Frontiers of Physics

ISSN 2095-0462

ISSN 2095-0470(Online)

CN 11-5994/O4

邮发代号 80-965

2018 Impact Factor: 2.483

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The rise of two-dimensional MoS2 for catalysis
Jun Mao (毛军), Yong Wang (王勇), Zhilong Zheng (郑智龙), Dehui Deng (邓德会)
Frontiers of Physics    2018, 13 (4): 138118-.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-018-0812-0
摘要   PDF (56346KB)

Two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 is used as a catalyst or support and has received increased research interest because of its superior structural and electronic properties compared with those of bulk structures. In this article, we illustrate the active sites of 2D MoS2 and various strategies for enhancing its intrinsic catalytic activity. The recent advances in the use of 2D MoS2-based materials for applications such as thermocatalysis, electrocatalysis, and photocatalysis are discussed. We also discuss the future opportunities and challenges for 2D MoS2-based materials, in both fundamental research and industrial applications.

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Two-dimensional materials: Emerging toolkit for construction of ultrathin high-efficiency microwave shield and absorber
Mingjun Hu, Naibo Zhang, Guangcun Shan, Jiefeng Gao, Jinzhang Liu, Robert K. Y. Li
Frontiers of Physics    2018, 13 (4): 138113-.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-018-0809-8
摘要   PDF (39068KB)

Two-dimensional (2D) materials generally have unusual physical and chemical properties owing to the confined electro-strong interaction in a plane and can exhibit obvious anisotropy and a significant quantum-confinement effect, thus showing great promise in many fields. Some 2D materials, such as graphene and MXenes, have recently exhibited extraordinary electromagnetic-wave shielding and absorbing performance, which is attributed to their special electrical behavior, large specific surface area, and low mass density. Compared with traditional microwave attenuating materials, 2D materials have several obvious inherent advantages. First, similar to other nanomaterials, 2D materials have a very large specific surface area and can provide numerous interfaces for the enhanced interfacial polarization as well as the reflection and scattering of electromagnetic waves. Second, 2D materials have a particular 2D morphology with ultrasmall thickness, which is not only beneficial for the penetration and dissipation of electromagnetic waves through the 2D nanosheets, giving rise to multiple reflections and the dissipation of electromagnetic energy, but is also conducive to the design and fabrication of various well-defined structures, such as layer-by-layer assemblies, core–shell particles, and porous foam, for broadband attenuation of electromagnetic waves. Third, owing to their good processability, 2D materials can be integrated into various multifunctional composites for multimode attenuation of electromagnetic energy. In addition to behaving as microwave reflectors and absorbers, 2D materials can act as impedance regulators and provide structural support for good impedance matching and setup of the optimal structure. Numerous studies indicate that 2D materials are among the most promising microwave attenuation materials. In view of the rapid development and enormous advancement of 2D materials in shielding and absorbing electromagnetic wave, there is a strong need to summarize the recent research results in this field for presenting a comprehensive view and providing helpful suggestions for future development.

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The art of designing carbon allotropes
Run-Sen Zhang, Jin-Wu Jiang
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (1): 13401-.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-018-0836-5
摘要   PDF (7542KB)

Stimulated by the success of graphene and diamond, a variety of carbon allotropes have been discovered in recent years in either two-dimensional or three-dimensional configurations. Although these emerging carbon allotropes share some common features, they have certain different and novel mechanical or physical properties. In this review, we present a comparative survey of some of the major properties of fifteen newly discovered carbon allotropes. By comparing their structural topology, we propose a general route for designing most carbon allotropes from two mother structures, namely, graphene and diamond. Furthermore, we discuss several future prospects as well as current challenges in designing new carbon allotropes.

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Graphene based functional devices: A short review
Rong Wang, Xin-Gang Ren, Ze Yan, Li-Jun Jiang, Wei E. I. Sha, Guang-Cun Shan
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (1): 13603-.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-018-0859-y
摘要   PDF (27911KB)

Graphene is an ideal 2D material system bridging electronic and photonic devices. It also breaks the fundamental speed and size limits by electronics and photonics, respectively. Graphene offers multiple functions of signal transmission, emission, modulation, and detection in a broad band, high speed, compact size, and low loss. Here, we have a brief view of graphene based functional devices at microwave, terahertz, and optical frequencies. Their fundamental physics and computational models were discussed as well.

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Propagation dynamics of finite-energy Airy beams in nonlocal nonlinear media
Zhen-Kun Wu,Peng Li,Yu-Zong Gu
Frontiers of Physics    2017, 12 (5): 124203-.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-016-0613-2
摘要   PDF (1345KB)

We investigate periodic inversion and phase transition of normal and displaced finite-energy Airy beams propagating in nonlocal nonlinear media with the split-step Fourier method. Numerical simulation results show that parameters such as the degree of nonlocality and amplitude have profound effects on the intensity distribution of the period of an Airy beam. Nonlocal nonlinear media will reduce into a harmonic potential if the nonlocality is strong enough, which results in the beam fluctuating in an approximately cosine mode. The beam profile changes from an Airy profile to a Gaussian one at a critical point, and during propagation the process repeats to form an unusual oscillation. We also briefly discus the two-dimensional case, being equivalent to a product of two one-dimensional cases.

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Review of borophene and its potential applications
Zhi-Qiang Wang, Tie-Yu Lü, Hui-Qiong Wang, Yuan Ping Feng, Jin-Cheng Zheng
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (3): 33403-null.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-019-0884-5
摘要   PDF (16562KB)

Since two-dimensional boron sheet (borophene) synthesized on Ag substrates in 2015, research on borophene has grown fast in the fields of condensed matter physics, chemistry, material science, and nanotechnology. Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, borophene has various potential applications. In this review, we summarize the progress on borophene with a particular emphasis on the recent advances. First, we introduce the phases of borophene by experimental synthesis and theoretical predictions. Then, the physical and chemical properties, such as mechanical, thermal, electronic, optical and superconducting properties are summarized. We also discuss in detail the utilization of the borophene for wide ranges of potential application among the alkali metal ion batteries, Li-S batteries, hydrogen storage, supercapacitor, sensor and catalytic in hydrogen evolution, oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution, and CO2 electroreduction reaction. Finally, the challenges and outlooks in this promising field are featured on the basis of its current development.

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Graphene and other two-dimensional materials
Kostya S. Novoselov, Daria V. Andreeva, Wencai Ren, Guangcun Shan
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (1): 13301-.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-018-0835-6
摘要   PDF (558KB)
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Probing interlayer interactions in WSe2-graphene heterostructures by ultralow-frequency Raman spectroscopy
Yue Liu (刘月), Yu Zhou (周煜), Hao Zhang (张昊), Feirong Ran (冉飞荣), Weihao Zhao (赵炜昊), Lin Wang (王琳), Chengjie Pei (裴成杰), Jindong Zhang (张锦东), Xiao Huang (黄晓), Hai Li (李海)
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (1): 13607-.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-018-0854-3
摘要   PDF (9649KB)

Interlayer interactions at the heterointerfaces of van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs), which consist of vertically stacked two-dimensional materials, play important roles in determining their properties. The interlayer interactions are tunable from noncoupling to strong coupling by controlling the twist angle between adjacent layers. However, the influence of stacking sequence and individual component thickness on the properties of vdWHs has rarely been explored. In this work, the influence of the stacking sequence of WSe2 and graphene in vdWHs of graphene-on-WSe2 (graphene/WSe2) or WSe2-on-graphene (WSe2/graphene), as well as their thickness, on their interlayer interaction was systematically investigated by ultralow-frequency (ULF) Raman spectroscopy. A series of ULF breathing modes of WSe2 nanosheets in these vdWHs were observed with frequencies highly dependent on graphene thickness. Interestingly, the ULF breathing modes of WSe2 red-shifted in graphene/WSe2 and WSe2/graphene configurations, and the amount of shift in the former was much larger than that in the latter. In contrast, no obvious ULF shift was observed by varying the twist angle between WSe2 and graphene. This indicates that the interlayer interaction is more sensitive to the stacking sequence compared with the twist angle. The results provide alternative approaches to modulate the interlayer interaction of vdWHs and, thus, tune their optical and optoelectronic properties.

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Stacking transition in rhombohedral graphite
Tataiana Latychevskaia, Seok-Kyun Son, Yaping Yang, Dale Chancellor, Michael Brown, Servet Ozdemir, Ivan Madan, Gabriele Berruto, Fabrizio Carbone, Artem Mishchenko, Kostya S. Novoselov
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (1): 13608-.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-018-0867-y
摘要   PDF (11234KB)

Few-layer graphene (FLG) has recently been intensively investigated for its variable electronic properties, which are defined by a local atomic arrangement. While the most natural arrangement of layers in FLG is ABA (Bernal) stacking, a metastable ABC (rhombohedral) stacking, characterized by a relatively high-energy barrier, can also occur. When both types of stacking occur in one FLG device, the arrangement results in an in-plane heterostructure with a domain wall (DW). In this paper, we present two approaches to demonstrate that the ABC stacking in FLG can be controllably and locally turned into the ABA stacking. In the first approach, we introduced Joule heating, and the transition was characterized by 2D peak Raman spectra at a submicron spatial resolution. The transition was initiated in a small region, and then the DW was controllably shifted until the entire device became ABA stacked. In the second approach, the transition was achieved by illuminating the ABC region with a train of 790-nm-wavelength laser pulses, and the transition was visualized by transmission electron microscopy in both diffraction and dark-field imaging modes. Further, using this approach, the DW was visualized at a nanoscale spatial resolution in the dark-field imaging mode.

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Semiclassical dynamics and nonlinear charge current
Yang Gao
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (3): 33404-null.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-019-0887-2
摘要   PDF (1755KB)

Electron conductivity is an important material property that can provide a wealth of information about the underlying system. Especially, the response of the conductivity with respect to electromagnetic fields corresponds to various nonlinear charge currents, which have distinct symmetry requirements and hence can be used as efficient probes of different systems. To help the band-structure engineering of such nonlinear currents, a universal treatment of electron dynamics up to second order expressed in the basis of the unperturbed states are highly useful. In this work, we review the general semiclassical framework of the nonlinear charge currents.

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Transformation devices with optical nihility media and reduced realizations
Lin Xu, Qian-Nan Wu, Yang-Yang Zhou, Huan-Yang Chen
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (4): 42501-null.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-019-0891-6
摘要   PDF (6989KB)

Starting from optical nihility media (ONM), we design several intriguing devices with transformation optics method in two dimensions, such as a wave splitter, a concave lens, a field rotator, a concentrator, and an invisibility cloak. Though the extreme anisotropic property of ONM hinders the fabrication of these devices. We demonstrate that those devices could be effectively realized by simplified materials with Fabry–Pérot resonances (FPs) at discrete frequencies. Moreover, we propose a reduced version of simplified materials with FPs to construct a concentrator and a rotator, which is feasible in experimental fabrications. The simulations of total scattering cross-sections confirm their functionalities.

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Single-step multipartite entangled states generation from coupled circuit cavities
Xiao-Tao Mo, Zheng-Yuan Xue
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (3): 31602-null.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-019-0888-1
摘要   PDF (939KB)

Green–Horne–Zeilinger states are a typical type of multipartite entangled states, which plays a central role in quantum information processing. For the generation of multipartite entangled states, the singlestep method is more preferable as the needed time will not increase with the increasing of the qubit number. However, this scenario has a strict requirement that all two-qubit interaction strengths should be the same, or the generated state will be of low quality. Here, we propose a scheme for generating multipartite entangled states of superconducting qubits, from a coupled circuit cavities scenario, where we rigorously achieve the requirement via adding an extra z-direction ac classical field for each qubit, leading the individual qubit-cavity coupling strength to be tunable in a wide range, and thus can be tuned to the same value. Meanwhile, in order to obtain our wanted multi-qubits interaction, xdirection ac classical field for each qubit is also introduced. By selecting the appropriate parameters, we numerically shown that high-fidelity multi-qubit GHZ states can be generated. In addition, we also show that the coupled cavities scenario is better than a single cavity case. Therefore, our proposal represents a promising alternative for multipartite entangled states generation.

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Monolayered semiconducting GeAsSe and SnSbTe with ultrahigh hole mobility
Yu Guo, Nan Gao, Yizhen Bai, Jijun Zhao, Xiao Cheng Zeng
Frontiers of Physics    2018, 13 (4): 138117-.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-018-0810-2
摘要   PDF (11667KB)

High carrier mobility and a direct semiconducting band gap are two key properties of materials for electronic device applications. Using first-principles calculations, we predict two types of two-dimensional semiconductors, ultrathin GeAsSe and SnSbTe nanosheets, with desirable electronic and optical properties. Both GeAsSe and SnSbTe sheets are energetically favorable, with formation energies of −0.19 and −0.09 eV/atom, respectively, and have excellent dynamical and thermal stability, as determined by phonon dispersion calculations and Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. The relatively weak interlayer binding energies suggest that these monolayer sheets can be easily exfoliated from the bulk crystals. Importantly, monolayer GeAsSe and SnSbTe possess direct band gaps (2.56 and 1.96 eV, respectively) and superior hole mobility (~20 000 cm2·V−1·s−1), and both exhibit notable absorption in the visible region. A comparison of the band edge positions with the redox potentials of water reveals that layered GeAsSe and SnSbTe are potential photocatalysts for water splitting. These exceptional properties make layered GeAsSe and SnSbTe promising candidates for use in future high-speed electronic and optoelectronic devices.

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