Frontiers of Physics

ISSN 2095-0462

ISSN 2095-0470(Online)

CN 11-5994/O4

2017 Impact Factor: 1.892

封面图片   2019年, 第14卷 第1期
Graphene is an ideal 2D material system bridging electronic and photonic devices. It also breaks the fundamental speed and size limits by electronics and photonics, respectively. Graphene offers multiple functions of signal transmission, emission, modulation, and detection in a broad band, high speed, compact size, and low loss. Here, the authors h [展开] ...



2019年, 第14卷 第1期 出版日期:2019-02-15 上一期   下一期
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Bohm’s approach to quantum mechanics: Alternative theory or practical picture?
A. S. Sanz
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 11301-.

摘要   PDF (7170KB)

Since its inception Bohmian mechanics has been generally regarded as a hidden-variable theory aimed at providing an objective description of quantum phenomena. To date, this rather narrow conception of Bohm’s proposal has caused it more rejection than acceptance. Now, after 65 years of Bohmian mechanics, should still be such an interpretational aspect the prevailing appraisal? Why not favoring a more pragmatic view, as a legitimate picture of quantum mechanics, on equal footing in all respects with any other more conventional quantum picture? These questions are used here to introduce a discussion on an alternative way to deal with Bohmian mechanics at present, enhancing its aspect as an efficient and useful picture or formulation to tackle, explore, describe and explain quantum phenomena where phase and correlation (entanglement) are key elements. This discussion is presented through two complementary blocks. The first block is aimed at briefly revisiting the historical context that gave rise to the appearance of Bohmian mechanics, and how this approach or analogous ones have been used in different physical contexts. This discussion is used to emphasize a more pragmatic view to the detriment of the more conventional hidden-variable (ontological) approach that has been a leitmotif within the quantum foundations. The second block focuses on some particular formal aspects of Bohmian mechanics supporting the view presented here, with special emphasis on the physical meaning of the local phase field and the associated velocity field encoded within the wave function. As an illustration, a simple model of Young’s two-slit experiment is considered. The simplicity of this model allows to understand in an easy manner how the information conveyed by the Bohmian formulation relates to other more conventional concepts in quantum mechanics. This sort of pedagogical application is also aimed at showing the potential interest to introduce Bohmian mechanics in undergraduate quantum mechanics courses as a working tool rather than merely an alternative interpretation.

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New models for multi-dimensional stable vortex solitons
Hidetsugu Sakaguchi
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 12301-.

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Photon-phonon squeezing and entanglement in a cavity optomechanical system with a flying atom
Jun-Hao Liu, Yu-Bao Zhang, Ya-Fei Yu, Zhi-Ming Zhang
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 12601-.

摘要   PDF (4383KB)

We study the quadrature squeezing and entanglement in a cavity optomechanical system (COMS). In our model, a flying atom sequentially passes through and interacts with the COMS and a Ramsey pulse zone, and subsequently the atomic state is detected. In this way, the photon-phonon squeezing and entanglement can be generated. The dynamic evolution of the squeezing and entanglement in the presence of losses are examined by using the master equation method.

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Graphene and other two-dimensional materials
Kostya S. Novoselov, Daria V. Andreeva, Wencai Ren, Guangcun Shan
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 13301-.

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The art of designing carbon allotropes
Run-Sen Zhang, Jin-Wu Jiang
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 13401-.

摘要   PDF (7542KB)

Stimulated by the success of graphene and diamond, a variety of carbon allotropes have been discovered in recent years in either two-dimensional or three-dimensional configurations. Although these emerging carbon allotropes share some common features, they have certain different and novel mechanical or physical properties. In this review, we present a comparative survey of some of the major properties of fifteen newly discovered carbon allotropes. By comparing their structural topology, we propose a general route for designing most carbon allotropes from two mother structures, namely, graphene and diamond. Furthermore, we discuss several future prospects as well as current challenges in designing new carbon allotropes.

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Impurity-induced bound states as a signature of pairing symmetry in multiband superconducting CeCu2Si2
Dong-Dong Wang, Bin Liu, Min Liu, Yi-Feng Yang, Shi-Ping Feng
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 13501-.

摘要   PDF (3169KB)

The notion of multiband superconductivity with dominant two-gap features has been recently applied to the unconventional superconductor CeCu2Si2 for challenging the previously accepted concept of nodal d-wave pairing. In the proposed study, the realistic multiband Fermi surface topology of CeCu2Si2 was obtained through first-principles calculations, and analysis was conducted with an effective two-band hybridization model including detailed band structure. Within the T-matrix approximation, the obtained calculation results show that different pairing candidates, including fully gapped s-wave, loop-nodal s-wave, and d-wave pairings, could yield qualitatively distinct features characterized by impurity-induced bound states. These features can be verified through high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy or spectroscopy and provide corroborative justification that would be beneficial for the ongoing research regarding the superconducting gap symmetry of CeCu2Si2 at ambient pressure.

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Tuning spin reorientation in Er1–xYxFeO3 single crystal family
Ning Yuan, Ru-Bin Li, You-Shuang Yu, Zheng-Jie Feng, Bao-Juan Kang, Shi-Yi Zhuo, Jun-Yi Ge, Jin-Cang Zhang, Shi-Xun Cao
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 13502-.

摘要   PDF (5194KB)

A temperature-induced spin reorientation transition between Г4 (Gx, Ay, Fz) and Г2 (Fx, Cy, Gz) has been studied in the family of Er1–xYxFeO3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) single crystals. By doping nonmagnetic Y3+, we tuned the spin reorientation temperature to low temperature with increasing x. Moreover, the typical compensation point and spin flip transition of ErFeO3 also decreases with doping, and disappears above x = 0.75. We also report the Rietveld refinements and Raman spectroscopy of Er1–xYxFeO3, where some Raman peaks are shifted to low frequency with increasing doping. Our results shed light on the understanding of the interaction between two magnetic sub-lattices of rare earth (R3+) and iron (Fe3+) ions, and will also contribute to the materials design and potential applications.

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Enhancing the thermoelectric performance of Bi2S3: A promising earth-abundant thermoelectric material
Ye Chen, Dongyang Wang, Yuling Zhou, Qiantao Pang, Jianwei Shao, Guangtao Wang, Jinfeng Wang, Li-Dong Zhao
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 13601-.

摘要   PDF (12552KB)

Recently, bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) has attracted much attention in the thermoelectric community owing to its abundance, low cost, and advanced properties. However, its poor electrical transport properties have prevented Bi2S3 devices from realizing high thermoelectric performance. In this work, our motivation is to decrease the large electrical resistivity, which is recognized as the origin of the low ZT value in undoped Bi2S3. We combined melting and spark plasma sintering (SPS) in a continuous fabrication process to produce Bi2S3–xSex (x = 0, 0.09, 0.15, 0.21) and Bi2S2.85–ySe0.15Cly (y = 0.0015, 0.0045, 0.0075, 0.015, 0.03) samples. Our results show that Se alloying at S sites can narrow the band gap and activate intrinsic electron conduction, leading to a high power factor of ~2.0 μW·cm–1·K–2 at room temperature in Bi2S2.85S0.15, about 100 times higher than that of undoped Bi2S3. Moreover, our further introduction of Cl atoms into the S sites resulted in a second-stage optimization of carrier concentration and simultaneously reduced the lattice thermal conductivity, which contributed to a high ZT value of ~0.6 at 723 K for Bi2S2.835Se0.15Cl0.015. Our results indicate that high thermoelectric performance could be realized in Bi2S3 with earth-abundant and low-cost elements.

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Tuning up-conversion luminescence in Er3+-doped glass ceramic by phase-shaped femtosecond laser field with optimal feedback control
Lian-Zhong Deng, Yun-Hua Yao, Li Deng, Huai-Yuan Jia, Ye Zheng, Cheng Xu, Jian-Ping Li, Tian-Qing Jia, Jian-Rong Qiu, Zhen-Rong Sun, Shi-An Zhang
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 13602-.

摘要   PDF (2284KB)

Tuning the color output of rare-earth ion doped luminescent nanomaterials has important scientific significance for further extending applications in color displays, laser sources, optoelectronic devices, and biolabeling. In previous studies, pre-designed phase modulation of the femtosecond laser field has been proven to be effective in tuning the luminescence of doped rare-earth ions. Owing to the complex light–matter interaction in the actual experiment, the dynamic range and optimal efficiency for color tuning cannot be determined with the pre-designed phase modulation. This article shares the development of an adaptive femtosecond pulse shaping method based on a genetic algorithm, and its use to manipulate the green and red luminescence tuning in an Er3+-doped glass ceramic under 800-nm femtosecond laser field excitation for the first time. Experimental results show that the intensity ratio of the green and red UC luminescence of the doped Er3+ ions can be either increased or decreased conveniently by the phase-shaped femtosecond laser field with an optimal feedback control. The physical control mechanisms for the color tuning are also explained in detail. This article demonstrates the potential applications of the adaptive femtosecond pulse shaping technique in controlling the color output of doped rare-earth ions.

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Graphene based functional devices: A short review
Rong Wang, Xin-Gang Ren, Ze Yan, Li-Jun Jiang, Wei E. I. Sha, Guang-Cun Shan
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 13603-.

摘要   PDF (27911KB)

Graphene is an ideal 2D material system bridging electronic and photonic devices. It also breaks the fundamental speed and size limits by electronics and photonics, respectively. Graphene offers multiple functions of signal transmission, emission, modulation, and detection in a broad band, high speed, compact size, and low loss. Here, we have a brief view of graphene based functional devices at microwave, terahertz, and optical frequencies. Their fundamental physics and computational models were discussed as well.

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Hydrothermal synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of Ru doped La0.5Sr0.5MnO3
Ling-Ling Wang, Jia-Nan Chu, Xuan Zhang, Yong-Hui Ma, Qiu-Cheng Ji, Wei Li, Hui Zhang, Gang Mu, Xiao-Ming Xie
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 13604-.

摘要   PDF (4094KB)

Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of Ru doped perovskite structured manganite La0.5Sr0.5MnO3 were investigated experimentally. A hydrothermal method was used for the preparation of the samples. A high-temperature annealing process was also employed to make a comparison. A slightly enhancement of the unit cell volume was observed with the increase of Ru concentration. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the materials are made up of cube-shaped particles with dimension of several micrometers. Importantly, it is found that both the Curie temperature TC and saturation moment can be reduced by Ru doping. The value of coercive field is not affected by the introduction of Ru.

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Phase transition of the frustrated antiferromagntic J1-J2-J3 spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on a simple cubic lattice
Ai-Yuan Hu, Huai-Yu Wang
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 13605-.

摘要   PDF (1486KB)

We have comprehensively investigated the frustrated J1-J2-J3 Heisenberg model on a simple cubic lattice. This model allows three regimes of magnetic order, viz., (π; π; π), (0; π; π) and (0; 0; π), denoted as AF1, AF2, and AF3, respectively. The effects of the interplay of neighboring couplings on the model are studied in the entire temperature range. The zero temperature magnetic properties of this model are discussed utilizing the linear spin wave (LSW) theory, nonlinear spin wave (NLSW) theory, and Green’s function (GF) method. The zero temperature phase diagrams evaluated by the LSW and NLSW methods are illustrated, and are observed to exhibit different parameter boundaries. In certain regions and along the parameter boundaries, the possible phase transformations driven by the parameters are discussed. The results obtained using the LSW, NLSW, and GF methods are compared with those obtained using the series expansion (SE) method, and are observed to be in good agreement when the value of J2 is not close to the parameter boundaries. The ground state energies obtained using the LSW and NLSW methods are close to that obtained using the SE method. At finite temperatures, only the GF method is employed to evaluate the magnetic properties, and the calculated phase diagram is observed to be identical to the classical phase diagram. The results indicate that at the parameter boundaries, a temperature-driven first-order phase transition between AF1 and AF2 may occur along the boundary line. Along the AF1-AF3 and AF2-AF3 boundary lines, AF3 is less stable than AF1 and AF2. Our calculated critical temperature agrees with that obtained using Monte Carlo simulations and pseudofermion functional renormalization group scheme.

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Convergent and divergent beam electron holography and reconstruction of adsorbates on free-standing two-dimensional crystals
T. Latychevskaia, C. R. Woods, Yi Bo Wang, M. Holwill, E. Prestat, S. J. Haigh, K. S. Novoselov
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 13606-.

摘要   PDF (20930KB)

Van der Waals heterostructures have been lately intensively studied because they offer a large variety of properties that can be controlled by selecting 2D materials and their sequence in the stack. The exact arrangement of the layers as well as the exact arrangement of the atoms within the layers, both are important for the properties of the resulting device. However, it is very difficult to control and characterize the exact position of the atoms and the layers in such heterostructures, in particular, along the vertical (z) dimension. Recently it has been demonstrated that convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) allows quantitative three-dimensional mapping of atomic positions in three-dimensional materials from a single CBED pattern. In this study we investigate CBED in more detail by simulating and performing various CBED regimes, with convergent and divergent wavefronts, on a somewhat simplified system: a two-dimensional (2D) monolayer crystal. In CBED, each CBED spot is in fact an in-line hologram of the sample, where in-line holography is known to exhibit high intensity contrast in detection of weak phase objects that are not detectable in conventional in-focus imaging mode. Adsorbates exhibit strong intensity contrast in the zero and higher order CBED spots, whereas lattice deformation such as strain or rippling cause noticeable intensity contrast only in the first and higher order CBED spots. The individual CBED spots can thus be reconstructed as typical in-line holograms, and a resolution of 2.13 Å can in principle be achieved in the reconstructions. We provide simulated and experimental examples of CBED of a 2D monolayer crystal. The simulations show that individual CBED spots can be treated as in-line holograms and sample distributions such as adsorbates, can be reconstructed. Individual atoms can be reconstructed from a single CBED pattern provided the later exhibits high-order CBED spots. The experimental results were obtained in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) at 80 keV on free-standing monolayer hBN containing adsorbates. Examples of reconstructions obtained from experimental CBED patterns at a resolution of 2.7 Å are shown. CBED technique can be potentially useful for imaging individual biological macromolecules, because it provides a relatively high resolution and does not require additional scanning procedure or multiple image acquisitions and therefore allows minimizing the radiation damage.

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Probing interlayer interactions in WSe2-graphene heterostructures by ultralow-frequency Raman spectroscopy
Yue Liu (刘月), Yu Zhou (周煜), Hao Zhang (张昊), Feirong Ran (冉飞荣), Weihao Zhao (赵炜昊), Lin Wang (王琳), Chengjie Pei (裴成杰), Jindong Zhang (张锦东), Xiao Huang (黄晓), Hai Li (李海)
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 13607-.

摘要   PDF (9649KB)

Interlayer interactions at the heterointerfaces of van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs), which consist of vertically stacked two-dimensional materials, play important roles in determining their properties. The interlayer interactions are tunable from noncoupling to strong coupling by controlling the twist angle between adjacent layers. However, the influence of stacking sequence and individual component thickness on the properties of vdWHs has rarely been explored. In this work, the influence of the stacking sequence of WSe2 and graphene in vdWHs of graphene-on-WSe2 (graphene/WSe2) or WSe2-on-graphene (WSe2/graphene), as well as their thickness, on their interlayer interaction was systematically investigated by ultralow-frequency (ULF) Raman spectroscopy. A series of ULF breathing modes of WSe2 nanosheets in these vdWHs were observed with frequencies highly dependent on graphene thickness. Interestingly, the ULF breathing modes of WSe2 red-shifted in graphene/WSe2 and WSe2/graphene configurations, and the amount of shift in the former was much larger than that in the latter. In contrast, no obvious ULF shift was observed by varying the twist angle between WSe2 and graphene. This indicates that the interlayer interaction is more sensitive to the stacking sequence compared with the twist angle. The results provide alternative approaches to modulate the interlayer interaction of vdWHs and, thus, tune their optical and optoelectronic properties.

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Stacking transition in rhombohedral graphite
Tataiana Latychevskaia, Seok-Kyun Son, Yaping Yang, Dale Chancellor, Michael Brown, Servet Ozdemir, Ivan Madan, Gabriele Berruto, Fabrizio Carbone, Artem Mishchenko, Kostya S. Novoselov
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 13608-.

摘要   PDF (11234KB)

Few-layer graphene (FLG) has recently been intensively investigated for its variable electronic properties, which are defined by a local atomic arrangement. While the most natural arrangement of layers in FLG is ABA (Bernal) stacking, a metastable ABC (rhombohedral) stacking, characterized by a relatively high-energy barrier, can also occur. When both types of stacking occur in one FLG device, the arrangement results in an in-plane heterostructure with a domain wall (DW). In this paper, we present two approaches to demonstrate that the ABC stacking in FLG can be controllably and locally turned into the ABA stacking. In the first approach, we introduced Joule heating, and the transition was characterized by 2D peak Raman spectra at a submicron spatial resolution. The transition was initiated in a small region, and then the DW was controllably shifted until the entire device became ABA stacked. In the second approach, the transition was achieved by illuminating the ABC region with a train of 790-nm-wavelength laser pulses, and the transition was visualized by transmission electron microscopy in both diffraction and dark-field imaging modes. Further, using this approach, the DW was visualized at a nanoscale spatial resolution in the dark-field imaging mode.

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Majorana fermions in semiconducting nanowire and Fulde–Ferrell superconductor hybrid structures
Jia Liu, Chun Fai Chan, Ming Gong
Frontiers of Physics. 2019, 14 (1): 13609-.

摘要   PDF (12294KB)

The novel idea that spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and an s-wave pairing system can lead to induced pwave pairing with a strong magnetic limit, has stimulated widespread interest in searching for Majorana fermions (MFs) in semiconductor-superconductor hybrid structures. However, despite major advances in the semiconductor nanotechnology, this system has several inherent limitations that prohibit the realization and identification of MFs. We overcome these limitations by replacing the s-wave superconductor with the type-II Fulde–Ferrell (FF) superconductor, in which the center-of-mass momentum of the Cooper pair renormalizes the in-plane Zeeman field and chemical potential. As a result, MFs can be realized in semiconductor nanowires with small values of the Landé g-factor and high carrier densities. The SOC strength directly influences the topological boundary; thus, the topological phase transition and associated MFs can be engineered by an external electric field. Theoretically, almost all semiconductor nanowires can be used to realize MFs by using the FF superconductor. However, we find that InP nanowire is more suitable for the realization of MFs compared to InAs and InSb nanowires. Thus, this new scheme can take full advantage of the semiconductor nanotechnology for the realization of MFs in semiconductor-superconductor hybrid structures.

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