balance for patients with vertigo in the vestibular rehabilitation therapy.
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Changes of phenotype and function of human CD4 CD25 T cells induced by transfection of Foxp3
WU Kui, BI Yutian, WANG Yaoli, WANG Changzheng
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 366-369.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0070-6

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The aim of this paper is to explore the effects of transfection of Foxp3 gene on the phenotype and function of naive CD4+ T cells. The pMSCV-Foxp3 retroviral vector encoding Foxp3 gene was transduced into the PT67 packaging cell line. Virus-containing supernatant was applied to differentiate CD4+CD25- T cells. The resulting cells were sorted with flow cytometry. The expressions of CD25, CD127, CTLA-4 and the proliferation of transfected T cells were examined. The effect of transfected CD4+ T cells on the proliferation and cytokine production of CD4+CD25- T cells was examined. Foxp3-gene transfected CD4+ T cells could express Foxp3 and transfection of Foxp3 gene up-regulated the expressions of CD25 and CTLA-4, but down-regulated CD127 expression. After transfection, the proliferation of CD4+ T cells was eliminated. Transfected T cells inhibited the proliferation of CD4+CD25- T cells. CD4+CD25- T cells acquired a regulatory phenotype and function after it was transduced with the Foxp3 gene. This suggested a key role of Foxp3 in the generation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.
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Cellular changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in hyperoxia-induced lung injury
HE Xinbiao, ZHAO Wei
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 370-373.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0071-5

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It is well known that high concentration oxygen exposure is a model of acute lung injury (ALI). However, controversy exists over the mechanism. This study was designed to clarify the cellular characteristics in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and body weight loss of rats exposed to oxygen(> 90%). Young male Wistar rats, aged 6 weeks, were divided into three groups: (1) room air group (exposed to room air, n = 22); (2) hyperoxia < 48 h group (exposed to over 90% oxygen for less than 48 h, n = 18); (3) hyperoxia 66–72 h group (exposed to over 90% oxygen for 66–72 h group, n = 7). Compared to the room air group, the total cell counts in the hyperoxia 66–72 h group decreased, whereas the neutrophils increased significantly. The body weights of the rats exposed to room air continued to increase. However, the body weights of oxygen-exposed rats increased slightly on the first day and weight loss was seen from the second day. All rats were noted to have bilateral pleural effusion in the hyperoxia 66–72 h group. The data suggests that (1) an increase in neutrophil count is an evident feature of hyperoxia-induced lung injury; (2) high concentration oxygen exposure can give rise to anorexia and malnutrition, which may play a role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Blocking neutrophil influx into lung tissue in the early phase and improving malnutrition are two effective methods to reduce hyperoxic lung injury.
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Effect on proliferation and apoptosis of T24 cell lines via silencing DNMT1 with RNA interference
ZHANG Shilong, ZENG Fuqing, PENG Shibo, WANG Liang
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 374-379.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0072-4

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Expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), which plays an important role on aberrantly methylated CpG in the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), is higher in bladder cancer cells than in normal bladder cells. Therefore, its overexpression is closely related to tumor formation. In this study, the eukaryotic vector pshRNA-DNMT1 was constructed and transfected into T24 cells. Levels of DNMT1 mRNA and protein were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot. Relative to the blank control at the 24th, 48th and 72nd hour after transfection of pshRNA-DNMT1, the inhibitory rates of DNMT1 mRNA levels in T24 cells were 28.44%, 52.48%, 70.91%, respectively. Those of DNMT1 proteins were 24.27%, 57.79%, and 77.74%, respectively. Proliferation and apoptosis were assayed by MTT and flow cytometry with Annexin-V-FITC/PI staining. The growth inhibition rates of pshRNA-DNMT1 at the 24th, 48th and 72nd hour after transfection of pshRNA-DNMT1 were (4.34 ± 0.76)%, (9.87 ± 1.54)% and (13.78 ± 1.93)%, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between pshRNA-DNMT1 and the control blank at each time points (P < 0.01); 24, 48 and 72 hours after T24 cells were transfected by pshRNA-DNMT1, the apoptosis rates of pshRNA-DNMT1 were (3.87 ± 0.81)%, (8.69 ± 1.23)% and (11.46 ± 1.24)%, respectively (P < 0.01 vs blank control). Based on this case, our conclusion is that the recombinant plasmid pshRNA-DNMT1 can silence the expression of gene DNMT1 mRNA and protein effectively, and to some extent, it also can inhibit the proliferation of bladder cancer cell and promote the cellular apoptosis.
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Abnormal expression of c-Myc in human bronchial epithelial cells malignantly transformed by anti-BPDE
FU Juan, JIANG Yiguo, CHEN Xuemin
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 380-385.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0073-3

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Anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (anti-BPDE) is a metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and acts as a potent mutagen in mammalian systems. However, molecular mechanisms related to anti-BPDE-induced carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the expression of proto-oncogene c-myc in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE-T) transformed by exposure to anti-BPDE. The levels of mRNA and protein of c-Myc were examined in the 16HBE-T and vehicle-treated control cells (16HBE-N) by using different methods respectively, including reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), western blot and immunocytochemical methods. The level of c-myc mRNA appeared to be significantly increased in 16HBE-T, as compared with those of the 16HBE-N. Likewise, the expression of c-Myc protein was significantly enhanced as compared with those of the control cells. Moreover, the localization of c-Myc protein shows mainly nuclear staining in 16HBE-T. In conclusion, the abnormal expression of c-Myc was present in anti-BPDE malignantly transformed 16HBE cells, which may be involved in the carcinogenesis molecular mechanism of anti-BPDE.
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Investigation of gene therapy of denovirus in immune suppression
XIA Xi, WANG Beibei, CAO Li, CHEN Gang, WU Peng, LU Yunping, ZHOU Jianfeng, MA Ding
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 386-390.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0074-2

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The aim of this paper is to investigate the safety of reconstructed adenovirus in immunosuppressive therapeutics and to explore the role of ciclosporin A in antagonizing the elimination of the vector. Several rats were given retroperitoneal injection of purified ADV-TK in order to obtain models. After 14 days’ treatment of ciclosporin A, samples of different periods were obtained, then stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) to detect inflammation reactions. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of adenovirus in organs. The results are as follows: (1) In HE stained sections of the organs, some transitory and reversible inflammation was detected. (2) In immunohistochemistry assay, reconstructed adenovirus decreased gradually as time went by in the control group, while it did not happen in the experimental group in which the adenovirus showed a relative increase compared with their counterparts (P < 0.05). (3) The distributions of adenovirus in the liver, spleen and lung were higher than those in the other organs detected. Reconstructed adenovirus as a vector is definitely safe in immunosuppressive therapeutics, and ciclosporin A, to some extent, is able to consequently inhibit the immune response of the rats and prolong the existing period of adenovirus.
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The early signal substances induced by heat stress in brains of mice
WANG Chunxu, WANG Hanxing
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 391-395.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0075-1

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To study the effects of early signal substances induced by heat stress in brains of Kunming mice, six-month-old mice (n = 72) were pretreated with heat stress and subsequent ischemia/reperfusion by clipping of their bilateral cervical common arteries for 7 min. According to different treatments, animals were randomly divided into four groups: (1) normal control group; (2) heat stress pretreatment followed by ischemia and reperfusion group (HS/IR); (3) ischemia and reperfusion group (IR); (4) heat stress group (HS). Animals in the later three groups were subdivided into 3 subgroups (1 day, 4 days, 14 days), respectively. The changes in the expression of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were detected by immunohistochemistry and computer image analysis methods. The results showed that compared with the normal group, the expressions of CREB in the hippocampal CA1 region increased significantly in the HS, HS/IR and IR groups (P < 0.05). Compared to the normal group, heat stress could result in CGRP excretion and redistribution in the cerebrum, with the highest level in the 4 d HS/IR group. Following heat stress, CGRP immunoreactivity was observed in varicose fibers and neuronal perikarya within the CA1 region. The results indicate that heat stress can induce CREB expression, which in turn stimulates CGRP secretion.
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A 7-year follow-up study of the features and transformations of elderly male patients with OGTT-1h hyperglycemia
TIAN Hui, LI Chunlin, ZHONG Wenwen, PAN Changyu, LU Juming, CAO Xiutang
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 396-399.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0076-0

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The aim of this paper is to investigate the clinical features and transformation of elderly male patients with normal blood glucose levels at fasting and 2 hours after glucose intake but with hyperglycemia (≥ 11.1 mmol/L) 1 hour after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-1h HG). Seven years of follow-up visits were performed on 189 elderly male outpatients with OGTT-1h HG and data was recorded on their body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, serum cholesterol and triglyceride test results and on their glucose tolerance changes every 1–2 years after taking OGTT; their possible causes were analysed. Follow-up visits revealed that 19 patients with OGTT-1h HG were diagnosed with diabetes (10.1%), 78 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, 41.3%), 2 patients transformed to normal glucose tolerance (NGT, 1.1%) and the remaining 90 patients (47.6%) remained unchanged. Synchronized comparison with IGT patients showed that the ratio of OGTT-1h HG patients turning to diabetes was lower than that of IGT patients (21.1%, ?2 = 13.05, P < 0.01), and the ratio of OGTT-1h HG patients transforming to NGT was slightly higher (0.4%, ?2 = 2.46, P > 0.05). The prevalence of complications of hypertension, coronary heart disease, cerebral vascular diseases and dyslipidemia in patients with OGTT-1h HG were higher than those with NGT (P < 0.05) and were similar to that of IGT patients. As a special phenotype of OGTT and as part of an abnormal glucose tolerance conformation, patients with OGTT-1h HG warrant special attention, since about half of them were found to have developed diabetes or IGT, and their risk of suffering from vascular diseases were also increased.
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Value of waist circumference, body mass index and hyperinsulinaemia in identifying metabolic syndrome
TIAN Hui, FANG Fusheng, SHAO Yinghong, LI Chunlin, LI Jian, YAN Shuangtong, ZHONG Wenwen, LI Yanyan, SUN Jingfang, CAO Xiutang, PAN Changyu, LU Juming, DOU Jingtao, MA Fangling, ZHOU Xiaoman
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 400-405.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0077-z

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To investigate the significance of waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and hyperinsulinaemia A (HIns) in evaluating metabolic syndrome (MS). Clinical data from middle-aged and senile individuals (middle-senile group) who received glucose tolerance test after diabetes mellitus screening and a group of subjects who received annual oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for diabetes mellitus screening (adult group) were collected. Data were collected by use of special messengers, input into a computer data base and analyzed using SAS 5.0 software by expert staff. Abnormal WC and BMI were determined according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) criteria. HIns was ascertained if fasting insulin (FIns) ≥ 15 mU/L, and/or 2-hour insulin after a glucose challenge was (2hPIns) ≥ 80 mU/L. Abnormalities in WC, BMI and HIns were all found to be risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidemia. In the middle-senile group, the abnormality rate of WC and HIns as well as the overall insulin level were significantly higher than those in the adult group. The abnormality rate of BMI was higher in the adult group, and HIns was mostly seen in impaired glucose test (IGT) and normal glucose test (NGT). The concordance rate of WC and BMI diagnostic criteria for evaluating obesity in the middle-senile and adult groups were 77.5% and 74.3%, respectively. When only the WC criterion was used for evaluating the existence of insulin resistance, there was a 28.2% missed diagnosis rate for MS patients. WC, BMI and HIns were all risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidemia. There was differing prevalence in the different populations. The combination of WC, BMI and HIns might be more helpful in identifying MS at early stage.
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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation causes significant changes of chemical substances in the brain of rabbits with experimental intracerebral hemorrhage
GUO Tiecheng, CAO Xuebing, XIA Limin
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 406-409.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0078-y

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More and more studies have reported the usefulness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of stroke patients. This article is to explore if rTMS can cause changes of such chemical substances as N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) in the surrounding area of experimental intracerebral hematoma of rabbits. A total of 36 rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group (group A), a sham rTMS group (group B) and an rTMS group (group C). The experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was induced by intracerebral injection of self-body blood of the animals in groups B and C, while those of the group A serving as controls were injected with normal saline. The rabbits of groups B and C were treated with sham and real rTMS, respectively, but those of group A were not. The contents of chemical substances including NAA, Cho and Cr in the perihematomal brain tissues were measured by using lH-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) 12 hours, 72 hours, 1 week and 2 weeks after the experimental ICH was induced. The results show that the contents of NAA, Cr and NAA/Cr ratio were decreased significantly, but Cho, Cho/Cr increased significantly in groups B and C (P < 0.01) as compared against those in group A. A comparison between the groups B and C revealed that the contents of NAA, Cr, NAA/Cr were higher, but Cho and Cho/Cr were significantly lower in group C than those in group B (P < 0.01). It is concluded that rTMS could result in changes of the chemical substance contents in perihematomal brain tissues, which leads to neuroprotective effects in the brain.
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A case of big substernal goiter resection
SONG Jiangping, LIAO Hongying, YU Chao, ZHANG Jian, Li Yun, GU Lijia
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 410-413.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0079-x

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Substernal goiter is considered to be a diagnostic differential for all anterosuperior mediastinal masses. For a substernal goiter, surgical removal is suggested when it is large in size, with a possibility for malignancy or has local compression of adjacent structures. This can be performed through the neck or by the addition of a partial or complete sternotomy if necessary. A 58-year-old Chinese man from Guangdong Province had had dry cough for a year. A subsequent CT scan in our hospital suggested “ectopic intrathoracic thyroid”. Fine needle percutaneous mass biopsy also suggested “ectopic intrathoracic thyroid”. We performed a standard median sternotomy to remove the mass. It measured 13 cm × 8 cm × 6 cm in size, and weighed 2.8 kg. The pathological diagnosis confirmed a benign thyroid adenoma. The patient had no hoarseness, dyspnea or hypocalcemia and was quickly extubated in the operating room. Recently, we encountered a big substernal goiter and had performed successful resection, which is reported here for reference.
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Endoscopic resection of a huge Brunner's gland adenoma
ZHANG Binbin, REN Xu, TANG Xiufen, CHI Yuxin, SHI Xuesong
Front. Med.. 2008, 2 (4): 414-418.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-008-0080-4

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Brunner’s gland adenoma is a rare tumour of the duodenum, which is usually benign. A 71-year-old woman presenting with epigastric pain, upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage and melaena was reported in this paper. Upper gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopy revealed a large pedunculated tumour on the superior part of the duodenal bulb. Endoscopic polypectomy was successfully performed by clipping and nylon thread without any complications. Histological examination revealed a Brunner’s gland adenoma.
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