Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

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Research articles
Effect of PRAK gene knockout on the proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts
Xiaowei GONG MD, PhD, Xiaoyan MING MD, Xu WANG MM, Daan WANG MD, Peng DENG MM, Yong JIANG MD, PhD, Aihua LIU MD, PhD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 379-383.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0073-y

Abstract   PDF (148KB)
p38 regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK) plays a key role in cell senescence and tumor suppression. The aim of this study was to investigate if PRAK had effect on cell proliferation. The growth of PRAK+/+ and PRAK−/− mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells was measured by methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay, and the proportion of the cell number in different phases of the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The growth curves showed that the growth rate was notably decreased, and cell double time was elongated in PRAK−/− cells; moreover, the number of PRAK−/− cells was decreased by 44.5% compared with that of PRAK+/+ cells cultured for 96h, suggesting that G2/M transition is inhibited in PRAK−/− cells. Meanwhile, G1/S transition was also inhibited in PRAK−/− cells, observed with flow cytometry analysis. The ratios of G0/G1, G2/M, and S phases of PRAK+/+ cells were 44.9%, 12.2%, and 42.9%, respectively, while those of PRAK−/− cells were 55.3%, 7.3%, and 37.4%, respectively. There were 23.1% increase and 12.7% decrease of the number of PRAK−/− cells in G1 and S phases comparison with that of PRAK+/+ cells, respectively. Taken together, PRAK gene knockout in MEF cells leads to cell cycle arrest and proliferation inhibition.
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The role of CDK1 siRNA interference in cell cycle and cell apoptosis
Hui XIAO PhD, Ming TIAN MM, Junna GE MM, Xin Wei MD, Zhaoming LI MM, Xiaolan LI MS, Deding TAO PhD, Junbo HU MD, Jianping GONG MD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 384-389.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0070-1

Abstract   PDF (212KB)
In the present report, cyclin-dependent kinase1 (CDK1) siRNA was transfected into cells to silence the CDK1 gene expression and study its role in the cell cycle and cell apoptosis. The siRNA targeting CDK1 gene was chemically synthesized and transfected into Hela cells by lipofectamine 2000. The expression levels of CDK1 gene and protein were examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot, respectively. The cell cycle was analyzed by using DNA content analysis by flow cytometry. Cell apoptosis was detected by the Annexin V/PI method. The morphological changes of transfected cells were examined under the microscopy by Wright-Giemsa stain. CDK1 gene was successfully silenced by its siRNA, and the CDK1 protein expression level was decreased significantly, especially from 48thh to 60thh after transfection. The DNA content analysis showed that transfection of CDK1 siRNA led to cells accumulating in G2/M phase. There was no significant difference in the apoptotic rate between transfected cells and the control cells after transfection of CDK1 siRNA for 48 or 60h. More double nucleus or multinucleus cells could be seen under the microscopy among the transfected cells. The decreased CDK1 expression by siRNA silencing gave rise to cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase but did not induce apoptosis.
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Construction and humoral immune response of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2 DNA vaccine in mice
Jianqing PAN PhD, Qin ZHANG MD, Daowen WANG MD, PhD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 390-395.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0087-5

Abstract   PDF (475KB)
We constructed a eukaryotic expression plasmid encoding Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2 (EBV, LMP2) and evaluated its effects on humoral immunity. First, the encoding sequence of the EBV LMP2 was amplified from B95−8 cell RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and then was directionally cloned into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1. It was employed to evaluate immune response of the mice inoculated doubly with the DNA vaccine. The serum antibody against LMP2 was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-LMP2 was confirmed by the restrictive endonuclease analysis and sequence analysis. The serum titer of IgG antibody against LMP2 epitope in the mice immunized with the DNA vaccine encoding LMP2 was up to 1∶4000. In conclusion, the EBV LMP2 DNA vaccine can induce a strong humoral immune response in mice.
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Construction and expression of hepatitis B virus vector encoding TC-tagged core protein
Yuanyuan LIN MD, Xiaoming CHENG MS, Yuhu SONG MD, Peiyuan LI MD, Ying CHANG MM, Jinjian YAO MD, Jusheng LIN MD, PhD, Li ZHOU PhD, Leiming XU PhD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 396-402.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0056-z

Abstract   PDF (183KB)
Virus tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) contributes to the visualization and study of the virus in living cells. However, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) particle, which is a compact virion with limited internal space, cannot be incorporated with GFP tag as a large fragment. It was recently reported that protein genetically inserted with a smaller size tetracysteine (TC) tag could be specially labeled by a biarsenical fluorescent dye in living cells. In this study, we constructed a recombinant HBV vector encoding TC-tagged core protein for biarsenical labeling of HBV virion. TC tag was genetically inserted near the immunodominant c/e1 site of HBV core protein by mutagenesis. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis showed that the TC-tagged core protein, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) could be expressed in cells transfected with the recombinant HBV vector, which is similar to the cells transfected with wild-type HBV vector. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot analysis showed that HBV virion formation was affected by the genetic insertion of TC tag into core protein in some degree, but cells transfected with the HBV vector could still produce HBV virions incorporated with TC-tagged core proteins. Taken together, the recombinant HBV vector can serve as a useful tool to produce HBV virions incorporated with TC-tagged core proteins to be fluorescently labeled by biarsencial dye for visualizing and studying HBV in living cells.
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Role of exercise training on insulin resistance and TNF-α in high-fat diet rats
Hui SUN MD, Xiuling DENG MM, Fangxi XIAO MD, Lulu CHEN MD, Huiqing LI MD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 403-407.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0071-0

Abstract   PDF (111KB)
This study investigated the effect of exercise training on insulin resistance and serum and adipose TNF-α in high-fat diet-induced insulin-resistant rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: normal control group (NC; n=8) that accepted normal chow and high-fat diet group (HF; n=22) that fed on high-fat diet to induce insulin resistance model. The HF group was randomly assigned to two subgroups after 18 weeks: sedentary group (SE; n=10) and exercise training group (ET; n=12) that performed swimming exercise training for 6 weeks, while both groups continued high-fat diet. Changes of body weight, lipid profile, and fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated. Serum concentration of TNF-α was detected by ELISA. The expression of TNF-α mRNA and protein in adipose tissue was examined by using real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot, respectively. After 18 weeks, compared with the NC group, body weight, blood lipid, glucose, and insulin in the HF group were significantly elevated, while the ISI decreased obviously, which suggested that insulin resistance appeared in the HF group. After exercise training for 6 weeks, compared with the SE group, both ISI and serum TNF-α concentration in the ET group were decreased significantly; however, the expression levels of TNF-α mRNA and protein in adipose tissue increased by 27.5% and 20.5%, respectively. In conclusion, exercise training ameliorates insulin resistance. The reduction of the level of serum TNF-α and the increased expression of TNF-α in adipose tissue by exercise training may be involved in this mechanism.
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Long-term remodeling of anterior alveolar bone from treatment to retention
Yan LIU MD, Jiuhui JIANG MD, Tianmin XU MD, Haiping ZHANG MD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 408-414.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0069-7

Abstract   PDF (132KB)
Bone remodeling in orthodontic treatment has been one of the most concerned issues. The purpose of this study was to characterize the changes in bone remodeling on both labial and lingual aspects of the anterior teeth during treatment and retention. Data of 55 extraction cases (41 females and 14 males) were collected at pretreatment, post-treatment, and follow-up stages. Bone thickness on both labial and lingual aspects of the upper and lower incisors were measured at the level of the center of resistance (UC and LC) and that of 3mm apical to the upper and lower incisors’ center of resistance (UAC and LAC). For LC, with the significant lingual movement of point LIR (center of resistance of lower incisor; P<0.001), no statistically significant changes in alveolar width on the labial aspect were detected, whereas the reduction of lingual alveolar width was statistically significant (P<0.001). In retention, no significant movement of point LIR appeared to occur, while an increase in alveolar width on the lingual aspect was found at this stage. For LAC, the changes in alveolar width as well as the displacement of point LIA (apex of lower incisor) were similar to those of LC. On the maxilla, with the control lingual tipping movement of upper incisor, most of the anterior alveolar changes surrounding the upper incisor were analogous to those of lower incisor. But differently, during treatment, labial bone thickness was increased significantly as the upper incisor moved lingually, and in retention, no statistically significant changes were found on both labial and lingual bone thickness as the upper incisor labially proclined. It was concluded that, with lingual movement of the incisors, bone apposition on the lingual aspect may lag behind the incisor movement. In retention, the lower incisors are in a stable position, with sequential bone apposition being presented on the lingual aspect. However, the upper incisors turn out to be labially relapsed along with the lingual bone resorption and labial bone apposition occurring simultaneously.
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Adenovirus-mediated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 gene transfection inhibits rabbit intervertebral disc degeneration in vivo
Xudong YU MM, Zengwu SHAO MD, Liming XIONG MD, Weiwei XU MM, Hezhong WANG MM, Huifa XU MM,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 415-420.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0072-z

Abstract   PDF (267KB)
The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of recombinant adenovirus vector carrying tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (RAdTIMP-3) against degeneration of rabbit intervertebral disc. Thirty Japanese white rabbits of 4 months old were randomly divided into 5 groups. Mild or moderate rabbit lumbar disc degeneration model was constructed with the controllable axial loading device by imposing 98N pressure at the discs for 2 weeks. Various doses of virus were injected into the degenerated discs as follows: 20μL of normal saline in group 1; 20μL of RAd66 (an empty adenovirus vector, 1.0×1010OPU/mL) in group 2; and 20, 10, and 5μL of RAdTIMP-3 (1.0×1010OPU/mL) in groups 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Two weeks after the injection, the discs were collected for investigations, including assessment of degeneration degrees according to the Thompson’s grading system, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for TIMP-3 gene, Safranin O-Fast green staining, and immunohistochemical staining for TIMP-3 and type II collagen. According to Thompson’s criteria, the degeneration of groups 3, 4, and 5, especially group 3, was alleviated as compared with groups 1 and 2. RT-PCR revealed that the expression of TIMP-3 in groups 3, 4, and 5, especially in group 3, was significantly enhanced as compared with group 1 (P<0.01). Both Safranin O-Fast green staining and type II collagen staining demonstrated better reserved integrity of disc matrix in groups 3, 4, and 5 than in groups 1 and 2. TIMP-3 staining exhibited an obvious increase of positive-staining rate in groups 3, 4, and 5 as compared with group 1. The positive-staining rate in group 3 (79.42%±1.35%) was about 3times that of group 1 (25.47%±5.46%, P<0.01). RAdTIMP-3 can effectively protect the matrix of rabbit intervertebral disc against overloading-induced degeneration in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in the alleviation of disc degeneration.
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Investigation on the mechanism of ginsenoside Rg3 in treating murine primary mammary tumor
Hongbo TANG MD, Zirong YE MM, Yuping REN MD, Zhanyong ZHU MD, Yiping WU MD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 421-425.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0078-6

Abstract   PDF (171KB)
A murine primary mammary tumor model was established to investigate the treatment with ginsenosides Rg3. The relationship between ginsenosides Rg3 and primary mammary tumor was explored. Mammary tumor was induced by using the 7,12-dimethybenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Ginsenoside Rg3 was employed for treatment. The incidence of mammary tumor in every group was compared, and the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvessel density (MVD) were detected by immunohistochemical method. The cell cycle and apoptosis percentage were determined by means of flow cytometry. The incidence of tumor in treatment group was significantly lower than that in control group (60.00% vs 33.33%, P<0.05). The average diameter of mammary tumor was (0.86±0.27) cm in control group and (0.39±0.09) cm in treatment group, with the difference being significant between control and treatment groups (P<0.01). The MVD value was (31.9±5.3) in control group and (20.1±4.9) in treatment group, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). The apoptosis percentage in control group was significantly lower than that in treatment group [(2.47±0.69)% vs (5.67±0.99)%, P<0.05]. Ginsenoside Rg3 can play an antitumor role in primary mammary tumor model by inhibiting angiogenesis, cell cycle progression, and promoting cell apoptosis.
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Expression of PC-cell-derived growth factor in breast cancer
Haiping SONG MD, Lan SHI MD, Chunping LIU MD, Tao HUANG MD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 426-430.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0085-7

Abstract   PDF (119KB)
This study is mainly aimed at evaluating the expression of PC-cell-derived growth factor (PCDGF) in breast cancer and breast adenofibroma, and to compare with other commonly used clinical pathological indices, then to investigate the diagnostic and targeted therapeutic purpose of PCDGF in breast cancer tissue. In this study, we detected the expression of PCDGF, p53 and CerbB-2 in breast cancer tissue and the expression of PCDGF in breast adenofibroma tissue by immunohistochemical method, and analyzed the relationship between them. We found that PCDGF was expressed in most breast cancer tissue, but was not in breast adenofibroma tissue, and the expression of PCDGF was related with the tumor’s pathological category and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and p53, but there was no statistical dependability between PCDGF and cerbB-2. From this study, we predict that PCDGF may serve as a marker in the secondary diagnosis of breast cancer, and may participate in the generation and differentiation of breast cancer cells, and become an effective target of therapy for breast cancer.
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Protective effect of tanshinone II A on signal transduction system protein kinase B in rats with myocardial hypertrophy
Enyuan TU MD, Yongjun PAN MM, Kang ZHENG MM, Zhaohua WANG MD, Qiansheng LIANG MD, Guangtian YANG MD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 431-436.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0088-4

Abstract   PDF (144KB)
The effects of tanshinone II A on cell signal transduction system protein kinase B in rats with myocardial hypertrophy induced by the abdominal aorta partial coarctation were investigated. Rat models of myocardial hypertrophy were established by using abdominal aorta partial coarctation method. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into sham group (S group), model group (M group), valsartan treatment group (X group), low-dose tanshinone treatment group (LD group), medium-dose tanshinone treatment group (MD group), and high-dose tanshinone treatment group (HD group) (n=8 in each group). Left ventricular mass index (LVMI), left ventricular posterior wall (LVPW), and septal thickness (IVS) were detected by high frequency ultrasonography. Myocardial fiber diameter (MFD) was examined by Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining, and the contents of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) and p-Gsk3β in myocardium were assayed by Western blot. The results showed that compared with S group, the values of LVMI, LVPW, IVS and MFD were increased in other groups (P<0.05), and the contents of p-Akt, and p-Gsk3β were also increased in other groups. As compared with MD group, the values of LVMI, LVPW, IVS and MFD were decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.05), and the contents of p-Akt, and p-Gsk3β were also decreased in all treatment groups. However, there were no significant differences among LD, MD, and HD groups (P>0.05), and there were no significant differences between X group and tanshinone treatment groups (P>0.05). It was suggested that tanshinone II A could prevent myocardial hypertrophy by its action on the Akt signaling pathway.
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The role of natriuretic peptide precursor A gene polymorphism in the development of coronary heart disease in Chinese Han population?
Ripen NSENGA MD, Longxian CHENG PhD, Mei’an HE PhD, Tangchun WU PhD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 437-442.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0074-x

Abstract   PDF (98KB)
Natriuretic peptide precursor A (NPPA) is synthesized, stored, and released by atrial myocytes. Previous studies have shown that NPPA plays a significant role in the regulation of coronary circulation and in atherosclerosis. Rs5065 NPPA gene polymorphism leads to the translation of NPPA with two additional arginines and has been suggested to be associated with salt-sensitive hypertension. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the rs5065 NPPA gene polymorphism and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Chinese Han population. We genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs5065 NPPA in the human NPPA gene in 1861 sex- and age-matched subjects, comprising of 904 CHD cases and 957 controls of Chinese Han population. Genotyping of SNP was performed with Taqman SNP allelic discrimination assays by means of an ABI 7900HT. Our study showed that the frequencies of rs5065 NPPA C allele in the case and the control groups were 0.012 and 0.005, respectively. There was significant difference in C allele frequency distribution between the two groups (OR=2.607, 95% CI: 1.197−5.678, P=0.012). In the case group, there was significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers with subjects carrying C allele (P=0.037), and no significant difference in gender, age, fasting total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) between the cases and the controls (P>0.05). Our results suggest that the C allele of rs5065 NPPA gene polymorphism may be associated with the risk of CHD.
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Effect of atorvastatin on tumor growth and metastasis in a breast cancer cell xenograft model and its mechanism
Liu LIU MD, PhD, Yaogui NING MM, Chen CHEN MD, Daowen WANG MD, PhD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 443-446.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0079-5

Abstract   PDF (109KB)
This paper aims to evaluate the effects and the possible mechanisms of atorvastatin on tumor growth and metastasis in a xenograft tumor model. Twenty-four female athymic BALB/C mice with MDA-MB-435 xenograft tumors were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group, a low-dose atorvastatin treatment group, and a high-dose atorvastatin treatment group. The mice in the treatment groups began to be administered with atorvastatin (10 or 20 mg/kg per day) when the xenograft tumors reached 1 cm in diameter. At the end of the experiment, the tumor volume and weight and the lung metastasis colonies of each mouse were measured. Western blotting was applied to detect phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB, Akt), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK), and the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) subtype CYP2J2. Atorvastatin suppressed xenograft tumor growth and metastasis both in the low-dose and the high-dose treatment groups (P < 0.05). Atorvastatin also decreased the phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and p-ERK but increased p-JNK expression. However, atorvastatin did not alter the expression of CYP2J2 in tumor tissue. This suggests that atorvastatin has the efficacy of suppressing tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. These effects were not dependent on down-regulation of CYP2J2 expression.
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The relationship between platelet-derived growth factor expression and angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis in cervical cancer
Guocheng LIU MD, Shouhua YANG MD, Zehua WANG MD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 447-451.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0082-x

Abstract   PDF (122KB)
This paper is aimed to examine if changes in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) expression at different stages of cervical cancer are related to the variation in blood vessel density (BVD) and lymphatic vessel density (LVD) to evaluate the relationship between PDGF expression and stages and metastasis of cervical cancer. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and RT-PCR were used to detect the expression levels of PDGF in 45 cervical cancer tissue samples (the experimental group). The samples were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal antibodies D2-40 and CD34, and BVD and LVD were measured. The expressions of PDGF-A, -B, and- D were all higher in the experimental group than in the control group (P<0.05); no significant difference was found in the expression of PDGF-C between the experimental group and the control group (P>0.05). PDGF-A and -B expression was positively related with BVD and LVD (P<0.01, R= 0.49, 0.527, 0.327, 0.68). The expression levels of PDGF-C and -D were not significantly related with BVD and LVD. At the early stage of cervical cancer, BVD and LVD were significantly higher than in the controls (P<0.01). The BVD and LVD in tissues in the surrounding areas of cervical cancer were significantly higher than in tissues at cancer center, and LVD was related to lymph node metastasis (P<0.001). BVD and LVD were not associated with the differentiation and pathological stages of cervical cancer. The expressions of PDGF-A, -B, and -D in cervical cancer were closely related with the clinical stages of cervical cancer. PDGF-A and -B were intimately associated with the lymph node metastasis and prognosis of cervical cancer.
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Meta-analysis of the risk factors of breast cancer concerning reproductive factors and oral contraceptive use
Qiong DAI MD, Bei LIU MD, Yukai DU MM,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 452-458.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0080-z

Abstract   PDF (175KB)
The authors performed a meta-analysis of case-control studies that addressed whether reproductive factors and oral contraceptive use were associated with breast cancer by searching the MEDLINE, PubMed, Proquest, Embase, ScienceDirect, African Healthline, BMJ Health Intelligence and Chinese Periodical net databases for all English-language and Chinese-language papers published from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2007. A total of 15 studies calculating pool ORs indicated that menopausal age >50yr [odds ratio (OR), 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22―1.57] and oral contraceptive use (OR, 2.12*, “*”: summary OR was adjusted; 95% CI, 1.24―3.62) were correlated with the increase in breast cancer risk while the summary OR based on number of full-term pregnancies ≥1 (OR, 0.63*; 95% CI, 0.60―0.68) and breast-feeding (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64―0.90) indicated no association with breast cancer risk. The correlation was statistically significant. Menopausal age >50yr and oral contraceptive use are positively correlated with an increase in breast cancer risk while breast-feeding and number of full-term pregnancies ≥1 are protective factors.
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Epidemiological studies of women under age 30 infected with human papillomavirus
Zhihua LIU MD, Qing LI BM, Weihong LI BM,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 459-462.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0084-8

Abstract   PDF (81KB)
The aim of this paper was to investigate the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in women under 30 years old with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cervical cancer, in order to provide a basis for cervical cancer prevention and treatment. We recruited 2052 female cases from the education system in Futian District, Shenzhen city, from April 2006 to April 2008, with age ranging from 22 to 60 years old. Second-generation hybrid capture test was done for detection of female genital tract HPV and cervical colposcopy for screening CIN or cervical cancer. The prevalence of HPV and cervical precancerous lesions or cervical cancer was evaluated in different age groups of women. The HPV positive rate was 247/2052 (12.00%), and 35/2052 (1.71%) of the cases were≥CIN I by pathological diagnosis. In the 22―29-year-old age group, there were 291 cases, including 39HPV-positive cases (13.40%) and one case of pathological diagnosis≥CIN I (0.34%), and there were 1761 cases in the 30―60-year-old age group, including 208 HPV-positive cases (11.81%) and 34 cases of pathological diagnosis≥CIN I (1.93%). The HPV-positive rate of 22―29-year-old age group was higher than that of 30―60-year-old age group, but the difference was not significant (χ2 = 0.5967, P = 0.4398); the CIN and cervical cancer detection rate of the former group was lower than that of the latter one, and the difference was not significant either (χ2 = 3.7519, P = 0.0527). The cases in 30―60-year-old age group were divided into five age sub-groups, and the HPV-positive rate of the 22―29-year-old age group was compared with the remaining groups, and it was found that the HPV-positive rate of the former group (13.40%) was lower than that of the 40―44-year-old age group (14.70%) but higher than that of the other four groups. Moreover, the difference in the HPV-positive rate between the 22―29-year-old age group and the 50―60-year-old age group (6.06%) was significant (χ2 = 5.545, P = 0.018), but the difference between the 22― 29-year-old age group and each of the other four groups was not significant (P>0.05). In addition, the CIN and cervical cancer detection rate of the 22―29-year-old age group (0.34%) was lower than that of the remaining five groups, and the difference between the 22―29-year-old age group and the 35―39-year-old age group (2.26%), and between 22―29-year-old age group and 40―44-year-old age group (2.30%) was significant (χ2 = 4.446, P = 0.0035; χ2 = 4.525, P = 0.0363, respectively), but the difference between the 22―29-year-old age group and each of other three groups was not significant (P>0.05). Furthermore, 80.00% (28/35) cases of pathological diagnosis≥CIN I and 90.91% (10/11) lesions of pathological diagnosis≥CIN II occurred at 35―49 years of age. For many young women below the age of 30 who were infected with high-risk HPV were one-off infections, so it was not appropriate to recommend HPV detection as cervical precancerous lesions or cancer screening program for women less than 30 years old. The prevention and treatment of cervical cancer should be focused on those women more than 35 years of age.
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A survey of physical activity among urban women in China
Shilin DENG MD, Tongyuan LIU,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 463-469.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0081-y

Abstract   PDF (102KB)
Few studies have been conducted to assess the level of physical activity (PA) of women in China. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of PA among women in Wuhan and explore sociodemographic and behavioral correlation to PA for the population. A total of 1359 community-dwelling women (42.9713.60 years old) participated in this study. The long-version IPAQ was used to define the level of PA. 45.7% of women were considered physically active, and 27.5% were vigorously active. The proportion of physical inactivity was around 26.8%. The total and 4 domains of PA showed significant age, education level, and occupation variation. PA tended to be lower as the age declined. PA in transportation, housework, leisure time, and the total tended to be the lowest or the second lowest among the women aged 18–35 years old. PA tended to be lower as the level of education increased. Among the 5 indices, PAwas the lowest among women with college education, especially those with postgraduate education. PA tended to be the lowest among the women of office staff and instructor or technician. Generally, the total and 4 domains of PA showed significant age, education level, and occupation variation. Physical inactivity appears to be more common among younger women, or college-educated women, office ladies, and female instructor and technicians.
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Preliminary results of gentamycin combined with sodium bicarbonate for prevention of irinotecan-induced diarrhea
Qi MEI MM, Zhe CAO MM, Hua XIONG MD, Yuan CHEN MD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 470-474.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0077-7

Abstract   PDF (92KB)
The aim of this paper was to observe the clinical effect of gentamycin combined with sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of irinotecan-induced diarrhea. A total of 98 patients with stage IV cancers were recruited and divided into a prevention group (52 patients) and a control group (46 patients). All patients received the chemotherapy including irinotecan. The prevention group received gentamycin and sodium bicarbonate before the use of irinotecan for 4 days; the control group did not receive any prevention. The use of gentamycin and sodium bicarbonate resulted in significantly higher stool pH (P < 0.001), while the incidence of diarrhea by irinotecan was reduced (prevention group 13.70% versus control group 34.83%; P < 0.001). Gentamycin combined with sodium bicarbonate appears to be useful in preventing the diarrhea induced by irinotecan and reducing the dosage of loperamide and fluid replacement.
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Expression of STAT6 and NF-κB p65 in the colon mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis
Rui ZHU MD, Heng FAN MD, Lin SHEN MD, Jianguo LIU BD, Jia ZHAO MM,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 475-479.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0086-6

Abstract   PDF (150KB)
The expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) was examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of STAT6 and NF-κB p65 at both mRNA and protein levels in the colonic mucosa of patients with UC and healthy volunteers. The results showed that the expression levels of STAT6 and NFκB p65 in the colonic mucosa of patients with UC were significantly higher than in normal controls at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that STAT6 and NFκB p65 perhaps play an important role in the pathogenesis of UC and underscore the potential value of anti-UC strategies in the clinical management of this disease.
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Effect of compound Sophorae Flavescentis Jiechangrong capsule on expression of NF-κB p65 and STAT6 in the intestinal mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis
Heng FAN MD, Jia ZHAO MM, Lin SHEN BM, Qing TANG MD, Zhexin SHOU MM, Li LIANG BM, Yi LIAO BM, Xiaoyan CHEN BM,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 480-484.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0083-9

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The effects of compound Sophorae Flavescentis Jiechangrong capsule (CSFJC) on the expression of nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in the intestinal mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis and the possible mechanism were investigated. Eighteen patients with ulcerative colitis were randomly divided into a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) group (n = 11) treated by CSFJC and a western medicine (WM) group (n = 7) treated by Sulfasalazine tablets. The treatment duration lasted eight weeks. Before and after the treatment, the symptoms and the physical signs were observed, and the routine stool test, the colonoscopy, and pathological examination were performed in the two groups. The expression levels of NF-κBp65 and STAT6 were detected by using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the total effective rate of the curative effectiveness in TCM and WM groups was 100% and 71.4%, respectively, and the total effective rate of colonic mucosa lesion in TCM and WM groups was 90.9% and 71.4%, respectively, with the differences being significant (all P < 0.05). The total effective rate of syndromes of damp-heat blocking according to the TCM in TCM and WM groups was 90.9% and 71.4%, respectively. After the treatment, the expression of NF-κB p65 and STAT6 in the two groups was decreased, and the decrease of NF-κB p65 and STAT6 expression in TCM group was more significant than in WM group (P < 0.05). It was concluded that CSFJC can inhibit the activation and expression of NF-κB p65 and STAT6 in the intestinal mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis, which is a possible mechanism for CSFJC treating ulcerative colitis.
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Effect of pEGFP-survivin on GBC-SD cell growth and chemotherapy sensitivity
Hanbin SHEN MD, Bin ZHANG MBA, Song ZHAO BM, Qichang ZHENG MD, Jianping GONG MD, Xiaotang CAI BM,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 485-490.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0089-3

Abstract   PDF (215KB)
This paper is aimed to investigate the effect of survivin shRNA on chemotherapy resistance in human gallbladder carcinoma GBC-SD cells. The viability of human gallbladder carcinoma GBC-SD, GBC-SD/enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), and GBC-SD/survivin cells was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and mRNA and protein of survivin were tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. After the cells were treated with cisplatin (DDP) (3.0 μg/mL) for the same time, cell survival rate and IC50 was detected with MTT, cell apoptosis was detected with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and the nuclear alteration was observed by TdT-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL). In addition, caspase-3 activity was detected by using colorimetric method. Cell viability was decreased significantly in GBC-SD/survivin cells, and survivin expression was decreased significantly (mRNA and protein of survivin were decreased by 74.7% and 71.5%, respectively). After treatment with DDP, cell survival rate and IC50 was decreased significantly (2.03±0.24 μg/mL) in GBC-SD/survivin cells, while apoptotic rate (84.3%) was elevated significantly as compared with the other two groups. There were brown apoptotic nuclei in all the cells. Caspase-3 activity in all the cells was increased at first and then decreased, but the caspase-3 activity in GBC-SD/survivin cells was significantly higher than the other two groups. The survivin shRNA could down-regulate the expression of survivin in GBC-SD cells significantly and improve the sensibility to chemotherapy.
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Relationship between Th17 cells and allograft rejection
Zhikun ZHENG MM, Jinsong LI MD, Ke JIANG MD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 491-494.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0066-x

Abstract   PDF (104KB)
Thl7 cells, a special kind of auxiliary type T cells, can secrete IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, etc., as a newly discovered T-cell subset in recent years. As a different subset from the Thl and Th2 cells, Th17 cells play an important role in the development of a variety of autoimmune diseases. A current study shows that the IL-6 inflammatory response of the organization in combination with the occurrence of TGF-β can induce the differentiation of Thl7 cells. IL-23 can promote the production of IL17, as well as participate in amplification and maintenance of the survival of IL-l7 generating cells. In this process, STAT3 and ROR-γt are key transcription factors for the growing of Thl7 cells. As our knowledge on Th17 family members is rapidly growing and changing, it will be important to specify their involvement in the induction and regulation of allograft rejection in animal models as well as in clinical settings. Herein, we review the key features of Th17 cells and discuss their potential relevance to transplantation immunity.
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Giant renal angiomyolipoma with tuberous sclerosis complex
Ouyan SHI PhD, Guodong XU BM, Chunxiang WANG BM,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 495-498.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0068-8

Abstract   PDF (242KB)
Though rare, angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of kidney. In general, AMLs can always be associated with two conditions affecting other organ systems: tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis. This article presents a case of renal AML occurring in a 14-year-old girl with a definite diagnosis of TSC. She had been diagnosed with TSC at the age of three, and a schedule for close observation was disobeyed. At this time, she underwent a series of examinations: physical examination, ultrasonography, angiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The physical examination showed adenoma sebaceum in a butterfly paranasal distribution, and a mass was palpated in the left upper quadrant. There were no neurological deficits. Imaging studies (including ultrasonography, angiography, CT, and MRI) of the abdomen showed a large heterogeneous mass arising from the left kidney. Partial nephrectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis was hemorrhagic renal AML. No recurrence was found in the three-year follow-up. We concluded that schedule of close observation on patients with TSC should be strictly abided by for the high morbidity of AMLs. The specific risks of renal AMLs are spontaneous hemorrhage and rupture. Treatment options for AMLs include conservative and interventional (total/partial nephrectomy, cryoptherapy, and embolization) treatments.
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Primary spinal epidural non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma presented with spinal cord compression syndrome
Chunquan CAI MD, PhD, Qingjiang ZHANG BM, Changhong SHEN MD, PhD,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 499-502.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0075-9

Abstract   PDF (180KB)
The spinal epidural space is an uncommon presenting site in primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, especially for children. A boy suffered spinal cord compression syndrome caused by primary spinal epidural non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Thoracolumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an intraspinal mass. An operation was performed with gross total tumor removal. Histological examination revealed a non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma. Bone marrow aspiration was negative for lymphoma involvement. No other therapies (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy) were performed according to the parents’ opinion. The patient died approximately one year after the operation due to brain metastases. The clinical course and imaging features were discussed with a review of literatures.
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Mature cystic teratoma of the parotid gland: a case report and review of the literature
Lenan SHAO DMD, MD, Hanxiong GUAN MD, Jie WAN MS,
Front. Med.. 2009, 3 (4): 503-506.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-009-0076-8

Abstract   PDF (173KB)
We report one case of mature cystic teratoma that presented as a tender, well-defined round mass in the right parotid gland region. Teratomas are common neoplasms but are very rarely found in the parotid gland region, so diagnosis and treatment when such occurs is a challenge. Magnetic resonance imaging scanning is useful in determining the nature of teratomas, and only surgery and pathology can provide a final diagnosis. The treatment strategy is to preserve both the facial nerve and the surrounding parotid gland tissue, while completely extirpating the teratoma.
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24 articles