Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

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Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HBV: progress and challenges in China
Wenzhan Jing, Jue Liu, Min Liu
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0744-2
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China has the world’s largest burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but the country has made considerable progress in preventing its mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in the past three decades. This feat is made possible due to the high coverage of birth-dose hepatitis B vaccine (HepB,>95%), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening for pregnant women (>99%), and hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus HepB for newborns whose mothers are HBsAg positive (>99%). Studies on the optimal antiviral treatment regimen for pregnant women with high HBV-DNA load have also been conducted. However, China still faces challenges in eliminating MTCT of HBV. The overall HBsAg prevalence among pregnant women is considered an intermediate endemic. The prevalence of HBsAg among pregnant women from remote, rural, or ethnic minority areas is higher than that of the national level because of limited health resources and public health education for HBV. The coverage for maternal and child healthcare and immunization services should be improved, especially in western regions. Integration of current services to prevent MTCT of HBV with other relevant health services can increase the acceptability, efficiency, and coverage of these services, particularly in remote areas and ethnic minority areas. By doing so, progress toward key milestones and targets to eliminate hepatitis B as the main public health threat by 2030 can be achieved.

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Cerebral regional and network characteristics in asthma patients: a resting-state fMRI study
Siyi Li, Peilin Lv, Min He, Wenjing Zhang, Jieke Liu, Yao Gong, Ting Wang, Qiyong Gong, Yulin Ji, Su Lui
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0745-1
Correlation between serum miR-154-5p and urinary albumin excretion rates in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional cohort study
Huiwen Ren, Can Wu, Ying Shao, Shuang Liu, Yang Zhou, Qiuyue Wang
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-019-0719-3
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This study aimed to investigate the correlation between serum miR-154-5p and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the association with biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). A total of 390 patients with T2DM were divided into three groups: normal albuminuria (UACR<30 mg/g, n=136, NA), microalbuminuria (UACR at 30–300 mg/g, n=132, MA), and clinical albuminuria (UACR>300 mg/g, n=122, CA). Circulating miR-154-5p, inflammatory (C-reactive protein (CRP); erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and fibrotic markers (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1); and fibronectin (FN)), and other biochemical indicators were assessed via real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and chemiluminescence assay in patients with T2DM and 138 control subjects (NC). UACR, miR-154-5p, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine (sCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), ESR, CRP, VEGF, TNF-α, TGF-β1, and FN were significantly higher and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was significantly lower in NA, MA, and CA groups than in NC subjects (P<0.05). Elevated levels of UACR and miR-154-5p were directly correlated with HbA1c, sCr, BUN, ESR, CRP, VEGF, TNF-α, TGF-β1, and FN and negatively correlated with eGFR (P<0.05). miR-154-5p, HbA1c, sCr, BUN, eGFR, ESR, CRP, VEGF, TNF-α, TGF-β1, and FN were important factors affecting UACR. These findings indicated that elevated serum miR-154-5p is significantly correlated with high UACR in patients with T2DM and may offer a novel reference for the early diagnosis of DKD.

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Characteristics of compensatory mutations in the rpoC gene and their association with compensated transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Shengfen Wang, Yang Zhou, Bing Zhao, Xichao Ou, Hui Xia, Yang Zheng, Yuanyuan Song, Qian Cheng, Xinyang Wang, Yanlin Zhao
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-019-0720-x
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The aim of this study was to characterize rpoC gene mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and investigate the factors associated with rpoC mutations and the relation between rpoC mutations and tuberculosis (TB) transmission. A total of 245 MTB clinical isolates from patients with TB in six provinces and two municipalities in China were characterized based on gene mutations through DNA sequencing of rpoC and rpoB genes, phenotyping via standard drug susceptibility testing, and genotypic profiling by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Approximately 36.4% of the rifampin-resistant isolates harbored nonsynonymous mutations in the rpoC gene. Twenty-nine nonsynonymous single mutations and three double mutations were identified. The rpoC mutations at locus 483 (11.3%) were predominant, and the mutations at V483G, W484G, I491V, L516P, L566R, N698K, and A788E accounted for 54.5% of the total detected mutations. Fifteen new mutations in the rpoC gene were identified. Rifampin resistance and rpoB mutations at locus 531 were significantly associated with rpoC mutations. MIRU-VNTR genotype results indicated that 18.4% of the studied isolates were clustered, and the rpoC mutations were not significantly associated with MIRU-VNTR clusters. A large proportion of rpoC mutation was observed in the rifampicin-resistant MTB isolates. However, the findings of this study do not support the association of rpoC mutation with compensated transmissibility.

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Serum uric acid and risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults: prospective cohort study
Di Cheng, Chunyan Hu, Rui Du, Hongyan Qi, Lin Lin, Xueyan Wu, Lina Ma, Kui Peng, Mian Li, Min Xu, Yu Xu, Yufang Bi, Weiqing Wang, Yuhong Chen, Jieli Lu
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-019-0723-7
Machine learning for detecting mesial temporal lobe epilepsy by structural and functional neuroimaging
Baiwan Zhou, Dongmei An, Fenglai Xiao, Running Niu, Wenbin Li, Wei Li, Xin Tong, Graham J Kemp, Dong Zhou, Qiyong Gong, Du Lei
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-019-0718-4
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Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), the most common type of focal epilepsy, is associated with functional and structural brain alterations. Machine learning (ML) techniques have been successfully used in discriminating mTLE from healthy controls. However, either functional or structural neuroimaging data are mostly used separately as input, and the opportunity to combine both has not been exploited yet. We conducted a multimodal ML study based on functional and structural neuroimaging measures. We enrolled 37 patients with left mTLE, 37 patients with right mTLE, and 74 healthy controls and trained a support vector ML model to distinguish them by using each measure and the combinations of the measures. For each single measure, we obtained a mean accuracy of 74% and 69% for discriminating left mTLE and right mTLE from controls, respectively, and 64% when all patients were combined. We achieved an accuracy of 78% by integrating functional data and 79% by integrating structural data for left mTLE, and the highest accuracy of 84% was obtained when all functional and structural measures were combined. These findings suggest that combining multimodal measures within a single model is a promising direction for improving the classification of individual patients with mTLE.

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High-throughput metabolomics reveals the perturbed metabolic pathways and biomarkers of Yang Huang syndrome as potential targets for evaluating the therapeutic effects and mechanism of geniposide
Heng Fang, Aihua Zhang, Xiaohang Zhou, Jingbo Yu, Qi Song, Xijun Wang
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-019-0709-5
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High-throughput metabolomics can clarify the underlying molecular mechanism of diseases via the qualitative and quantitative analysis of metabolites. This study used the established Yang Huang syndrome (YHS) mouse model to evaluate the efficacy of geniposide (GEN). Urine metabolic data were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The non-target screening of the massive biological information dataset was performed, and a total of 33 metabolites, including tyramine glucuronide, aurine, and L-cysteine, were identified relating to YHS. These differential metabolites directly participated in the disturbance of phase I reaction and hydrophilic transformation of bilirubin. Interestingly, they were completely reversed by GEN. While, as the auxiliary technical means, we also focused on the molecular prediction and docking results in network pharmacological and integrated analysis part. We used integrated analysis to communicate the multiple results of metabolomics and network pharmacology. This study is the first to report that GEN indirectly regulates the metabolite “tyramine glucuronide” through its direct effect on the target heme oxygenase 1 in vivo. Meanwhile, heme oxygenase-1, a prediction of network pharmacology, was the confirmed metabolic enzyme of phase I reaction in hepatocytes. Our study indicated that the combination of high-throughput metabolomics and network pharmacology is a robust combination for deciphering the pathogenesis of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome.

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Is tailored therapy based on antibiotic susceptibility effective? a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial
Jie Pan, Zhengchao Shi, Dingsai Lin, Ningmin Yang, Fei Meng, Lang Lin, Zhencheng Jin, Qingjie Zhou, Jiansheng Wu, Jianzhong Zhang, Youming Li
Front. Med.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-019-0706-8
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An effective eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) should be used for the first time. In this study, we assessed whether tailored therapy based on antibiotic susceptibility testing is more effective than traditional therapy. We also evaluated the factors that cause treatment failure in high-resistance areas. For this multicenter trial, we recruited 467 H. pylori-positive patients. The patients were randomly assigned to receive tailored triple therapy (TATT), tailored bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (TABQT), or traditional bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (TRBQT). For the TATT and TABQT groups, antibiotic selection proceeded via susceptibility testing using an agar-dilution test. The patients in the TRBQT group were given amoxicillin, clarithromycin, esomeprazole, and bismuth. Successful eradication was defined as a negative 13C-urea breath test at least eight weeks after the treatment ended. Susceptibility testing was conducted using an agar-dilution test. The eradication rate was examined via intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. The clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole resistance rates were 26.12%, 28.69%, and 96.79%, respectively. Resistance against amoxicillin and furazolidone was rare. The eradication rates for TATT, TRBQT, and TABQT were 67.32%, 63.69%, and 85.99% in the ITT analysis (P<0.001) and 74.64%, 68.49%, and 91.22% in the PP analysis (P<0.001), respectively. The efficacy of TABQT was affected by clarithromycin resistance, and bismuth exerted a direct influence on TATT failure. TABQT was the most efficacious regimen for use in high-resistance regions, especially among clarithromycin-susceptible patients.

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