2018 Impact Factor: 2.483
Two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 is used as a catalyst or support and has received increased research interest because of its superior structural and electronic properties compared with those of bulk structures. In this article, we illustrate the active sites of 2D MoS2 and various strategies for enhancing its intrinsic catalytic activity. The recent advances in the use of 2D MoS2-based materials for applications such as thermocatalysis, electrocatalysis, and photocatalysis are discussed. We also discuss the future opportunities and challenges for 2D MoS2-based materials, in both fundamental research and industrial applications.
Two-dimensional (2D) materials generally have unusual physical and chemical properties owing to the confined electro-strong interaction in a plane and can exhibit obvious anisotropy and a significant quantum-confinement effect, thus showing great promise in many fields. Some 2D materials, such as graphene and MXenes, have recently exhibited extraordinary electromagnetic-wave shielding and absorbing performance, which is attributed to their special electrical behavior, large specific surface area, and low mass density. Compared with traditional microwave attenuating materials, 2D materials have several obvious inherent advantages. First, similar to other nanomaterials, 2D materials have a very large specific surface area and can provide numerous interfaces for the enhanced interfacial polarization as well as the reflection and scattering of electromagnetic waves. Second, 2D materials have a particular 2D morphology with ultrasmall thickness, which is not only beneficial for the penetration and dissipation of electromagnetic waves through the 2D nanosheets, giving rise to multiple reflections and the dissipation of electromagnetic energy, but is also conducive to the design and fabrication of various well-defined structures, such as layer-by-layer assemblies, core–shell particles, and porous foam, for broadband attenuation of electromagnetic waves. Third, owing to their good processability, 2D materials can be integrated into various multifunctional composites for multimode attenuation of electromagnetic energy. In addition to behaving as microwave reflectors and absorbers, 2D materials can act as impedance regulators and provide structural support for good impedance matching and setup of the optimal structure. Numerous studies indicate that 2D materials are among the most promising microwave attenuation materials. In view of the rapid development and enormous advancement of 2D materials in shielding and absorbing electromagnetic wave, there is a strong need to summarize the recent research results in this field for presenting a comprehensive view and providing helpful suggestions for future development.
After briefly reviewing the theoretical concepts and numerical methods in lattice QCD, recent simulation results of the hadron masses and hadron interactions with nearly physical quark masses are presented. Special emphasis is placed on the baryon-baryon interactions on the basis of the HAL QCD method where the integro-differential equation for the equal-time Nambu–Bethe–Salpeter amplitude plays a key role to bridge a gap between the multi-baryon correlation and the scattering observable such as the phase shift.
Graphene is an ideal 2D material system bridging electronic and photonic devices. It also breaks the fundamental speed and size limits by electronics and photonics, respectively. Graphene offers multiple functions of signal transmission, emission, modulation, and detection in a broad band, high speed, compact size, and low loss. Here, we have a brief view of graphene based functional devices at microwave, terahertz, and optical frequencies. Their fundamental physics and computational models were discussed as well.
High carrier mobility and a direct semiconducting band gap are two key properties of materials for electronic device applications. Using first-principles calculations, we predict two types of two-dimensional semiconductors, ultrathin GeAsSe and SnSbTe nanosheets, with desirable electronic and optical properties. Both GeAsSe and SnSbTe sheets are energetically favorable, with formation energies of −0.19 and −0.09 eV/atom, respectively, and have excellent dynamical and thermal stability, as determined by phonon dispersion calculations and Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. The relatively weak interlayer binding energies suggest that these monolayer sheets can be easily exfoliated from the bulk crystals. Importantly, monolayer GeAsSe and SnSbTe possess direct band gaps (2.56 and 1.96 eV, respectively) and superior hole mobility (~20 000 cm2·V−1·s−1), and both exhibit notable absorption in the visible region. A comparison of the band edge positions with the redox potentials of water reveals that layered GeAsSe and SnSbTe are potential photocatalysts for water splitting. These exceptional properties make layered GeAsSe and SnSbTe promising candidates for use in future high-speed electronic and optoelectronic devices.
By a small-size complex network of coupled chaotic Hindmarsh-Rose circuits, we study experimentally the stability of network synchronization to the removal of shortcut links. It is shown that the removal of a single shortcut link may destroy either completely or partially the network synchronization. Interestingly, when the network is partially desynchronized, it is found that the oscillators can be organized into different groups, with oscillators within each group being highly synchronized but are not for oscillators from different groups, showing the intriguing phenomenon of cluster synchronization. The experimental results are analyzed by the method of eigenvalue analysis, which implies that the formation of cluster synchronization is crucially dependent on the network symmetries. Our study demonstrates the observability of cluster synchronization in realistic systems, and indicates the feasibility of controlling network synchronization by adjusting network topology.
We develop a method for creating two- and one-dimensional (2D and 1D) self-trapped modes in binary spin-orbit-coupled Bose–Einstein condensates with the contact repulsive interaction, whose local strength grows sufficiently rapidly from the center to the periphery. In particular, an exact semi-vortex (SV) solution is found for the anti-Gaussian radial modulation profile. The exact modes are included in the numerically produced family of SV solitons. Other families, in the form of mixed modes (MMs), as well as excited states of SVs and MMs, are also produced. Although the excited states are unstable in all previously studied models, they are partially stable in the present one. In the 1D version of the system, exact solutions for the counterpart of SVs, namely, semi-dipole solitons, are also found. Families of semi-dipoles, as well as the 1D version of MMs, are produced numerically.
Few-layer graphene (FLG) has recently been intensively investigated for its variable electronic properties, which are defined by a local atomic arrangement. While the most natural arrangement of layers in FLG is ABA (Bernal) stacking, a metastable ABC (rhombohedral) stacking, characterized by a relatively high-energy barrier, can also occur. When both types of stacking occur in one FLG device, the arrangement results in an in-plane heterostructure with a domain wall (DW). In this paper, we present two approaches to demonstrate that the ABC stacking in FLG can be controllably and locally turned into the ABA stacking. In the first approach, we introduced Joule heating, and the transition was characterized by 2D peak Raman spectra at a submicron spatial resolution. The transition was initiated in a small region, and then the DW was controllably shifted until the entire device became ABA stacked. In the second approach, the transition was achieved by illuminating the ABC region with a train of 790-nm-wavelength laser pulses, and the transition was visualized by transmission electron microscopy in both diffraction and dark-field imaging modes. Further, using this approach, the DW was visualized at a nanoscale spatial resolution in the dark-field imaging mode.
Interlayer interactions at the heterointerfaces of van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs), which consist of vertically stacked two-dimensional materials, play important roles in determining their properties. The interlayer interactions are tunable from noncoupling to strong coupling by controlling the twist angle between adjacent layers. However, the influence of stacking sequence and individual component thickness on the properties of vdWHs has rarely been explored. In this work, the influence of the stacking sequence of WSe2 and graphene in vdWHs of graphene-on-WSe2 (graphene/WSe2) or WSe2-on-graphene (WSe2/graphene), as well as their thickness, on their interlayer interaction was systematically investigated by ultralow-frequency (ULF) Raman spectroscopy. A series of ULF breathing modes of WSe2 nanosheets in these vdWHs were observed with frequencies highly dependent on graphene thickness. Interestingly, the ULF breathing modes of WSe2 red-shifted in graphene/WSe2 and WSe2/graphene configurations, and the amount of shift in the former was much larger than that in the latter. In contrast, no obvious ULF shift was observed by varying the twist angle between WSe2 and graphene. This indicates that the interlayer interaction is more sensitive to the stacking sequence compared with the twist angle. The results provide alternative approaches to modulate the interlayer interaction of vdWHs and, thus, tune their optical and optoelectronic properties.
Recently, bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) has attracted much attention in the thermoelectric community owing to its abundance, low cost, and advanced properties. However, its poor electrical transport properties have prevented Bi2S3 devices from realizing high thermoelectric performance. In this work, our motivation is to decrease the large electrical resistivity, which is recognized as the origin of the low ZT value in undoped Bi2S3. We combined melting and spark plasma sintering (SPS) in a continuous fabrication process to produce Bi2S3–xSex (x = 0, 0.09, 0.15, 0.21) and Bi2S2.85–ySe0.15Cly (y = 0.0015, 0.0045, 0.0075, 0.015, 0.03) samples. Our results show that Se alloying at S sites can narrow the band gap and activate intrinsic electron conduction, leading to a high power factor of ~2.0 μW·cm–1·K–2 at room temperature in Bi2S2.85S0.15, about 100 times higher than that of undoped Bi2S3. Moreover, our further introduction of Cl atoms into the S sites resulted in a second-stage optimization of carrier concentration and simultaneously reduced the lattice thermal conductivity, which contributed to a high ZT value of ~0.6 at 723 K for Bi2S2.835Se0.15Cl0.015. Our results indicate that high thermoelectric performance could be realized in Bi2S3 with earth-abundant and low-cost elements.
Vertically aligned γ-AlOOH nanosheets (NSs) have been successfully fabricated on flexible Al foils via a solvothermal route without morphology-directing agents. Three different reaction temperature (25, 80, and 120 ?C) and time (30 min, 45 min, and 24 h) are discussed for the growth period, which efficiently tune the density and size of the γ-AlOOH NSs. Meanwhile, the growth speed of the nanosheets confirms that dominant growth stage is seen in the initial 45 min. Furthermore, the interlayer of the γ-AlOOH NSs displays an average height of 140 nm and superhydrophilicity. By dynamic adsorption, the assynthesized γ-AlOOH NSs exhibit an outstanding NH3 adsorption capacity of up to 146 mg/g and stably excellent regeneration for 5 cycles. The mechanism of NH3 adsorption on the in-plane of the γ-AlOOH NSs is explained by the Lewis acid/base theory. The H-bond interactions among the NH3 molecules and the edge groups (-OH) further improve the capture ability of the nanosheets.
Stimulated by the success of graphene and diamond, a variety of carbon allotropes have been discovered in recent years in either two-dimensional or three-dimensional configurations. Although these emerging carbon allotropes share some common features, they have certain different and novel mechanical or physical properties. In this review, we present a comparative survey of some of the major properties of fifteen newly discovered carbon allotropes. By comparing their structural topology, we propose a general route for designing most carbon allotropes from two mother structures, namely, graphene and diamond. Furthermore, we discuss several future prospects as well as current challenges in designing new carbon allotropes.
Research activities of nuclear physics at Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory over 10 years are reviewed and future directions are also discussed. Conceptual ideas in designing the facility as well as experimental devices are introduced. Special emphasis is given to highlighted results obtained at RIBF.
At heterointerfaces between complex oxides with polar discontinuity, the instability-induced electric field may drive electron redistribution, causing a dramatic change in the interfacial charge density. This results in the emergence of a rich diversity of exotic physical phenomena in these quasi-two-dimensional systems, which can be further tuned by an external field. To develop novel multifunctional electronic devices, it is essential to control the growth of polar oxide films and heterointerfaces with atomic precision. In this article, we review recent progress in control techniques for oxide film growth by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We emphasize the importance of tuning the microscopic surface structures of polar films for developing precise growth control techniques. Taking the polar SrTiO3 (110) and (111) surfaces as examples, we show that, by keeping the surface reconstructed throughout MBE growth, high-quality layer-by-layer homoepitaxy can be realized. Because the stability of different reconstructions is determined by the surface cation concentration, the growth rate from the Sr/Ti evaporation source can be monitored in real time. A precise, automated control method is established by which insulating homoepitaxial SrTiO3 (110) and (111) films can be obtained on doped metallic substrates. The films show atomically well-defined surfaces and high dielectric performance, which allows the surface carrier concentration to be tuned in the range of ~1013/cm2. By applying the knowledge of microstructures from fundamental surface physics to film growth techniques, new opportunities are provided for material science and related research.
Since two-dimensional boron sheet (borophene) synthesized on Ag substrates in 2015, research on borophene has grown fast in the fields of condensed matter physics, chemistry, material science, and nanotechnology. Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, borophene has various potential applications. In this review, we summarize the progress on borophene with a particular emphasis on the recent advances. First, we introduce the phases of borophene by experimental synthesis and theoretical predictions. Then, the physical and chemical properties, such as mechanical, thermal, electronic, optical and superconducting properties are summarized. We also discuss in detail the utilization of the borophene for wide ranges of potential application among the alkali metal ion batteries, Li-S batteries, hydrogen storage, supercapacitor, sensor and catalytic in hydrogen evolution, oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution, and CO2 electroreduction reaction. Finally, the challenges and outlooks in this promising field are featured on the basis of its current development.
We propose a scheme for generating an entangled state for three atoms trapped in separate optical cavities that are coupled to each other through two optical fibers based on coherent driving and dissipation, which are induced by the classical fields and the decay of non-local bosonic modes, respectively. In our scheme, the interaction time need not be controlled strictly in the overall dynamics process, and the cavity field decay can be changed into a vital resource. The numerical simulation shows that the fidelity of the target state is insensitive to atomic spontaneous emission, and our scheme is good enough to generate the W state of distant atoms with a high fidelity and purity. In addition, the present scheme can also be generalized to prepare the N-partite W state of distant atoms.
Integration of heterogenous materials produces compelling physical phenomena and increased performance of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we integrate CsPbBr3 microplate with WS2 monolayer to investigate the interfacial carrier transfer mechanism in the heterojunction. The quenching of photoluminescence (PL) emission from CsPbBr3 and WS2 after heterostructure formation indicates efficient charge transfer in the junction. Low-temperature PL spectra reveal that the decreasing PL of WS2 arises from the vanishing of biexcitons. Photodetection based on the WS2/CsPbBr3 heterostructure is demonstrated. The higher performance from the junction further certifies the occurrence of charge transfer in the heterojunction.
We present a series of invisibility concentrators with simplified material parameters beyond transformation optics. One of them can achieve the perfect invisible effect at frequencies of Fabry–Pérot resonances, while others have very small scattering. The required materials are feasible in practice. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations confirm the functionalities of these devices.
The Efimov effect is defined as a quantum state with discrete scaling symmetry and a universal scaling factor. It has attracted considerable interests from nuclear to atomic physics communities. In a Dirac semi-metal, when an electron interacts with a static impurity through a Coulombic interaction, the same kinetic scaling and the interaction energy results in the Efimov effect. However, even when the Fermi energy lies exactly at the Dirac point, the vacuum polarization of the electron-hole pair fluctuation can still screen the Coulombic interaction, which leads to deviations from the scaling symmetry and eventually breaks down of the Efimov effect. This energy distortion of the Efimov states due to vacuum polarization is a relativistic electron analogy of the Lamb shift for the hydrogen atom. Motivated by the recent experimental observations in two- and three-dimensional Dirac semi-metals, we herein investigate this many-body correction to the Efimov effect and the conditions that allow some of the Efimov-like quasi-bound states to be observed in these condensed matter experiments.
To kinetically model implosion- and explosion-related phenomena, we present a theoretical framework for constructing a discrete Boltzmann model (DBM) with spherical symmetry in spherical coordinates. To achieve this goal, a key technique is to use localCartesian coordinates to describe the particle velocity in the kinetic model. Therefore, geometric effects, such as divergence and convergence, are described as a “force term”. To better access the nonequilibrium behavior, even though the corresponding hydrodynamic model is one-dimensional, the DBM uses a discrete velocity model (DVM) with three dimensions. A new scheme is introduced so that the DBM can use the same DVM regardless of whether or not there are extra degrees of freedom. As an example, a DVM with 26 velocities is formulated to construct the DBM at the Navier–Stokes level. Via the DBM, one can study simultaneously the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic nonequilibrium behaviors in implosion and explosion processes that are not very close to the spherical center. The extension of the current model to a multiple-relaxation-time version is straightforward.
We clarify some technical issues in the present generalized effective-potential Landau theory (GEPLT) to make the GEPLT more consistent and complete. Utilizing this clarified GEPLT, we analytically study the quantum phase transitions of ultracold Bose gases in bipartite superlattices at zero temperature. The corresponding quantum phase boundaries are analytically calculated up to the third-order hopping, which are in excellent agreement with the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations.
Since its inception Bohmian mechanics has been generally regarded as a hidden-variable theory aimed at providing an objective description of quantum phenomena. To date, this rather narrow conception of Bohm’s proposal has caused it more rejection than acceptance. Now, after 65 years of Bohmian mechanics, should still be such an interpretational aspect the prevailing appraisal? Why not favoring a more pragmatic view, as a legitimate picture of quantum mechanics, on equal footing in all respects with any other more conventional quantum picture? These questions are used here to introduce a discussion on an alternative way to deal with Bohmian mechanics at present, enhancing its aspect as an efficient and useful picture or formulation to tackle, explore, describe and explain quantum phenomena where phase and correlation (entanglement) are key elements. This discussion is presented through two complementary blocks. The first block is aimed at briefly revisiting the historical context that gave rise to the appearance of Bohmian mechanics, and how this approach or analogous ones have been used in different physical contexts. This discussion is used to emphasize a more pragmatic view to the detriment of the more conventional hidden-variable (ontological) approach that has been a leitmotif within the quantum foundations. The second block focuses on some particular formal aspects of Bohmian mechanics supporting the view presented here, with special emphasis on the physical meaning of the local phase field and the associated velocity field encoded within the wave function. As an illustration, a simple model of Young’s two-slit experiment is considered. The simplicity of this model allows to understand in an easy manner how the information conveyed by the Bohmian formulation relates to other more conventional concepts in quantum mechanics. This sort of pedagogical application is also aimed at showing the potential interest to introduce Bohmian mechanics in undergraduate quantum mechanics courses as a working tool rather than merely an alternative interpretation.
The electronic structures and magnetic properties of strained monolayer MnPSe3 are investigated systematically via first-principles calculations. It is found that the magnetic ground state of monolayer MnPSe3 can be significantly affected by biaxial strain engineering, while the semiconducting characteristics are well-preserved. Owing to the sensitivity of the magnetic coupling towards structural deformation, a biaxial tensile strain of approximately 13% can lead to an antiferromagnetic (AFM)- ferromagnetic (FM) transition. The strain-dependent magnetic stability is mainly attributed to the competition of the direct AFM interaction and indirect FM superexchange interaction between the two nearest-neighbor Mn atoms. In addition, we find that FM MnPSe3 is an intrinsic half semiconductor with large spin exchange splitting in the conduction bands, which is crucial for the spin-polarized carrier injection and detection. The sensitive interdependence among the external stimuli, electronic structure, and magnetic coupling makes monolayer MnPSe3 a promising candidate for spintronics.
Nuclear magnetic moment is an important physical variable and serves as a useful tool for the stringent test of nuclear models. For the past decades, the covariant density functional theory and its extension have been proved to be successful in describing the nuclear ground-states and excited states properties. However, a long-standing problem is its failure to predict magnetic moments. This article reviews the recent progress in the description of the nuclear magnetic moments within the covariant density functional theory. In particular, the magnetic moments of spherical odd-Anuclei with doubly closed shell core plus or minus one nucleon and deformed odd-Anuclei.
We revisit the classical problem of granular hopping conduction’s σ∝exp[–(T0/T)] temperature dependence, where σ denotes conductivity, T is temperature, and T0 is a sample-dependent constant. By using the hopping conduction formulation in conjunction with the incorporation of the random potential that has been shown to exist in insulator-conductor composites, it is demonstrated that the widely observed temperature dependence of granular hopping conduction emerges very naturally through the immediate-neighbor critical-path argument. Here, immediate-neighbor pairs are defined to be those where a line connecting two grains does not cross or by-pass other grains, and the critical-path argument denotes the derivation of sample conductance based on the geometric percolation condition that is marked by the critical conduction path in a random granular composite. Simulations based on the exact electrical network evaluation of finite-sample conductance show that the configurationaveraged results agree well with those obtained using the immediate-neighbor critical-path method. Furthermore, the results obtained using both these methods show good agreement with experimental data on hopping conduction in a sputtered metal-insulator composite Agx(SnO2)1–x, where x denotes the metal volume fraction. The present approach offers a relatively straightforward and simple explanation for the temperature behavior that has been widely observed over diverse material systems, but which has remained a puzzle in spite of the various efforts made to explain this phenomenon.