Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

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2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

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Research articles
Molecular markers and pathogenically targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer
Bo PENG BA , Jinnong ZHANG MD , Jamile S. WOODS MD , Wei PENG MD, PhD
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 245-255.

Abstract   PDF (295KB)
Lung cancer is one of the most common human cancers and the number one cancer killer in the United States. In general, lung cancer includes small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but NSCLC accounts for approximately 90% of lung cancer. The early diagnosis and therapy of lung cancer still presents a big challenge because validated screening tools, which can improve current early detection to reduce mortality from lung cancer, do not exist. Over the last decade, molecular genetic abnormalities have been described in NSCLC, including chromosomal aberrations, overexpression of oncogenes, and deletion and/or mutations in tumor suppressor genes. These molecular markers in NSCLC demonstrated close associations with the development of lung cancer such as Ras, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, or c-erbB-1), HER2 (c-erbB-2), c-Met, and Bcl-2. Therefore, this information may be applied for early cancer detection, classification, novel targeted therapy, and prognosis in NSCLC. Recent clinical data have revealed that targeted therapy might be the second-line therapy as an alternative approach. Currently, the targeted therapies are mainly focused on two lung cancer pathways, the EGFR and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways. Some clinical trials are very encouraging, but some of them are not. However, these trials have not identified a subgroup of NSCLC with biomarkers. Therefore, it is very important to select NSCLC patients with biomarkers to match targeted agents so that we can further identify effectiveness of targeted therapy in the future.
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Molecular targeted therapy of gynecological malignant tumors: the development and challenge, from laboratory to clinic
Pengming SUN PhD, MD , Jalid SEHOULI PhD, MD , Lihui WEI BM ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 256-264.

Abstract   PDF (274KB)
More and more molecular drugs based on targeted therapy have been utilized in the treatment of gynecologic cancer, especially in ovarian cancer. In this article, we systematically review the current targeted therapeutic trials running in clinic. Large, randomized trials have been conducted in the treatment of ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer and cervical cancer by using small molecule, antisense, mutational gene as well as antibodies. Other planned or ongoing trials currentlytargeted at molecular markers which may play important roles in gynecological carcinogenesis andprogression suggest that combination chemotherapy with molecular targeted therapy will ultimately be an importantoption.
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MicroRNAs and hepatitis viruses
Gang LI MD , Xiaojia XIONG MM ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 265-270.

Abstract   PDF (107KB)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNA molecules. They play a pivotal role in diverse domains such as infection, tumorigenesis, and immune reaction. As key regulators of most genes’ expression, they react at posttranscriptional level. It is increasingly clear that miRNAs are necessary for physiological and pathological processes. In the past few years, investigators gradually brought the concept of miRNA into studies of viral infection, including hepatitis viruses. The hepatitis B and C viruses are common causes of liver disease worldwide. It is very difficult to cure chronic hepatitis due to drug resistance during antivirus therapy. Elucidating the mechanisms of virus-host interactions in hepatitis B and C is very important in diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. This article reviews the current knowledge of viral hepatitis (B and C type) at the level of miRNA and tries to outline areas of potential studies.
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Correlation between viral load and liver cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B patients
Lili LIU MM , Jiyao WANG MD , Weimin SHE MM ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 271-276.

Abstract   PDF (108KB)
The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels during the course and the progression to cirrhosis with chronic hepatitis B. A total of 239 chronic hepatitis B patients confirmed by liver biopsy between 2001 and 2007 were followed up for a median of 28 months. Compared with the patients without cirrhosis, the patients progressed to cirrhosis were older and with higher HBV-DNA levels at end point. However, there was no significant difference in cirrhosis progression between different HBV-DNA groups at baseline (P = 0.531). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed higher HBV-DNA level at endpoint had increasing risk of cirrhosis (P = 0.019). The results of Cox model indicated that HBV-DNA levels at endpoint, stage of fibrosis, negative hepatitis B e antigen, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase at baseline were independent risk factors of cirrhosis. The relative risk ratios were 1.898, 1.918, 8.976, and 1.006, respectively. Progression to cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B patients is correlated with HBV-DNA levels during follow-up.
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Preparation, identification, and clinical application of anti-HBs monoclonal antibody that binds both wild-type and immune escape mutant HBsAgs
Fanghe LI BM , Chunyan ZHANG MS , Jinghua LIU MS , Xiaoyan ZHANG MS , Bing YAN , Bo ZHANG MS , Yongguo HUANG MS , Jingsong GONG BM , Yan CHEN BM ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 277-283.

Abstract   PDF (112KB)
Using a standard cellular fusion technique and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a hybridoma cell line strain secreting anti-HBs monoclonal antibody (mAb) (defined G6 mAb) was obtained. The cells grew and secreted mAb stably. Antibody titers in the culture supernatant and ascites were 2.048×106 and 4.096×106, respectively. By applying the anti-HBs G6 mAb and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled goat anti-HBs antibody, we developed a sandwich ELISA (defined G6m ELISA) for detecting both wild-type and immune escape mutant HBsAgs (IEM HBsAg). The assay was performed to detect 17 species of genome recombinant expression HBsAg, including two wild-type species and 15 IEM HBsAg species, which varied in the “a” determinant, in a group of patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The patients previously had a lower ELISA detection signal [(absorbance of patients/absorbance of normal people (P/N): 1.0―4.5)]. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity of this assay to wild-type HBsAg was no less than 0.125g/L; 12 of 15 IEM HBsAg species (P/N≥2.5) were positive for G6 mAb. Of the positive IEM HBsAg species, two had a low absorbance value at 450nm (A450), one had an intermediate A450 value and nine had a high A450 value, which was 7.55%(mean), 59.4% and 92.1%―109.4% of the wild-type A450 value, respectively. The two species with low A450 value and the three negative species mutated at the bases 120―124 in the first loop of the HBV “a” determinant. Using the G6 ELISA and two commercial ELISA kits (A and B), 177 patients were tested. The G6 ELISA had a significantly higher detection rate than either commercial ELISAs (19.21% vs 14.89% and 6.21%, respectively; P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively).
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Role of nitric oxide in biological effects of vascular endothelial growth factor
Qigong LIU M D , Yan ZENG , Jiani LIU , Shan YE , Yongdong LI , Zaiying LU M D ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 284-286.

Abstract   PDF (72KB)
To evaluate the role of nitric oxide in the biological effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the possible mechanism of VEGF, the in vitro cultured vascular endothelial cells of rabbit aorta were divided into control group, VEGF-treated group and VEGF+ N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-treated group. The absorbance (A) value of vascular endothelial cells and the levels of prostaglandin (PGI2), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in the supernatant were observed by water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay, radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The A values and PGI2 in VEGF-treated group and VEGF+L-NAME-treated group were higher than those in control group (P<0.05 and P<0.01). The ET-1 and vWF were significantly decreased in VEGF-treated group and VEGF+L-NAME-treated group compared with the control (P<0.05 and P<0.01). These results indicate that VEGF could promote the proliferation and secretion of PGI2 and inhibit the secretion of ET-1 and vWF in vascular endothelial cells and that L-NAME could inhibit the effect of VEGF partially. Nitric oxide is an important mediator in the process of stimulating proliferation and regulating secretion of vascular endothelial cells by VEGF.
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Lentivector-mediated RNAi efficiently downregulates expression of murine cdk4 gene
Feng JIANG PhD , Xuezhen WANG PhD , Zheng XUE MD , Suming ZHANG PhD , Siyu FANG BM , Min ZHANG MD, PhD ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 287-291.

Abstract   PDF (158KB)
In order to explore the role of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4) in neurodegenerative diseases, lentiviral-delivered RNA interference (RNAi) was used to silence the expression of the murine cdk4 gene in vitro. Three cdk4-shRNAs of mouse and a negative sequence were designed. After synthesis and annealing, double strand oligonucleotides were cloned into a linearized pSIH1-H1-copGFP shRNA vector. It was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing that three pairs of cdk4-shRNAs and a negative shRNA were correctly inserted into the pSIH1-H1-copGFP vector. The above recombinants were transfected by lipofectamine into BV-2 cells. The gene silencing efficacy rates of the 3 targets were compared by Western blotting. The cdk4-siRNA2 was the most effective in silencing cdk4. The optimized pSIH1-cdk4-siRNA2 and pSIH-negative-siRNA were co-transfected into 293T cells with the lentiviral packaging plasmids respectively. The culture supernatant was harvested and condensed at the 24th and 48thh after transfection. Interference efficiency of the lentivirus expressing cdk4-siRNA was determined by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting in BV-2 cells. Lentivector-mediated RNAi could efficiently down-regulate the expression of the murine cdk4 gene in vitro, which provides a potential tool for studying and treating cdk4-related diseases.
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Design of tandem genes cluster for isoflavone engineering
Xunli XIA PhD , Guangxiao YANG PhD , Guangyuan HE PhD ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 292-296.

Abstract   PDF (160KB)
In this paper, a universal effective novel method of constructing tandem genes cluster for isoflavone engineering was reported. A tandem genes cluster CHS-CHI-IFS (rIFS) of secondary metabolites of plant isoflavones was constructed by using the chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), and isoflavone synthase (IFS) (GenBank accession numbers EU526827, EU526829, EU526830) in only one recombination with the pET22b vector. The resulting expression vector pET-rIFS was heterogeneously expressed and co-incubated with barrenwort extractions, and the genistein-like component was detected.
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Construction of eukaryotic expression vector of human arresten gene and its secreted expression in HEK 293 cells
Wei LI PhD , Siming GUAN MM , Zifang SONG PhD , Qichang ZHENG PhD , Jun XIONG PhD , Dan SHANG PhD , Xiaogang SHU PhD ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 297-302.

Abstract   PDF (143KB)
The eukaryotic expression vector of human arresten gene was constructed and its secretive expression human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells was detected. Human arresten gene was amplified from recombinant plasmid pGEM-Arr by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then digested with restriction endonucleases BamH I and EcoR I. The target fragment was inserted into the BamH I and EcoR I restriction sites of eukaryotic expression vector pSecTag2 to construct pST-AT. Restriction analysis and DNA sequencing indicated that the arresten gene was successfully inserted into pSecTag2. The recombinant plasmid was subsequently transfected into HEK 293 cells with LipofectAMINETM2000 Reagent, and the expression of the target gene was detected. RT-PCR revealed that the mRNA of the target gene was transcribed in the transfected HEK 293 cells. Western Blot analysis verified that the recombinant protein in supernatants was correct. The supernatants of transfected cells were prepared, and 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay was carried out to assess their effect on the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which showed that the recombinant protein could significantly suppress the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. These results provided a solid foundation to explore the usage of arresten in tumor anti-angiogenic gene therapy.
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Effects of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha siRNA on the invasion of human Hela cells and expression of related proteins
Bin YANG MS , Xianglin YUAN , Yanmei ZOU , Qingsong XI , Guoxian LONG , Qiang FU , Guangyuan HU MM ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 303-308.

Abstract   PDF (262KB)
The effects of hypoxia on the invasion and the related protein expression of Hela cells and the role of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were investigated. The Hela cells were divided into three groups, namely, H0 (non-transfected Hela cells), H1 (pGenesil-1 empty plasmid-transfected Hela cells), and H2 (HIF-1α-shRNA plasmid-transfected Hela cells), and were cultured under hypoxia (1% O2) and normoxia for 48h. The expression of HIF-1α, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and actin was detected using Western blot. The scratch test and the invasion assay were applied to examine the invasion in each group. The expression of HIF-1α, E-cadherin, and β-catenin in tumor grafts was assayed immunohistochemically. Western blot results revealed that the bands of HIF-1α, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and actin proteins were detected in the H0 and H1 groups under hypoxia for 48h. The expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and actin was detected in the H2 group under hypoxia for 48h, and normoxia. In the H0, H1, and H2 groups under normoxia, and the H2 group under hypoxia for 48h, no expression of HIF-1α was detectable. The scratch test showed that the invasive ability in the H2 group was significantly alleviated. Immunohistochemically, it was found that there was a significant difference in the expression of HIF-1α, E-cadherin, and β-catenin between the H1 and H2 groups (P<0.05), but the difference was not significant between the H0 and H1 groups. It was concluded that the effects of hypoxia on the invasion of human cervical cancer Hela cells and the expression of related proteins (E-cadherin, β-catenin, and actin) depend on HIF-1α.
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Gene and protein expression of proteinase-activated receptor-1, 2 in a murine model of acute graft host disease
Quan LI MD , Weiming LI MD , Ping ZOU MD , Jian ZHANG BM ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 309-315.

Abstract   PDF (326KB)
Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a novel subclass of seven transmembrane-spanning, G protein-coupled receptors. PAR-1 and PAR-2 are widely expressed in a variety of cells and are found to be involved in many physiological and pathological processes including inflammation and immune response. However, little is known about the function of PAR-1, 2 in acute graft vs host disease (GVHD). In the present study, we first detected the expression of PAR-1, 2 protein and mRNA in a murine model of acute GVHD using the methods of immunohistochemistry, Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Syngeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) mice served as controls. The relative gene expression level of PAR-1 was significantly increased in the skin, liver, small intestine of allogeneic HSCT mice (in skin: 0.039±0.013 vs 0.008±0.002 of controls, P=0.009; in liver: 0.165±0.006 vs 0.017±0.006 of controls, P=0.004; in small intestine: 0.215±0.009 vs 0.016±0.002 of controls, P=0.003), but not in the stomach, lung and kidney of allogeneic HSCT mice (P>0.05). PAR-2 mRNA expression in the liver and small intestine of allogeneic HSCT mice (in liver: 0.010±0.002 vs 0.003±0.001 of controls, P=0.008; in small intestine: 0.006±0.001 vs 0.003±0.001 of controls, P=0.024) was increased significantly, but PAR-2 mRNA expression in the other organs (P>0.05) was not found to be significantly elevated. PAR-1, 2 protein expression was in accordance with the mRNA expression, as shown by Western blot. Using immunohistochemistry the present study demonstrated that there was strong PAR-1, 2 immunoreactivity in the epithelial cell and vascular endothelial cell of target organs of acute GVHD. Our findings of markedly increased expression of PAR-1, 2 in target organs of acute GVHD suggest that PAR-1 and PAR-2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute GVHD.
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Effect of pirfenidone on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis
Dixin LI MM , Hongbing ZENG MD , Chunyang JI MM ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 316-322.

Abstract   PDF (452KB)
Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the common end stage of various chronic renal diseases, and pirfenidone (PFD) is a novel, broad-spectrum anti-fibrotic compound but little is known about its effect and mechanism of action on renal TIF. In this work, we employed a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) rat model to investigate the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTC) after PFD treatment. Thirty-five Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into three groups: sham-operated group (n=7), UUO group (n=14) and PFD group (n=14). All rats were sacrificed at day 7 or 14 after operation. Renal histology was studied by using periodic acid schiff reagent (PAS) and Masson trichromic stain (MASSON); apoptosis was detected by in situ terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL); tubular caspase-3 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total activity of superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) in the renal cortex was determined by chemical colorimetry method. TIF, apoptosis of RTC, tubular expression of caspase-3 and the content of MDA were increased in the UUO group compared with those in the sham-operated group, and were ameliorated significantly by PFD treatment (P<0.05). The activity of SOD was decreased in the UUO group, but was improved by PFD treatment (P<0.05). Our results showed that PFD could ameliorate TIF in the UUO group, and the possible mechanism was by reducing the apoptosis of RTC, which involved oxidative stress and caspase-3.
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Effects of exercise therapy on bone mineral density in early postmenopausal women: a controlled trial
Shilin DENG MD ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 323-329.

Abstract   PDF (107KB)
The purpose of this article is to determine the effect of a well-designed combined aerobic, resistance, and extension exercise program on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. The population comprised 45 postmenopausal women, who exercised over 12months (exercise group), and 36 women who served as a non-training control group. BMD of the hip, and lumbar spine was measured at the baseline and 12th month. Repeated measurement analysis of variance and nonparametric test were utilized to compare differences between the exercise group and controls. Thirty-six out of 45 persons in the exercise group and 36 controls completed the study. Average compliance was 82.2% for the whole exercise group at the 12th month. All the subjects had decreased BMD, but the rate of bone loss was lower in the exercise group than in the control group at the L4 and hip. Although the exercise program in this study may probably reduce the rate of bone loss in weight-bearing skeletal sites, we do not suggest the exercise by itself be viewed as prevention or treatment for osteoporosis. Further, the exact dose-response relationship of exercise and bone mass in early postmenopause is not clear.
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Protective effects of nicotine on gamma-aminobutyric acid neurons and dopaminergic neurons in mice with Parkinson disease
Lei FU MD , Dezheng GONG BM , Yan PENG , Dongmei WANG BM , Hong XU , Yue LI MD , Dengqin YU BS , Yanhui FENG MD , Shengming YIN PhD , Jin GONG , Yiping SUN PhD ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 330-335.

Abstract   PDF (323KB)
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of nicotine on dopaminergic neurons and its mechanisms in mice with Parkinson disease (PD) induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). C57BL/6J mice were injected with MPTP for 8 days to establish a PD model. Nicotine was given for 10 days in the nicotine therapeutic group. Animals were examined behaviorally with the pole test and traction test. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined by using the immunocytochemistry (ICC) method. The ultrastructural changes of the caudate nucleus (CN) were observed under electron microscopy. The results showed that pretreatment with nicotine could improve the dyskinesia of PD mice markedly. Simultaneously, TH-positive (P < 0.01) neurons and GABA-positive (P < 0.05) neurons in the nicotine therapeutic group were significantly more than those in the model group. The ultrastructural injury of the nicotine therapeutic group was also ameliorated. Nicotine has protective effects on the γ-aminobutyric acid neurons and dopaminergic neurons in the MPTP-treated mice.
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Effect of lanthanum chloride on growth of breast cancer cells and regulation of transcription
Xue LI MM , Ping HE MM , Jie XIA MM , Shiwei SONG BS , Jinhai LU BM , Yunde LIU MM ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 336-340.

Abstract   PDF (113KB)
Lanthanum salt is a prescription drug, but its underlying functions and mechanisms are not fully understood currently. To explore the potential therapeutic value of lanthanum chloride, cytotoxicity test was applied to investigate its effects on cell proliferation. Furthermore, we observed its influence on pro-oncogene c-met by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In MCF-7 cell line, lanthanum chloride repressed cell proliferation at high concentration but had no significant inhibition effect on cell growth at low concentration. However, we observed that lanthanum chloride repressed c-met transcription at a low concentration. This may suggest that lanthanum chloride is a potent drug to inhibit the high expression of c-met in carcinoma cells and play a clue for inhibiting the growth and invasion of tumor.
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Effects of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor on human cervical carcinoma cells
Yuan ZHANG MD , Xiaoyan ZHANG MM , Yanhui LI MM , Xuan DU MM , Zehua WANG MD, PhD , Hongbo WANG MD ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 341-346.

Abstract   PDF (145KB)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a crucial cell survival pathway implicated in tumorigenesis because of its role in stimulating cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis. This study was to investigate the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis by LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K in cervical cancer cells and the expression of FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) in vitro. Human cervical cancer HeLa cells were used in this experiment and cultured. The cultured cells were treated with LY294002 at different concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 100µmol/L) for 6, 12, 24, and 48h before harvesting for evaluation. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiazol(-2-y1)-3,5-di-phenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of c-FLIP was detected by Western blot. Cell viability was inhibited by LY294002 significantly (P<0.05). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that cell apoptosis was significantly increased in the presence of LY294002 as compared with the control group. Although the expression of c-FLIP was increased in a short time, the expression of c-FLIP was markedly suppressed after the treatment of LY294002 for 48h. These results suggested that the PI3K/Akt signal pathway might be involved in the regulation of cell apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Moreover, the regulation of c-FLIP expression through PI3K/Akt signal pathway in cervical cancer cells was observed in vitro.
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Laparoscopic sigmoid vaginoplasty in women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome
Yi SHEN MD , Guobin WANG MD , Zhoufang XIONG MD , Kaixiong TAO MD , Zehua WANG MD ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 347-351.

Abstract   PDF (84KB)
The feasibility and clinical therapeutic effects of laparoscopic sigmoid vaginoplasty in women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHs) were explored. The records of 11 MRKHs patients who underwent laparoscopic sigmoid vaginoplasty from 2003 to 2005 were reviewed, and long-term results were evaluated by follow-up. The mean operating time was 234min (range, 130―300min), the mean hospital stay was 9.4 days (range, 7―15 days), and the mean hemoglobin drop was 1.91g/dL (range, 1.6―3.2g/dL). A functional neovagina was created measuring 11 to 14cm in length and two fingers in breadth in all patients. No introitus stenosis was observed. No intra-operative or postoperative bowel complication occurred. At the 3rd postoperative month, the first intercourse began. One patient was lost to follow-up. One had no intercourse and was required to wear vaginal mold occasionally. None of the other nine women (100%) complained of local irritation or dyspareunia. They were satisfied with their sexual life. The cosmetic results were excellent. The laparoscopic sigmoid vaginoplasty realizes to make a functional neovagina. The main advantage is its minimal invasiveness. It is an ideal procedure for MRKHs patients.
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Sensory innervation of the anterior eye segment in rats: a retrograde tracing study
Haixia LIU MD , Zhiwang LI MD , Min YANG MD , Xiang TIAN MS , Chaoying LI PhD , Lei PEI PhD ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 352-356.

Abstract   PDF (137KB)
This study aimed to investigate the sensory innervation of the anterior eye segment in rats by retrograde tracing with 1,1-dioleyl-3,3,3,3-tetrameth-ylindocarbocyanine, 4-chlorobenesulfonate (FAST Dil) injected into the anterior chamber. In our study, the sensory innervation of distinct elements of the anterior segment of the rat’s eye, i.e. the cornea, ciliary body, iris, and trabecular meshwork, were studied by retrograde tracing using FAST Dil as a tracer. FAST Dil was injected into the anterior chambers of the rat’s eyes. The animals were sacrificed at different time points, i.e., 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after the injection. FAST Dil localization in trigeminal ganglions was studied with a fluorescent microscope. Two days after FAST Dil injection into the anterior chambers, the cornea, the ciliary body, the iris, and the trabecular meshwork were heavily labeled. Neurons in the ipsilateral trigeminal ganglion were also consistently labeled. The number of labeled cells increased over time until 4 days after FAST Dil injection. FAST Dil-labeled neurons could be divided into two parts. Most of the Dil-labeled neurons were concentrated in a sharp, longitudinal, spindle-like stripe, located in the dorso-medial side of the trigeminal ganglion, approximately two thirds of the dorsal portion. The other part of Dil-labeled neurons scattered laterally to the stripe, but just in one third of the dorsal region. Thus, with our preliminary results, we conclude that the primary afferent sensory neurons innervating the rat’s anterior eye segments aggregate in the dorso-medial part of the ipsilateral trigeminal ganglion. It is feasible to identify them using retrograde tracing with FAST Dil anterior chamber injection.
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Relative expression of PTTG and bFGF in oral squamous cell carcinoma and Tca8113
Yumei DING BM , Lili CHEN MD , Bo CHENG PhD , Handong ZHANG MM ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 357-362.

Abstract   PDF (159KB)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and tongue cancer cell line Tca8113, as well as their effects on each other. We detected PTTG protein and bFGF in OSCC tissues from 56 cases using the streptavidin-biotin peroxidase (S-P) method; additionally, after being treated with different concentrations of anti bFGF or PTTG antibody, PTTG or bFGF expression in Tca8113 was examined by immunocytochemistry. The results were as follows: (1) Positive rates of PTTG protein and bFGF were 78.2% and 67.3% in OSCC, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in normal mucosal tissues (P<0.05). PTTG protein was significantly up-regulated in poorly and moderately differentiated tumors compared to well differentiated tumors (P<0.05), and there was also a significant difference between tumors with lymph node metastasis and tumors without lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). PTTG protein expression was positively correlated with bFGF (r = 0.382, P<0.05); (2) PTTG protein emitted strong fluorescence in Tca8113, and it decreased after being treated with anti-bFGF antibody. Anti-PTTG antibody also had an inhibitive effect on bFGF expression. In summary, the overexpression of PTTG protein is closely related with OSCC differentiation and lymph node metastasis. PTTG protein expression conforms to bFGF in OSCC tissues and Tca8113 cells. Detection of both PTTG and bFGF may help to judge the degree of malignancy and prognosis of patients with OSCC.
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Effect of decoction on CD14 expression in lipopolysaccharide signal transduction pathway of alcohol-induced liver disease in rats
Rui ZHU MD , Lin SHEN MD , Jianguo LIU MD , Weili ZHANG MM , Ling YANG MD ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 363-367.

Abstract   PDF (176KB)
This paper aims to investigate the effects of Zhihuang (枳黄) decoction on CD14 expression in the lipopolysaccharide signal transduction pathway of alcohol-induced liver disease in rats. Seventy-five Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Ethanol (56%, weight/volumn) was intragastrically administrated to 50 rats (14mL/kg body weight per day) for 10 days to establish a model of alcohol-induced liver disease, and 25 of these 50 rats were treated with Zhihuang decoction simultaneously. Liver injury was evaluated by biochemical examination. The plasma content of endotoxin was assayed by biochemistry. The expression of CD14 mRNA and protein in rat liver was measured by reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Zhihuang decoction pretreatment significantly protected against acute alcohol-induced liver injury, which was evidenced by the decrease of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In addition, the level of plasma endotoxin and up-regulation of CD14 was also suppressed by Zhihuang decoction in alcohol-intoxicated rats. Zhihuang decoction can significantly reduce CD14 expression in the lipopolysaccharide signal transduction pathway, which is one of the most important mechanisms of Zhihuang decoction to treat hepatic injury induced by alcohol in rats.
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The value of ultrasound elastography in differential diagnosis of superficial lymph nodes
Yanrong ZHANG phD , Qing LV MD , Mingxing XIE MD , Feixiang XIANG phD , Chengfa LU BM , Tianwei YAN BM , Wei LI BM , Hui XU BM , Yan HUANG BM , Yehua YIN BM ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 368-374.

Abstract   PDF (344KB)
The study evaluated the value of ultrasound elastography in differentiating the benign and malignant superficial lymph nodes. A total of 112 subjects, including 82 patients with enlarged lymph nodes and 30 healthy volunteers, were recruited. All the subjects were examined by B-mode ultrasonography, power Doppler ultrasonography and elastography. Most of the patients were histopathologically confirmed by needle aspiration cytology and some patients were diagnosed by clinical data combined with follow-up findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of B-mode ultrasonography were 59.8%, 76.5% and 67.1%, those of the blood flow classification by power Doppler ultrasonography 77.0%, 82.3% and 79.4% and those of elastographic classification 74.7%, 97.1% and 84.5%, respectively. The elasticity of the lymph nodes was quantitatively measured and defined as stiffness value. When the stiffness value of 2.395 was taken as the cutoff point, the sensitivity and specificity of elastography were 78.41% and 98.51%, and the Youden index reached the highest, with the value being 0.7692. The stiffness values of two indeterminate benign lymph nodes, the elastrographic findings of which were rated as patterns 2 and 3, were below the cutoff point. The elastographic findings of 10 malignant lymph nodes were also classified as pattern 2 or 3. Only one of them had the stiffness values below the cutoff point. It was concluded that ultrasound elastography is a novel, noninvasive and convenient tool for the differentiation of the nature of the superficial lymph nodes in clinical practice.
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Successful infrainguinal revascularization with autologous vein for inadvertent stripping of superficial femoral artery: a case report
Yin XIA MD , Dan SHANG MD, PhD , Qin LI MD , Wenyi LI MD , Hanqing WU MD , Guofu HU MD , Chao YANG MD , Yiqing LI MD , Bi JIN MD ,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (3): 375-378.

Abstract   PDF (260KB)
A referral patient who had previously undergone varicose vein surgery was admitted as an emergency case. On admission, the patient complained of intolerable pain, paralysis and paresthesia of the affected limb, which was characterized by acute arterial ischemia symptoms. Color Doppler of the artery of the affected limb indicated that no blood flow signal existed in the superficial femoral artery. During exploratory operation, we found that the right superficial femoral artery instead of the great saphenous vein of the affected limb had been stripped and ligated. Therefore, the intact right great saphenous vein was taken for auto-transplantation by inverse end-to-end anastomosis to the proximal and distal residual superficial femoral artery, which resulted in gradual recovery. Except for ischemic reperfusion injury, no other post-operative complications occurred after a 10 month follow-up; however, the long-term curative effect needs further observation. Here we report our treatment experience.
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