Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

2015 Impact Factor: 1.863

Cover Story   2017, Volume 11 Issue 1
The abdominal aortic aneurysm was the most common type of aortic aneurysm in both groups, as was shown by the 3D reconstruction computed tomography angiography. (Courtesy of Dr. Xuejun Zeng. See pages 62?67 by Yun Zhang et al. for more information.)
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REVIEW
Translational initiatives in thrombolytic therapy
Melvin E. Klegerman
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 1-19.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-017-0497-8

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Once thrombi have formed as part of the pathology defining myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease, deep venous thrombosis or other embolic disorders, the only clinically meaningful thrombolytic agents available for reversing the thrombogenic process are various plasminogen activators. These agents are enzymes that reverse fibrin polymerization underlying the coagulation process by converting endogenous plasminogen to plasmin, which cleaves the fibrin network to form increasingly smaller protein fragments, a process known as fibrinolysis. For the most part, the major clinically used thrombolytics, tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase and streptokinase, as well as the experimentally investigated agent staphylokinase, are the products of recombinant DNA technology, which permits molecular optimization of clinical efficacy. In all cases of molecular optimization and targeting, however, the primary challenge of thrombolytic therapy remains hemorrhagic side effects, which are especially devastating when they occur intracerebrally. Currently, the best strategy to ameliorate this adverse effect is nanoparticulate encapsulation or complexation, and many strategies of this sort are being actively pursued. This review summarizes the variety of targeted and untargeted thrombolytic formulations that have been investigated in preclinical studies.

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Detection of digestive malignancies and post-gastrectomy complications via gastrointestinal fluid examination
Lei Huang,Aman Xu
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 20-31.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-016-0493-4

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To date, gastric carcinoma (GC) is one of the common and fatal digestive malignancies worldwide. The prognosis of GC is not always satisfactory because of late diagnosis. Scholars are keen on discovering novel accurate and economical biomarkers in body liquids for GC screening to detect and evaluate the lesion before the results of imaging techniques are obtained. While traditional serum assays have limited sensitivity and specificity, gastrointestinal juice may provide relevant specific biomarkers because of its close contact with the tumor. Herein, the current progress in the relationship between gastrointestinal fluid analyses and GC is systematically and comprehensively reviewed. The detection of gastric juice pH, fluorescence spectrum, cytology, Helicobacter pylori-associated markers, nitrosamines, conventional tumor markers, amino acids, proteomics, microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, protein-coding genes, vitamin C, etc., and combination tests of different category markers could provide important diagnostic and prognostic clues for gastrointestinal diseases. Particularly, early GC may be efficiently screened using gastric juice. Gastrointestinal fluid examination could also predict the adverse effects of postgastrectomy, such as pancreatic leakage, fistula, and abscess. Gastric fluid markers should be further studied to reveal the early predicators of malignancy and complications. The methods for obtaining the samples of gastrointestinal juice with minimum incision should also be comprehensively investigated.

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Innovative development path of ethnomedicines: the interpretation of the path
Zhaoyun Zhu,Dehuan Fu,Yali Gui,Tao Cui,Jingkun Wang,Ting Wang,Zhizhong Yang,Yanfei Niu,Zhennan She,Li Wang
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 32-47.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-016-0495-2

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One of the primary purposes of the innovative development of ethnomedicines is to use their excellent safety and significant efficacy to serve a broader population. To achieve this purpose, modern scientific and technological means should be referenced, and relevant national laws and regulations as well as technical guides should be strictly followed to develop standards and to perform systemic research in producing ethnomedicines. Finally, ethnomedicines, which are applied to a limited extent in ethnic areas, can be transformed into safe, effective, and quality-controllable medical products to relieve the pain of more patients. The innovative development path of ethnomedicines includes the following three primary stages: resource study, standardized development research, and industrialization of the achievements and efforts for internationalization. The implementation of this path is always guaranteed by the research and development platform and the talent team. This article is based on the accumulation of long-term practice and is combined with the relevant disciplines, laws and regulations, and technical guidance from the research and development of ethnomedicines. The intention is to perform an in-depth analysis and explanation of the major research thinking, methods, contents, and technical paths involved in all stages of the innovative development path of ethnomedicines to provide useful references for the development of proper ethnomedicine use.

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Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita: classification, diagnosis, perioperative care, and anesthesia
Lulu Ma,Xuerong Yu
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 48-52.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-017-0500-4

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Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a rare disorder characterized by non-progressive, multiple contractures. In addition to affected extremities, patients may also present microstomia, decreased temporomandibular joint mobility. Although the etiology of AMC is unclear, any factor that decreases fetal movement is responsible for AMC. Thus, accurate diagnosis and classification are crucial to the appropriate treatment of AMC. The development of ultrasound technology has enabled prenatal diagnosis. Very early treatment is favorable, and multidisciplinary treatment is necessary to improve the function of AMC patients. Most patients require surgery to release contracture and reconstruct joints. However, perioperative care is challenging, and difficult airway is the first concern of anesthesiologists. Postoperative pulmonary complications are common and regional anesthesia is recommended for postoperative analgesia. This review on AMC is intended for anesthesiologists. Thus, we discuss the treatment and perioperative management of patients undergoing surgery, as well as the diagnosis and classification of AMC.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Poor adherence to P2Y12 antagonists increased cardiovascular risks in Chinese PCI-treated patients
Yang Sun,Chenze Li,Lina Zhang,Dong Hu,Xudong Zhang,Ting Yu,Min Tao,Dao Wen Wang,Xiaoqing Shen
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 53-61.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-017-0502-2

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Low adherence to secondary prevention medications (ATM) of patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, literature provides limited data on assessment of ATM and risks associated with poor in Chinese patients with ACS. In the current work, ATM was assessed in consecutively recruited patients with ACS in Tongji Hospital from November 5, 2013 to December 31, 2014. A total of 2126 patients were classified under low adherence (proportion of days covered (PDC)<50%) and high adherence (PDC>50%) groups based on their performance after discharge. All patients were followed up at the 1st, 6th, and 12th month of discharge while recording ATM and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Bivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with ATM. Cox regression was used to analyze the association between ATM and MACE within one year after discharge. Results showed that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) alone had significantly lower proportion of high adherence to P2Y12 antagonists (83.0% vs. 90.7%, P<0.01) than patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) only. Moreover, in patients undergoing PCI, high adherence to P2Y12 antagonists decreased the risk of MACE (hazard ratio=0.172, 95% confidence interval: 0.039–0.763; P=0.021). In conclusion, PCI-treated patients are more prone to remaining adherent to medications than CABG-treated patients. High adherence to P2Y12 antagonists was associated with lower risk of MACE.

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Aortic aneurysm and chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation: a retrospective study of 235 patients
Yun Zhang,Chen Li,Min Shen,Bao Liu,Xuejun Zeng,Ti Shen
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 62-67.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-017-0498-7

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Chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a rare but devastating complication of aortic aneurysm (AA). This study investigated the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and treatment of patients with AA-associated chronic DIC (AA-DIC) and explored the mechanisms, duration, and therapeutic response of AA-DIC. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 235 AA patients admitted at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between September 2009 and January 2015. The patients were classified as those with DIC (AA-DIC) and those without DIC (non-DIC). The AA-DIC group showed a significantly higher proportion of female patients and a significantly longer AA disease course than the non-DIC group did. The AA-DIC patients presented mural thrombi, dissecting aneurysms, a family history of AA, and diabetes significantly more frequently than the non-DIC patients did. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that sex, mural thrombus, aneurysm type, diabetes, and stent surgery are possible independent risk factors for AA-DIC patients. Fifty-two (22.1%) patients presented AA-DIC. Among these patients, 43 had non-typical DIC and 9 had typical DIC; the mortality rate of the latter was 22.2%. The mean age of the patients with typical DIC was significantly higher than of that of patients with non-typical DIC. The non-typical DIC patients also presented abnormal coagulation disorders of varying degrees. Furthermore, heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin improved the clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters in patients with AA and typical DIC. Thus, chronic DIC should be considered in patients with AA.

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Improved control of hypertension following laparoscopic fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease
Zhiwei Hu,Meiping Chen,Jimin Wu,Qing Song,Chao Yan,Xing Du,Zhonggao Wang
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 68-73.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-016-0490-7

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This study aims to determine whether successful laparoscopic fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can improve the control of hypertension. We conducted an observational study of GERD patients with hypertension. The esophageal and gastroesophageal symptoms of these patients were successfully treated with laparoscopic fundoplication, as measured by the reduced GERD symptoms and proton pump inhibitor consumption. A hypertension control scale was used to classify the use of antihypertensive medications and the quality of blood pressure control before and after anti-reflux surgery. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used for the statistical analyses. Seventy GERD patients were included in the analysis and followed up for a mean period of 3.5±1.4 years. Prior to surgery, all participating patients were taking at least one class of antihypertensive medication, and 56 patients (80%) had intermittently high blood pressure. After surgery, the mean number of antihypertensive medication classes per patient was significantly reduced from 1.61±0.77 pre-procedure to 1.27±0.88 post-procedure (P?<?0.001). The blood pressure of 48 of the 56 cases (86%) with preoperative intermittent high blood pressure returned to normal post procedure. A total of 50 patients (71%) recorded improvements on the hypertension control scale, with the overall mean score decreasing from 3.1±1.0 pre-procedure to 1.4±1.0 post-procedure (P?<?0.001). Therefore, successful laparoscopic fundoplication may result in better blood pressure control in some hypertensive GERD patients. This result suggests a possible connection between gastroesophageal reflux and hypertension.

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Changes in lncRNAs and related genes in β-thalassemia minor and β-thalassemia major
Jing Ma,Fei Liu,Xin Du,Duan Ma,Likuan Xiong
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 74-86.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-017-0503-1

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β-thalassemia is caused by β-globin gene mutations. However, heterogeneous phenotypes were found in individuals with same genotype, and still undescribed mechanism underlies such variation. We collected blood samples from 30 β-thalassemia major, 30 β-thalassemia minor patients, and 30 matched normal controls. Human lncRNA Array v2.0 (8 × 60 K, Arraystar) was used to detect changes in long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs in three samples each from β-thalassemia major, β-thalassemia minor, and control groups. Compared with normal controls, 1424 and 2045 lncRNAs were up- and downregulated, respectively, in β-thalassemia major patients, whereas 623 and 349 lncRNAs were up- and downregulated, respectively, in β-thalassemia minor patients. Compared with β-thalassemia minor group, 1367 and 2356 lncRNAs were up- and downregulated, respectively, in β-thalassemia major group. We selected five lncRNAs that displayed altered expressions (DQ583499, X-inactive specific transcript (Xist), lincRNA-TPM1, MRFS16P, and lincRNA-RUNX2-2) and confirmed their expression levels in all samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Based on coding-non-coding gene co-expression network and gene ontology biological process analyses, several signaling pathways were associated with three common organ systems exhibiting β-thalassemia phenotypes: hematologic, skeletal, and hepatic systems. This study implicates that abnormal expression levels of lncRNAs and mRNA in β-thalassemia cases may be correlated with its various clinical phenotypes.

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Regulatory mechanism and functional analysis of S100A9 in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells
Yonglan Zhu,Fang Zhang,Shanzhen Zhang,Wanglong Deng,Huiyong Fan,Haiwei Wang,Ji Zhang
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 87-96.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-016-0469-4

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S100A9, a calcium-binding protein, participates in the inflammatory process and development of various tumors, thus attracting much attention in the field of cancer biology. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory mechanism of S100A9 and its function involvement in APL. We used real-time quantitative PCR to determine whether PML/RARα affects the expression of S100A9 in NB4 and PR9 cells upon ATRA treatment. ChIP-based PCR and dual-luciferase reporter assay system were used to detect how PML/RARα and PU.1 regulate S100A9 promoter activity. CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry were employed to observe the viability and apoptosis of NB4 cells when S100A9 was overexpressed. Results showed that S100A9 was an ATRA-responsive gene, and PML/RARα was necessary for the ATRA-induced expression of S100A9 in APL cells. In addition, PU.1 could bind to the promoter of S100A9, especially when treated with ATRA in NB4 cells, and promote its activity. More importantly, overexpression of S100A9 induced the apoptosis of NB4 cells and inhibited cell growth. Collectively, our data indicated that PML/RARα and PU.1 were necessary for the ATRA-induced expression of S100A9 in APL cells. Furthermore, S100A9 promoted apoptosis in APL cells and affected cell growth.

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iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis on differentially expressed proteins of rat mandibular condylar cartilage induced by reducing dietary loading
Liting Jiang,Yinyin Xie,Li Wei,Qi Zhou,Ning Li,Xinquan Jiang,Yiming Gao
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 97-109.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-016-0496-1

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As muscle activity during growth is considerably important for mandible quality and morphology, reducing dietary loading directly influences the development and metabolic activity of mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC). However, an overall investigation of changes in the protein composition of MCC has not been fully described in literature. To study the protein expression and putative signaling in vivo, we evaluated the structural changes of MCC and differentially expressed proteins induced by reducing functional loading in rat MCC at developmental stages. Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation-based 2D nano-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/ time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) technologies were used. Global protein profiling, KEGG and PANTHER pathways, and functional categories were analyzed. Consequently, histological and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining indicated the altered histological structure of condylar cartilage and increased bone remodeling activity in hard-diet group. A total of 805 differentially expressed proteins were then identified. GO analysis revealed a significant number of proteins involved in the metabolic process, cellular process, biological regulation, localization, developmental process, and response to stimulus. KEGG pathway analysis also suggested that these proteins participated in various signaling pathways, including calcium signaling pathway, gap junction, ErbB signaling pathway, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Collagen types I and II were further validated by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis. Taken together, the present study provides an insight into the molecular mechanism of regulating condylar growth and remodeling induced by reducing dietary loading at the protein level.

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Association of periodontal disease with glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in Indian population
Palka Kaur Khanuja,Satish Chander Narula,Rajesh Rajput,Rajinder Kumar Sharma,Shikha Tewari
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 110-119.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-016-0484-5

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This study aims to investigate the link between glycated hemoglobin and diabetic complications with chronic periodontitis. A total of 207 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis (CP) were divided according to tertiles of mean PISA (periodontal inflamed surface area) scores as low, middle and high PISA groups. Simultaneously a group of 67 periodontally healthy individuals (PH) was recruited. Periodontal examinations, including full-mouth assessment of probing depths (PPD), bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level and plaque scores were determined. Blood analyses were carried out for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post parandial glucose (PPG). Individuals in PH group had significantly better glycemic control than CP group. Upon one-way analysis of variance, subjects with increased PISA had significantly higher HbA1c levels, retinopathy and nephropathy (P<0.05). After controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), family history of diabetes and periodontitis, duration of diabetes, the mean PISA in mm2, PPD 4--6 mm (%) and PPD≥7 mm (%) emerged as significant predictors for elevated HbA1c in regression model (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that PISA was associated with higher risk of having retinopathy and neuropathy (odds ratio). In our study, the association between glycemic control and diabetic complications with periodontitis was observed.

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Cotransfecting norepinephrine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 genes for increased retention of metaiodobenzylguanidine labeled with iodine 131 in malignant hepatocarcinoma cells
Yanlin Zhao,Xiao Zhong,Xiaohong Ou,Huawei Cai,Xiaoai Wu,Rui Huang
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 120-128.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-017-0501-3

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Norepinephrine transporter (NET) transfection leads to significant uptake of iodine-131-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) in non-neuroendocrine tumors. However, the use of 131I-MIBG is limited by its short retention time in target cells. To prolong the retention of 131I-MIBG in target cells, we infected hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells with Lentivirus-encoding human NET and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) genes to obtain NET-expressing, NET-VMAT2-coexpressing, and negative-control cell lines. We evaluated the uptake and efflux of 131I-MIBG both in vitro and in vivo in mice bearing transfected tumors. NET-expressing and NET-VMAT2-coexpressing cells respectively showed 2.24 and 2.22 times higher 131I-MIBG uptake than controls. Two hours after removal of 131I-MIBG-containing medium, 25.4% efflux was observed in NET-VMAT2-coexpressing cells and 38.6% in NET-expressing cells. In vivo experiments were performed in nude mice bearing transfected tumors; results revealed that NET-VMAT2-coexpressing tumors had longer 131I-MIBG retention time than NET-expressing tumors. Meanwhile, NET-VMAT2-coexpressing and NET-expressing tumors displayed 0.54% and 0.19%, respectively, of the injected dose per gram of tissue 24 h after 131I-MIBG administration. Cotransfection of HepG2 cells with NET and VMAT2 resulted in increased 131I-MIBG uptake and retention. However, the degree of increase was insufficient to be therapeutically effective in target cells.

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A comparative study of electroacupuncture at Zhongliao (BL33) and other acupoints for overactive bladder symptoms
Likun Yang,Yang Wang,Qian Mo,Zhishun Liu
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 129-136.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-016-0491-6

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Electroacupuncture (EA) at Zhongliao (BL33) can improve the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), such as urinary frequency, urgency, and incontinence. However, its performance compared with other acupoints remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of EA at BL33 with deep needling on rats with OAB by detecting urodynamics in eight groups: no intervention group, D-BL33 group (deep needling at BL33), S-BL33 group (shallow needling at BL33), non-acupoint group (needling at the non-acupoint next to BL33), Weizhong (BL40) group, Sanyinjiao (SP6) group, Tongtian (BL7) group, and Hegu (LI4) group. Results revealed that EA at BL33 with deep needling, BL40, and SP6 prolonged the intercontraction interval (ICI) of rats with OAB (P=0.001, P=0.005, P=0.046, respectively, post-treatment vs. post-modeling). Furthermore, the change in ICI from post-modeling in the D-BL33 group was significantly greater than those of the no intervention and other EA groups (all P<0.01). Significantly shortened vesical micturition time (VMT) and elevated maximum detrusor pressure (MDP) were also observed in the D-BL33 group (P=0.017 and P=0.024, respectively, post-treatment vs. post-modeling). However, no statistically significant differences in the changes of VMT and MDP from post-modeling were observed between D-BL33 and the other EA groups. In conclusion, EA at BL33 with deep needling may inhibit acetic-acid-induced OAB more effectively.

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Effects of different doses of cadmium on secondary metabolites and gene expression in Artemisia annua L.
Liangyun Zhou,Guang Yang,Haifeng Sun,Jinfu Tang,Jian Yang,Yizhan Wang,Thomas Avery Garran,Lanping Guo
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 137-146.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-016-0486-3

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This study aims to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of artemisinin accumulation induced by cadmium (Cd). The effects of different Cd concentrations (0, 20, 60, and 120 μmol/L) on the biosynthesis of Artemisia annua L. were examined. Intermediate and end products were quantified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The expression of key biosynthesis enzymes was also determined by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the application of treatment with 60 and 120 μmol/L Cd for 3 days significantly improved the biosynthesis of artemisinic acid, arteannuin B, and artemisinin. The concentrations of artemisinic acid, arteannuin B, and artemisinin in the 120 μmol/L Cd-treated group were 2.26, 102.08, and 33.63 times higher than those in the control group, respectively. The concentrations of arteannuin B and artemisinin in 60 μmol/L Cd-treated leaves were 61.10 and 26.40 times higher than those in the control group, respectively. The relative expression levels of HMGR, FPS, ADS, CYP71AV1, DBR2, ALDH1, and DXR were up-regulated in the 120 μmol/L Cd-treated group because of increased contents of artemisinic metabolites after 3 days of treatment. Hence, appropriate doses of Cd can increase the concentrations of artemisinic metabolites at a certain time point by up-regulating the relative expression levels of key enzyme genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis.

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Study of blood exposure-related mental health illness among clinical nurses
Xiaojia Xiong,Min Li,Yongliang Jiang,Xindeng Tong,Yanzhong Peng
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 147-151.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-016-0481-8

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Nurses are subjected to high amount of stress in the medical setting, and work-related stress often leads to mental problems. This study aims to investigate the mental health status of nurses exposed to blood through needlestick injuries. A total of 302 nurses working in the hospital of Guangdong, China, participated in this study. Out of the 302 nurses, 140 did not experience any needlestick injuries during the previous week, whereas 162 nurses experienced needlestick injuries. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-28 Standardized Questionnaire, which uses physical, anxiety, social function, and depression subscales, was used in this study. No significant difference between nurses exposed to blood and nurses not exposed to blood was found in terms of gender, age, length of employment, and civil status (P>0.05). Results from the GHQ-28 Standardized Questionnaire showed that 75.9% (123/162) of nurses exposed to blood were suspected to suffer from mental disorders, whereas 40% (56/140) of nurses not exposed to blood were suspected to suffer from mental disorders. The mean mental health scores of nurses exposed to blood and those not exposed were 8.73±7.32 and 5.69±5.70, respectively. From these results, we can conclude that blood exposure from needlestick injuries leads to higher prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in nurses. This finding highlights the importance of providing efficient, adequate, and appropriate support services after nurses are exposed to blood from needlestick injuries.

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LETTER TO FRONTIERS OF MEDICINE
Holistic integrative medicine: toward a new era of medical advancement
Daiming Fan
Front. Med.. 2017, 11 (1): 152-159.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-017-0499-6

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Medicine has encountered unprecedented problems associated with changes in nature, society, and environment, as well as with new human quests for survival, longevity, and health. In the meantime, the development of medicine is facing challenges that resulted from the over-division and specialization of disciplines and the fragmentation of medical knowledge. To construct a new medical system that is more suitable for human health and disease treatment, holistic integrative medicine (HIM), which regards the human body as a holistic entity, organically integrates the most advanced knowledge and theories in each medical field and the most effective practices in various clinical specialties to revise and adjust on the basis of social, environmental, and psychological conditions. HIM is the inevitable and necessary direction for the future development of medicine. In this article, we illustrated the connotation of HIM, the differences between HIM and other medical conceptions, and the practice of HIM in recent years.

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