Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

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The epidemiology of norovirus gastroenteritis in China: disease burden and distribution of genotypes
Honglu Zhou, Songmei Wang, Lorenz von Seidlein, Xuanyi Wang
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-019-0733-5
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With the improvements of sanitation and nationwide safe water supply the occurrence of bacterial diarrhea declined remarkably, while viruses became the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Of these viruses, noroviruses (NoVs) are responsible for a considerable burden of gastroenteritis, especially in children<2 years and elderly≥65 years. NoVs circulating in the Chinese population are antigenically highly diverse with the genotype GII.4 being the dominant strain followed by GII.3. Given the widespread contamination in environmental sources, and highly infectious nature of NoVs, vaccination would be the desirable strategy for the control of NoV infections. However, a better understanding of acquired immunity after infection, and a reliable immunological surrogate marker are urgently needed, since two vaccine candidates based on virus-like particles (VLPs) are currently moving into clinical evaluations in China.

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Clinical characteristics and prognostic values of 1p32.3 deletion detected through fluorescence in situ hybridization in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a single-center study in China
Huanping Wang, Haitao Meng, Jinghan Wang, Yinjun Lou, Yile Zhou, Peipei Lin, Fenglin Li, Lin Liu, Huan Xu, Min Yang, Jie Jin
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-019-0712-x
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This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic impact of 1p32.3 deletion in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). A retrospective analysis was conducted on 411 patients with newly diagnosed MM; among which, 270 received bortezomib-based therapies, and 141 received thalidomide-based therapies. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to detect six cytogenetic abnormalities, namely, del(1p32.3), gain(1q21), del(17p13), del(13q14), t(4;14), and t(11;14). Results showed that 8.3% of patients with MM were detected with del(1p32.3) and had significantly more bone marrow plasma cells (P = 0.025), higher b2-microglobulin levels (P = 0.036), and higher lactate dehydrogenase levels (P = 0.042) than those without del(1p32.3). Univariate analysis showed that patients with del(1p32.3) under thalidomide-based therapies (median PFS 11.6 vs. 31.2 months, P = 0.002; median OS 16.8 vs. 45.9 months, P <0.001) were strongly associated with short progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.002) and overall survival (OS) (P <0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that del(1p32.3) remained a powerful independent factor with worse PFS (P = 0.006) and OS (P = 0.016) for patients under thalidomide-based treatments. Patients with del(1p32.3) under bortezomib-based treatments tended to have short PFS and OS. In conclusion, del(1p32.3) is associated with short PFS and OS in patients with MM who received thalidomide- or bortezomib-based treatments.

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Chinmedomics facilitated quality-marker discovery of Sijunzi decoction to treat spleen qi deficiency syndrome
Qiqi Zhao, Xin Gao, Guangli Yan, Aihua Zhang, Hui Sun, Ying Han, Wenxiu Li, Liang Liu, Xijun Wang
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-019-0705-9
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Sijunzi decoction (SJZD) is a Chinese classical formula to treat spleen qi deficiency syndrome (SQDS) and has been widely used for thousands of years. However, the quality control (QC) standards of SJZD are insufficient. Chinmedomics has been designed to discover and verify bioactive compounds of a variety of formula rapidly. In this study, we used Chinmedomics to evaluate the SJZD’s efficacy against SQDS to discover the potential quality-markers (q-markers) for QC. A total of 56 compounds in SJZD were characterized in vitro, and 23 compounds were discovered in vivo. A total of 58 biomarkers were related to SQDS, and SJZD can adjust a large proportion of marker metabolites to normal level and then regulate the metabolic profile to the health status. A total of 10 constituents were absorbed as effective ingredients that were associated with overall efficacy. We preliminarily determined malonyl-ginsenoside Rb2 and ginsenoside Ro as the q-markers of ginseng; dehydrotumulosic acid and dihydroxy lanostene-triene-21-acid as the q-markers of poria; glycyrrhizic acid, isoglabrolide, and glycyrrhetnic acid as the q-markers of licorice; and 2-atractylenolide as the q-marker of macrocephala. According to the discovery of the SJZD q-markers, we can establish the quality standard that is related to efficacy.

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Keratin 5-Cre-driven deletion of Ncstn in an acne inversa-like mouse model leads to a markedly increased IL-36a and Sprr2 expression
Jun Yang, Lianqing Wang, Yingzhi Huang, Keqiang Liu, Chaoxia Lu, Nuo Si, Rongrong Wang, Yaping Liu, Xue Zhang
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-019-0722-8
Evidence for lung repair and regeneration in humans: key stem cells and therapeutic functions of fibroblast growth factors
Xuran Chu, Chengshui Chen, Chaolei Chen, Jin-San Zhang, Saverio Bellusci, Xiaokun Li
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-019-0717-5
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Regeneration carries the idea of regrowing partially or completely a missing organ. Repair, on the other hand, allows restoring the function of an existing but failing organ. The recognition that human lungs can both repair and regenerate is quite novel, the concept has not been widely used to treat patients. We present evidence that the human adult lung does repair and regenerate and introduce different ways to harness this power. Various types of lung stem cells are capable of proliferating and differentiating upon injury driving the repair/regeneration process. Injury models, primarily in mice, combined with lineage tracing studies, have allowed the identification of these important cells. Some of these cells, such as basal cells, broncho-alveolar stem cells, and alveolar type 2 cells, rely on fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling for their survival, proliferation and/or differentiation. While pre-clinical studies have shown the therapeutic benefits of FGFs, a recent clinical trial for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) using intravenous injection of FGF7 did not report the expected beneficial effects. We discuss the potential reasons for these negative results and propose the rationale for new approaches for future clinical trials, such as delivery of FGFs to the damaged lungs through efficient inhalation systems, which may be more promising than systemic exposure to FGFs. While this change in the administration route presents a challenge, the therapeutic promises displayed by FGFs are worth the effort.

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The function and regulation of OTU deubiquitinases
Jiansen Du, Lin Fu, Yingli Sui, Lingqiang Zhang
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-019-0734-4
Survey on deep learning for pulmonary medical imaging
Jiechao Ma, Yang Song, Xi Tian, Yiting Hua, Rongguo Zhang, Jianlin Wu
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-019-0726-4
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