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Frontiers of Medicine is an international general medical journal supervised by Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China, sponsored by Chinese Academy of Engineering, administered by Higher Education Press & Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. The journal is jointly published by the Higher Education Press and Springer. Online versions are available through both http://journal.hep.com.cn/fmd and http://www.springer.com/medicine/journal/11684.
Aims and Scope
Frontiers of Medicine is a general medical journal devoted to publishing original research and review articles on the latest advances in clinical and basic medicine with a focus on epidemiology, traditional Chinese medicine, translational research, healthcare, public health and health policies. The journal employs a rigorous peer-review and editing process to ensure the scientific accuracy, novelty and importance of the manuscripts. Frontiers of Medicine is committed to promoting health and health care through communications among professionals in medical care, disease prevention and scientific research throughout the world by updating the progress in medicine, sharing experiences in disease control and treatment and exchanging views on health policies, medical services and health care reform.
The main topics include: clinical medicine, basic medical sciences, epidemiology, translational research, traditional Chinese medicine, public health, and health policies.
Editorial: short articles expressing opinions on a certain topic, usually written or commissioned by members of the Editorial Board.
News & Views: reports and commentaries of the latest advances regarding important events of medical and health system that might be of wider interest for our readers.
Reviews and Mini-reviews: comprehensive overviews of topics of high current interest.
Research Articles: original research articles on clinical medicine or basic medical science.
Case Reports: reports of rare cases with in-depth discussions and significant implications.
Commentaries: commentaries may be on policy, science and society or purely scientific issues and should be of immediate interest to a broad readership.
Letters to Frontiers of Medicine: articles that may not cover “standard research” but that may be interesting to many researchers, and that will likely stimulate further research in the field.
Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent
For all manuscripts reporting data from studies involving human participants or animals, formal review and approval, or formal review and waiver, by an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee is required and should be described in the“Compliance with ethics guidelines” section. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed. For investigations of humans, state in the “Compliance with ethics guidelines” section the manner in which informed consent was obtained from the study participants (i.e., oral or written). Editors may request that authors provide documentation of the formal review and recommendation from the institutional review board or ethics committee responsible for oversight of the study.
The Journal requirements are in accordance with the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, drawn up by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
Conflicts of Interest and Financial Disclosures
A conflict of interest exists if authors or their institutions have financial or personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their actions. Financial relationships are easily identifiable, but conflicts can also occur because of personal relationships, academic competition, or intellectual passion. A conflict can be actual or potential, and full disclosure to The Editor is the safest course. Failure to disclose conflicts might lead to publication of a statement or even to retraction. All submissions to Frontiers of Medicine must include disclosure of all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. The Editor may use such information as a basis for editorial decisions
The corresponding author should confirm that he or she had full access to all the data in the study and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication. All authors are required to provide a Conflict of Interest Statement.
Format of Papers
Preparation of manuscripts
The manuscript should be legibly typed in A4 format. All sections of the manuscript must be double-spaced with generous margins. Number each page, including the title page.
Non-Native Speakers of English
Researchers who are not native speakers of English who submit manuscripts to international journals often receive negative comments from referees or editors about the English-language usage in their manuscripts, and these problems can contribute to a decision to reject a paper. To help reduce the possibility of such problems, we strongly encourage such authors to take at least one of the following steps:
· Have your manuscript reviewed for clarity by a colleague whose native language is English.
· Use one of the many English language editing services that are available. If you need help from scientific editor of Frontiers of Medicine, please contact our
editorial office. (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com; Tel: +86-10-58556319)
The title of the paper should be explicit, descriptive and as brief as possible. The surname and initials of each author should be followed by his or her department, institution, city with postal code and country. Any changes of address may be given in numbered footnotes.
Please provide a running title of not more than 60 characters and from 3 to 7 keywords.
Please provide e-mail address of the corresponding author at the footnote. Make sure that
the manuscript has a contact telephone number on it.
Juan Fu1, 2, Yiguo Jiang()2, Xuemin Chen1
1Department of Occupational and Environmental Health , the Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of
Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China; 2Institute for Chemical
Carcinogenesis, Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou 510182, China
The second page of every manuscript must contain only the abstract, which should be a single paragraph. Please abide strictly by this limitation of length. The abstract should comprehensively but succinctly describe the contents of the paper to the reader, and abbreviations and reference citations should be avoided.
Headings and subheadings Headings and subheadings should be used throughout the text to divide the subject matter into its important, logical parts. Typical headings include:
Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, Compliance with ethics guidelines, and References.
Introduction It mainly includes the following parts: background of the research through literature
citation, the problems or questions needed to be solved, the objectives of the research and the main
Materials and methods Methods must be described completely enough that other laboratories can
replicate results and verify claims. Generally, standard procedures should be referenced, though
significant variations should be described. Appropriate experimental design and statistical methods
should be applied and described wherever necessary for proper interpretation of data and verification of
claims. All novel materials and the procedures to prepare them should be described in sufficient detail to
allow their reproduction (e.g., DNA constructs, genetic stocks, enzyme preparations, and analytical
Results Results can be described in the text, as well as using tables and figures. Tables and figures
should be placed next to the text it is indicated. The text should complement material given in Tables or
Figures but should not directly repeat it. Give full details of statistical analysis either in the text or in
Tables or Figure legends. Include the type of test, the precise data to which it is applied, the value of the
relevant statistic, the sample size and/or degrees of freedom, and the probability level.
Discussion The main purpose of the Discussion, however, is to comment on the significance of the
results and set them in the context of previous work. Hypothesis should be rational and evidence-based.
Acknowledgements The “Acknowledgement section” is the general term for the list of contributions,
credits, and other information included at the end of the text of a manuscript but before the references.
All sources of funding should be declared as an acknowledgment at the end of the text. Authors should
obtain written permission to include the names of individuals in the Acknowledgment section.
Personal acknowledgements should precede those of institutions or agencies.
Abbreviations Try to restrict the use of abbreviations to SI symbols and those recommended by the
IUPAC. Abbreviations should be defined in brackets after their first mention in the text. Standard units
of measurements and chemical symbols of elements may be used without definition in the body of the
Compliance with ethics guidelines In order to comply with the Journal’s ethical requirements, the
following must be included in a separate section entitled “Compliance with ethics guidelines” just
before the reference list. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the
below-mentioned requirements. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to
fulfill the below-mentioned requirements.
Conflict of interest:
Authors must indicate whether or not they have a financial relationship with the organization that
sponsored the research. The Conflict of Interest statements must list each author separately by name:
John Smith declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Paula Taylor has received research grants from Drug Company A.
Mike Schultz has received a speaker honorarium from Drug Company B and owns stock in Drug
If multiple authors declare no conflict, this can be done in one sentence: John Smith, Paula Taylor, and
Mike Schultz declare that they have no conflict of interest.
For studies with human subjects include the following:
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on
human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as
revised in 2000 (5). Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
If the research was not conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain
the rationale for their approach, and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved
the doubtful aspects of the study.
If any identifying information about patients is included in the article, the following sentence must also
Additional informed consent was obtained from all patients for which identifying information is
included in this article.
For studies with animals include the following sentence:
All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.
For articles that do not contain studies with human or animal subjects:
We recommend including the following sentence to make sure that readers are aware that there are no
ethical issues with human or animal subjects:
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
For review articles include the following:
This manuscript is a review article and does not involve a research protocol requiring approval by
the relevant institutional review board or ethics committee.
References Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for
correct text citation. The references are each numbered, ordered sequentially as they appear in the text.
When listing references, abbreviate names of journals should be used according to the journals list in
PubMed. Please list all authors. Please use the following style for references:
Article in a Journal:
1. Worgall S, Wolff G, Falck-Pedersen E, Crystal RG. Innate immune mechanisms dominate elimination of adenoviral
vectors following in vivo administration. Hum Gene Ther 1997; 8(1): 37–44
Chapter in a Book:
1. Hirsimaki P, Arstuka AU, Trump BF, Marzella L. Autophagocytosis. In: Trump BF, Arstuka AU. Pathobiology
of Cell Membranes. New York: Plenum Press, 1983:201–236
1. Kryger M, Roth T, Dement W. The Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia:WB
1 Jelinic P, Stehle JC, Shaw P. The testis-specific factor CTCFL cooperates with the protein methyltransferase
PRMT7 in H19 imprinting control region methylation. PLoS Biol 2006; 4: e355. DOI:
2 Chow SE, Wang JS, Chuang SF, Chang YL, Chu WK, Chen WS, Chen YW. Resveratrol-induced
p53-independent apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells is correlated with the downregulation of
DeltaNp63. Cancer Gene Ther 2010 Aug 20. [Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1038/cgt.2010.44
Tables These should be labeled sequentially as Table 1, Table 2, etc. Tables should be referred to
specifically in the text of the paper, and embedded within the text respectively. Tables should not
duplicate the content of the text. They should consist of at least two columns; columns should always
have headings. Authors should ensure that the data in the tables are consistent with those cited in the
relevant places in the text, totals add up correctly, and percentages have been calculated correctly. If
necessary, supply tables as Word or Excel files (one table per page).
?? (1) Submitted as three-line tables, that is, there are three horizontal lines: one under the legend,
one under the column heads, and one below the body. Vertical lines are generally not used.
?? (2) Label each table at the top with an Arabic numeral followed by the table title. Insert
explanatory material and footnotes below the table. Designate footnotes using lowercase superscript
letters (a, b, c) reading horizontally across the table. Abbreviations that are used in a table should be defined
in the footnotes.
Figures Figures and images should be labeled sequentially, numbered and cited in the text. Figures
should be referred to specifically in the text of the paper, and the figures should be embedded within the
text respectively. At the same time, the figures should be also submitted separately. The use of
three-dimensional histograms is strongly discouraged when the addition of the third dimension gives no
extra information. If a table or figure has been published before, the authors must obtain written
permission to reproduce the material in both print and electronic formats from the copyright owner and
submit it with the manuscript. This follows for quotes, illustrations and other materials taken from
previously published works not in the public domain. For submission, tif, psd and jpg are the only
acceptable formats for the figures, which should be submitted separately. Use quality graphic programs
such as Adobe PhotoShop, Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, or Freehand to create your figures. Figures
should be approximately the same size as you would like them to appear in press. Note: While an image
may look perfect on the screen, it is often of insufficient resolution for publication. Try viewing your
figure at 100% and 300 dpi in resolution on the screen; if it is not blurry, it is probably of high enough
resolution for the printing process.
Size: width: 6-7.5 cm for one column, 10-15 cm for two columns.
Line Art Monochrome Colorful
Color encoding Gray CMYK CMYK
Resolution (dpi) >600 >300 >300
Figure legends Legends must be submitted for all figures. They should be brief and specific, and should
appear after the corresponding figures. The description should be written in complete sentences, not
word groups. Use scale markers in the image for electron micrographs, and indicate the type of stain
Supplementary information is peer-reviewed material directly relevant to the conclusion of an article
that cannot be included in the printed version owing to space or format constraints. It is posted on the
journal's web site and linked to the article when the article is published and may consist of data files,
graphics, movies or extensive tables. The printed article must be complete and self-explanatory without
the supplementary information. Supplementary information enhances a reader’s understanding of the
paper but is not essential to that understanding. Supplementary information must be supplied to the
editorial office in its final form for peer review. On acceptance the final version of the peer reviewed
supplementary information should submitted with the accepted paper. Supplementary information is not
subedited, so authors should ensure that it is supplied ready for publication online. To ensure that the
contents of the supplementary information files can be viewed by the editor(s), referees and readers,
please also submit a “read-me” file containing brief instructions on how to use the file. The
supplementary information may not be altered, nor new supplementary information added, after the
paper has been accepted for publication.
As the electronic submission will provide the basic material for typesetting, it is important that papers
are prepared in the general editorial style of the journal.
1 Do not make rules thinner than 1pt (0.36mm)
2 Use a coarse hatching pattern rather than shading for tints in graphs
3 Color should be distinct when being used as an identifying tool
4 Use SI units and SI derived units throughout
5 Spaces, not commas should be used to separate thousands
6 Abbreviations should be preceded by the words for which they stand in the first instance of use
7 Text should be double spacing with a wide margin
Authors are encouraged to submit their papers electronically via the online submission system
(http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/fmd ). All correspondence, including the editor’s decision and request
for revisions, will be by e-mail. If you need help from Frontiers of Medicine, please contact our editorial
office. (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com; Tel: +86-10-58556319)
1. A cover letter stating that the manuscript has not been and will not be considered for publication
elsewhere and giving a brief introduction to the novel findings of this work, along with three or more
experts in the field as potential reviewers. Please provide the convenient contact information of first
author including the email address and telephone number in the cover letter if it is difficult to contact
with the corresponding author.
2. A declaration stating that all the authors agreed to submit the manuscript to Frontiers of Medicine
with the signature of the corresponding author. A copy of the Licence to Submission can be signed and
uploaded to http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/fmd, or faxed to the Editorial Office of Frontiers of
Medicine (Fax: +86-10-58556034).
3. Electronic files including the text and the figures/tables.
Revised manuscript submission
Enclose a letter to answer the comments of the reviewers and the editors when submit a revised
The corresponding author must complete and sign the Copyright Transfer statement upon
acceptance of the manuscript and return it to the editorial office. Failure to do so will result
in delays to the publication of your paper.
No article can be published unless accompanied by a signed Copyright Transfer statement,
which ensures a transfer of copyright from the authors to the Higher Education Press,
including print version, disk version, online version and other media versions. Authors are
asked to scan and return by e-mail or fax the signed statement to the editorial office of
Frontiers of Medicine. (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com; Tel: +86-10-58556319)
No part of a paper which has been published by Frontiers of Medicine may be reproduced
or published elsewhere without the written permission of the publisher.
Once the manuscript has been accepted, the corresponding author will receive PDF proofs and are
responsible for proofreading and checking the entire article. Authors should correct only typesetting
errors, no major alteration of the text will be accepted. Page proofs must be returned within 48 hours to
avoid delays in publication along with the reprint order if required.
Online First Publication
To minimize publication time and ensure that important data reach readers and the public as quickly as
possible we now post online articles as soon as they are ready, before print publication. Online First
articles are edited in the normal way. Once you have approved the proof we will post the article as a PDF
on both: http://journal.hep.com.cn/fmd and http://www.springer.com/medicine/journal/11684.
An Online First article is not a “pre-print.” It represents the full publication of that article. At the time of
posting the bibliographic information is forwarded to indexing agencies, so the article can be searched
for and found on bibliographical databases and can be cited as published (the citation format appears at
the top of the online article).
Every Article, Case Report, Statistics in Medicine, and Review published in Frontiers of Medicine has
been peer reviewed. Occasional contributions (e.g., Editorial) are accepted without peer review. On
submission to Frontiers of Medicine, your report will first be read by one or more of the journal’s staff
of editors. It is an important feature of our selection process that some papers are turned away on the
basis of in-house assessment alone. That decision will be communicated quickly. Research papers and
most other types of paper that receive positive in-house reviews are followed by peer review by at least
two reviewers. You will receive notification of which editor is handling the peer review of your paper. If
reviews are encouraging, and the editorial consensus is also favorable, then we seek statistical advice