2019 Impact Factor: 2.502
Single-atom photocatalysts, due to their high catalysis activity, selectivity and stability, become a hotspot in the field of photocatalysis. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is known as both a good support for single atoms and a star photocatalyst. Developing g-C3N4-based single-atom photocatalysts exhibits great potential in improving the photocatalytic performance. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in g-C3N4-based single-atom photocatalysts, mainly including preparation strategies, characterizations, and their photocatalytic applications. The significant roles of single atoms and catalysis mechanism in g-C3N4-based single-atom photocatalysts are analyzed. At last, the challenges and perspectives for exploring high-efficient g-C3N4-based single-atom photocatalysts are presented.
We study the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in van der Waals (vdW) crystal CrBr3. Bulk CrBr3 exhibits a second-order paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition with TC = 33 K. The maximum magnetic entropy change −ΔSM near TC is about 7.2 J·kg−1·K−1 with the maximum adiabatic temperature change ΔTmaxad = 2.37 K and the relative cooling power RCP= 191.5 J·kg−1 at μ0H = 5 T, all of which are remarkably larger than those in CrI3. These results suggest that the vdW crystal CrBr3 is a promising candidate for the low-dimensional magnetic refrigeration in low temperature region.
Graphene oxide (GO), the functionalized graphene with oxygenated groups (mainly epoxy and hydroxyl), has attracted resurgent interests in the past decade owing to its large surface area, superior physical and chemical properties, and easy composition with other materials via surface functional groups. Usually, GO is used as an important raw material for mass production of graphene via reduction. However, under different conditions, the coverage, types, and arrangements of oxygen-containing groups in GO can be varied, which give rise to excellent and controllable physical properties, such as tunable electronic and mechanical properties depending closely on oxidation degree, suppressed thermal conductivity, optical transparency and fluorescence, and nonlinear optical properties. Based on these outstanding properties, many electronic, optical, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric devices with high performance can be achieved on the basis of GO. Here we present a comprehensive review on recent progress of GO, focusing on the atomic structures, fundamental physical properties, and related device applications, including transparent and flexible conductors, field-effect transistors, electrical and optical sensors, fluorescence quenchers, optical limiters and absorbers, surface enhanced Raman scattering detectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and thermal rectifiers.
The frustrated spin-1/2 J1a–J1b–J2 antiferromagnet with anisotropy on the two-dimensional square lattice was investigated, where the parameters J1aand J1b represent the nearest neighbor exchanges and along the x and y directions, respectively. J2 represents the next-nearest neighbor exchange. The anisotropy includes the spatial and exchange anisotropies. Using the double-time Green’s function method, the effects of the interplay of exchanges and anisotropy on the possible phase transition of the Néel state and stripe state were discussed. Our results indicated that, in the case of anisotropic parameter 0≤η<1, the Néel and stripe states can exist and have the same critical temperature as long as J2 = J1b/2. Under such parameters, a first-order phase transformation between the Néel and stripe states can occur below the critical point. For J2 ≠J1b/2, our results indicate that the Néel and stripe states can also exist, while their critical temperatures differ. When J2>J1b/2, a first-order phase transformation between the two states may also occur. However, for J2<J1b/2, the Néel state is always more stable than the stripe state.
Nonreciprocal devices are indispensable for building quantum networks and ubiquitous in modern communication technology. Here, we propose to take advantage of the interference between optomechanical interaction and linearly-coupled interaction to realize optical nonreciprocal transmission in a double-cavity optomechanical system. Particularly, we have derived essential conditions for perfect optical nonreciprocity and analysed properties of the optical nonreciprocal transmission. These results can be used to control optical transmission in quantum information processing.
Topological materials (TMs) have gained intensive attention due to their novel behaviors compared with topologically trivial materials. Among various TMs, Dirac semimetal (DSM) has been studied extensively. Although several DSMs have been proposed and verified experimentally, the suitable DSM for realistic applications is still lacking. Thus finding ideal DSMs and providing detailed analyses to them are of both fundamental and technological importance. Here, we sort out 8 (nearly) ideal DSMs from thousands of topological semimetals in Nature 566(7745), 486 (2019). We show the concrete positions of the Dirac points in the Brillouin zone for these materials and clarify the symmetryprotection mechanism for these Dirac points as well as their low-energy effective models. Our results provide a useful starting point for future study such as topological phase transition under strain and transport study based on these effective models. These DSMs with high mobilities are expected to be applied in fabrication of functional electronic devices.
Though three-dimensional (3D) organic–inorganic halide perovskites (OIHP) is very promising for low cost and distributed PV generation, the stability issue of 3D OIHP is still a problem for its commercialization. Two-dimensional (2D) perovskites, protected by periodic organic ligands, is promising due to its excellent optoelectronic property and superior stability. However, 2D perovskite is anisotropic in its crystal structure and optoelectronic properties, and the resulted film is often a mixture of different phase. So, methods to manipulate 2D perovskite crystal orientation and its phase separation are vital. In this review, the major advances on the composition engineering, crystal orientation, phase separation, and interfacial capping are summarized. Besides, efforts on understanding the formation process of 2D perovskite crystal are also discussed, which is important for making full use of 2D perovskite in functional optoelectronic devices.
We review application of the SU(4) model of strongly-correlated electrons to cuprate and iron-based superconductors. A minimal self-consistent generalization of BCS theory to incorporate antiferromagnetism on an equal footing with pairing and strong Coulomb repulsion is found to account systematically for the major features of high-temperature superconductivity, with microscopic details of the parent compounds entering only parametrically. This provides a systematic procedure to separate essential from peripheral, suggesting that many features exhibited by the high-Tc data set are of interest in their own right but are not central to the superconducting mechanism. More generally, we propose that the surprisingly broad range of conventional and unconventional superconducting and superfluid behavior observed across many fields of physics results from the systematic appearance of similar algebraic structures for the emergent effective Hamiltonians, even though the microscopic Hamiltonians of the corresponding parent states may differ radically from each other.
Starting from optical nihility media (ONM), we design several intriguing devices with transformation optics method in two dimensions, such as a wave splitter, a concave lens, a field rotator, a concentrator, and an invisibility cloak. Though the extreme anisotropic property of ONM hinders the fabrication of these devices. We demonstrate that those devices could be effectively realized by simplified materials with Fabry–Pérot resonances (FPs) at discrete frequencies. Moreover, we propose a reduced version of simplified materials with FPs to construct a concentrator and a rotator, which is feasible in experimental fabrications. The simulations of total scattering cross-sections confirm their functionalities.
The skyrmion Hall effect is theoretically studied in the chiral ferromagnetic film with spatially modulated Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction. Three cases including linear, sinusoidal, and periodic rectangular modulations have been considered, where the increase, decrease, and the periodic modification of the size and velocity of the skyrmion have been observed in the microscopic simulations. These phenomena are well explained by the Thiele equation, where an effective force on the skyrmion is induced by the inhomogeneous Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction. The results here suggest that the skyrmion Hall effect can be manipulated by artificially tuning the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction in chiral ferromagnetic film with material engineering methods, which will be useful to design skyrmion-based spintronics devices.
Topological insulators are emergent states of quantum matter that are gapped in the bulk with timereversal symmetry-preserved gapless edge/surface states, adiabatically distinct from conventional materials. By proximity to various magnets and superconductors, topological insulators show novel physics at the interfaces, which give rise to two new areas named topological spintronics and topological quantum computation. Effects in the former such as the spin torques, spin-charge conversion, topological antiferromagnetic spintronics, and skyrmions realized in topological systems will be addressed. In the latter, a superconducting pairing gap leads to a state that supports Majorana fermions states, which may provide a new path for realizing topological quantum computation. Various signatures of Majorana zero modes/edge mode in topological superconductors will be discussed. The review ends by outlooks and potential applications of topological insulators. Topological superconductors that are fabricated using topological insulators with superconductors have a full pairing gap in the bulk and gapless surface states consisting of Majorana fermions. The theory of topological superconductors is reviewed, in close analogy to the theory of topological insulators.
We proposed and demonstrated that PT symmetric metamaterials could be used to achieve enhanced spin Hall effect (SHE) of light. We find that when laser mode is excited in PT symmetric system, the enhanced SHE could be obtained in both transmitted and reflected beams. In addition, as exceptional points (EPs) of PT symmetric system can happen for both p- and s-polarizations, the enhanced SHE of reflected light can function for both horizontally and vertically polarized incident beams. Particularly, these EPs can lead to unidirectional reflectionlessness, asymmetric SHE with maximum contrast ratio of 48 is obtained by launching light beams near EPs. Our work opens up a new path to obtain enhanced transverse displacement for both reflected and transmitted light and enables more opportunities in manipulating photonic SHE.
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation for sustainable clean energy and fuel production is a potential solution to the demands of organic pollutant removal and growing energy consumption. Development of high performance photoanodes, which is a key component in the system, is one of the central topics in the area. The crystal defect is an old concept but fruiting new understanding with promotive impact to the development of high performance photoanodes. In this review, we elucidated the typical defects involved in the photoanode with the position where they play the roles in the structure and how the properties of photoanode are influenced. In addition, we summarized the feasible protocols to maximize the pros but reduce the cons brought by having defects to the photoanode performance based on recent most prominent research advancements in the field. Finally, we briefly sketched the future perspective with the challenges of this topic when in the scenario of possible developments into practical applications.
We investigate the effects of viscosity and heat conduction on the onset and growth of Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) via an efficient discrete Boltzmann model. Technically, two effective approaches are presented to quantitatively analyze and understand the configurations and kinetic processes. One is to determine the thickness of mixing layers through tracking the distributions and evolutions of the thermodynamic nonequilibrium (TNE) measures; the other is to evaluate the growth rate of KHI from the slopes of morphological functionals. Physically, it is found that the time histories of width of mixing layer, TNE intensity, and boundary length show high correlation and attain their maxima simultaneously. The viscosity effects are twofold, stabilize the KHI, and enhance both the local and global TNE intensities. Contrary to the monotonically inhibiting effects of viscosity, the heat conduction effects firstly refrain then enhance the evolution afterwards. The physical reasons are analyzed and presented.
This collection presents 505 papers on ferroelectricity in single crystals, ceramics and polymers in which pointed or elliptical hysteresis loops would testify to their ferroelectric properties. In some papers, the authors ensure that ferroelectricity can occur even in materials that do not have a polar axis of symmetry.
The first gravitational wave (GW) – gamma-ray burst (GRB) association, GW170817/GRB 170817A, had an offset in time, with the GRB trigger time delayed by ~1.7 s with respect to the merger time of the GW signal. We generally discuss the astrophysical origin of the delay time, Δt, of GW-GRB associations within the context of compact binary coalescence (CBC) – short GRB (sGRB) associations and GW burst – long GRB (lGRB) associations. In general, the delay time should include three terms, the time to launch a clean (relativistic) jet, Δtjet; the time for the jet to break out from the surrounding medium, Δtbo; and the time for the jet to reach the energy dissipation and GRB emission site, ΔtGRB. For CBC-sGRB associations, Δtjet and Δtbo are correlated, and the final delay can be from 10 ms to a few seconds. For GWB-lGRB associations, Δtjet and Δtbo are independent. The latter is at least ~10 s, so that Δt of these associations is at least this long. For certain jet launching mechanisms of lGRBs, Δt can be minutes or even hours long due to the extended engine waiting time to launch a jet. We discuss the cases of GW170817/GRB 170817A and GW150914/GW150914-GBM within this theoretical framework and suggest that the delay times of future GW/GRB associations will shed light into the jet launching mechanisms of GRBs.
We studied the mode-conversion process of terahertz pulses from a planar subwavelength waveguide to a tilted rectangular subwavelength waveguide. An unusual wavefront rotation, which led to an extra conversion time, was observed using a time-resolved imaging technique. We simulated the mode conversion process by a finite-difference time-domain method, and the results agreed well with the experiments. According to the simulations, the conversion time was demonstrated to become longer as the tilt angle or width of the rectangular waveguide increased. This work provides the possibility to optimize the future high-speed communications and terahertz integrated platforms.
Recently, the layered transition metal dichalcogenide 1T′-MoTe2 has generated considerable interest due to their superconducting and non-trivial topological properties. Here, we present a systematic study on 1T′-MoTe2 single-crystal and exfoliated thin-flakes by means of electrical transport, scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) measurements and band structure calculations. For a bulk sample, it exhibits large magneto-resistance (MR) and Shubnikov–de Hass oscillations in ρxx and a series of Hall plateaus in ρxy at low temperatures. Meanwhile, the MoTe2 thin films were intensively investigated with thickness dependence. For samples, without encapsulation, an apparent transition from the intrinsic metallic to insulating state is observed by reducing thickness. In such thin films, we also observed a suppression of the MR and weak anti-localization (WAL) effects. We attributed these effects to disorders originated from the extrinsic surface chemical reaction, which is consistent with the density functional theory (DFT) calculations and in-situ STM results. In contrast to samples without encapsulated protection, we discovered an interesting superconducting transition for those samples with hexagonal Boron Nitride (h-BN) film protection. Our results indicate that the metallic or superconducting behavior is its intrinsic state, and the insulating behavior is likely caused by surface oxidation in few layer 1T′-MoTe2 flakes.
Three-dimensional topological gapless matters with gapless degeneracies protected by a topological invariant defined over a closed manifold in momentum space have attracted considerable interest in various fields ranging from condensed matter materials to ultracold atomic gases. As a highly controllable and disorder free system, ultracold atomic gases provide a versatile platform to simulate topological gapless matters. Here, the current progress in studies of topological gapless phenomena in three-dimensional cold atom systems is summarized in the review. It is mainly focused on Weyl points, structured (type-II) Weyl points, Dirac points, nodal rings and Weyl exceptional rings in cold atoms. Since interactions in cold atoms can be controlled via Feshbach resonances, the progress in both superfluids for attractive interactions and non-interacting cold atom gases is reviewed.
β-PtO2 is a useful transition metal dioxide, but its fundamental thermodynamic and elastic properties remain unexplored. Using first-principles calculations, we systematically studied the structure, phonon, thermodynamic and elastic properties of β-PtO2. The lattice dynamics and structural stability of β-PtO2 under pressure were studied using the phonon spectra and vibrational density of states. The vibrational frequencies of the optical modes of β-PtO2 increase with elevating pressure; this result is comparable with the available experimental data. Then, the heat capacities and their pressure responses were determined based on the phonon calculations. The pressure dependence of the Debye temperature was studied, and the results were compared in two distinct aspects. The elastic moduli of β-PtO2 were estimated through the Voigt–Reuss–Hill approximation. The bulk modulus of β-PtO2 increases linearly with pressure, but the shear modulus is nearly independent of pressure. Our study revealed that the elastic stiffness coefficients C44, C55 and C66 play a primary role in the slow variation of the shear modulus.
Hydrogenation of transition metal oxides offers a powerful platform to tailor physical functionalities as well as for potential applications in modern electronic technologies. An ideal nondestructive and efficient hydrogen incorporation approach is important for the realistic technological applications. We demonstrate the proton injection on SrCrO3 thin films via an efficient low-energy hydrogen plasma implantation experiments, without destroying the original lattice framework. Hydrogen ions accumulate largely at the interfacial regions with amorphous character which extend about one-third of the total thickness. The HxSrCrO3 (HSCO) thin films appear like exfoliated layers which however retain the fully strained state with distorted perovskite structure. Proton doping induces the change of Cr oxidation state from Cr4+ to Cr3+ in HSCO thin films and a transition from metallic to insulating phase. Our investigations suggest an attractive platform in manipulating the electronic phases in proton-based approaches and may offer a potential peeling off strategy for nanoscale devices through low-energy hydrogen plasma implantation approaches.
Using the single-mode approximation, we first calculate entanglement measures such as negativity (1–3 and 1–1 tangles) and von Neumann entropy for a tetrapartite W-Class system in noninertial frame and then analyze the whole entanglement measures, the residual π4 and geometric Π4 average of tangles. Notice that the difference between π4 and Π4 is very small or disappears with the increasing accelerated observers. The entanglement properties are compared among the different cases from one accelerated observer to four accelerated observers. The results show that there still exists entanglement for the complete system even when acceleration r tends to infinity. The degree of entanglement is disappeared for the 1–1 tangle case when the acceleration r>0.472473. We reexamine the Unruh effect in noninertial frames. It is shown that the entanglement system in which only one qubit is accelerated is more robust than those entangled systems in which two or three or four qubits are accelerated. It is also found that the von Neumann entropy S of the total system always increases with the increasing accelerated observers, but the Sκξ and Sκζδ with two and three involved noninertial qubits first increases and then decreases with the acceleration parameter r, but they are equal to constants 1 and 0.811278 respectively for zero involved noninertial qubit.
With a selected sample of neutron star (NS) equations of state (EOSs) that are consistent with the current observations and have a range of maximum masses, we investigate the relations between NS gravitational mass Mg and baryonic mass Mb, and the relations between the maximum NS mass supported through uniform rotation (Mmax) and that of nonrotating NSs (MTOV). We find that for an EOS-independent quadratic, universal transformation formula (Mb=Mg+A×Mg2), the best-fit A value is 0.080 for non-rotating NSs, 0.064 for maximally rotating NSs, and 0.073 when NSs with arbitrary rotation are considered. The residual error of the transformation is ~0.1M⊙ for non-spin or maximum-spin, but is as large as ~0.2M⊙ for all spins. For different EOSs, we find that the parameter A for non-rotating NSs is proportional to R1.4−1 (where R1.4 is NS radius for 1.4M⊙ in units of km). For a particular EOS, if one adopts the best-fit parameters for different spin periods, the residual error of the transformation is smaller, which is of the order of 0.01 M⊙ for the quadratic form and less than 0.01M⊙ for the cubic form (Mb=Mg+A1×Mg2+A2×Mg3). We also find a very tight and general correlation between the normalized mass gain due to spin Δm≡(Mmax−MTOV)/MTOV and the spin period normalized to the Keplerian period P, i.e., log10Δm=(−2.74±0.05)log10P+log10(0.20±0.01), which is independent of EOS models. These empirical relations are helpful to study NS-NS mergers with a long-lived NS merger product using multi-messenger data. The application of our results to GW170817 is discussed.
Complex oxide interfaces have been one of the central focuses in condensed matter physics and material science. Over the past decade, aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy has proven to be invaluable to visualize and understand the emerging quantum phenomena at an interface. In this paper, we briefly review some recent progress in the utilization of electron microscopy to probe interfaces. Specifically, we discuss several important challenges for electron microscopy to advance our understanding on interface phenomena, from the perspective of variable temperature, magnetism, electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis, electronic symmetry, and defects probing.
Solar energy has promising potential for building sustainable society. Conversion of solar energy into solar fuels plays a crucial role in overcoming the intermittent nature of the renewable energy source. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell that employs semiconductor as photoelectrode to split water into hydrogen or fixing carbon dioxide (CO2) into hydrocarbon fuels provides great potential to achieve zero-carbon-emission society. A proper design of these semiconductor photoelectrodes thus directly influences the performance of the PEC cell. In this review, we investigate the strategies that have been put towards the design of efficient photoelectrodes for PEC water splitting and CO2 reduction in recent years and provide some future design directions toward next-generation PEC cells for water splitting and CO2 reduction.
Precise measurements of the energy spectra of cosmic rays (CRs) show various kinds of features deviating from single power-laws, which give very interesting and important implications on their origin and propagation. Previous measurements from a few balloon and space experiments indicate the existence of spectral softenings around 10 TV for protons (and probably also for Helium nuclei). Very recently, the DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) measurement about the proton spectrum clearly reveals such a softening with a high significance. Here we study the implications of these new measurements, as well as the groundbased indirect measurements, on the origin of CRs. We find that a single component of CRs fails to fit the spectral softening and the air shower experiment data simultaneously. In the framework of multiple components, we discuss two possible scenarios, the multiple source population scenario and the background plus nearby source scenario. Both scenarios give reasonable fits to the wide-band data from TeV to 100 PeV energies. Considering the anisotropy observations, the nearby source model is favored.
This study proposes an approach to generate high-order exceptional points (EPs) in non-Hermitian systems. A system comprising a homogenous waveguide is considered wherein the imaginary part of the refractive index is modulated using a one-dimensional Moiré profile. This gain-loss modulation couples different lossless waveguide modes, and these hybrid modes can be modeled using a non-Hermitian matrix with complex off-diagonal elements. Results indicate that third-order EPs can be produced by the coalescence of two second-order EPs. Then, the necessary requirements are analyzed using coupled-wave equations and the physical effects of the singularities are discussed.
We report an experimental investigation of the influence of surface charges on the emission polarization properties of single CdSe/CdS dot-in-rods (DRs), which is important for their polarization-based practical applications. By covering the single DRs with N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles, the surface of single DRs is charged by ITO through interfacial electron transfer. This is confirmed by the experimental observations of the reduced photoluminescence intensities and lifetimes as well as the suppressing blinking. It is found that the full width at half maximum of histogram of polarization degrees of the single DRs is broadened from 0.24 (on glass) to 0.41 (in ITO). In order to explain the exprimental results, the band-edge exciton fine structure of single DRs is calculated by taking into account the sample parameters, the emission polarization, and the surface charges. The calculation results show that the level ordering of the emitting states determines the polarization degrees tending to increase or decrease under the influence of surface electrons. The surface electrons can induce an increase in the spacing between the emitting levels to change the populations and thus change the polarization degrees. In addition, different numbers of surface electrons may randomly distribute on the long CdSe/CdS rods, leading to the heterogeneous influences on the single DRs causing the broadening of polarization degrees also.
Topological insulators, a class of typical topological materials in both two dimensions and three dimensions,are insulating in bulk and metallic at surface. The spin-momentum locked surface states and peculiar transport properties exhibit promising potential applications on quantum devices, which generate extensive interest in the last decade. Dephasing is the process of the loss of phase coherence, which inevitably exists in a realistic sample. In this review, we focus on recent progress in dephasing effects on the topological insulators. In general, there are two types of dephasing processes: normal dephasing and spin dephasing. In two-dimensional topological insulators, the phenomenologically numerical investigation shows that the longitudinal resistance plateaus is robust against normal dephasing but fragile with spin dephasing. Several microscopic mechanisms of spin dephasing are then discussed. In three-dimensional topological insulators, the helical surface states exhibit a helical spin texture due to the spin-momentum locking mechanism. Thus, normal dephasing has close connection to spin dephasing in this case, and gives rise to anomalous “gap-like” feature. Dephasing effects on properties of helical surface states are investigated.