Frontiers of Philosophy in China

ISSN 1673-3436

ISSN 1673-355X(Online)

CN 11-5743/B

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On the origin and development of the idea of “de” in Pre-Qin times
Chao Fulin
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (2): 161-184.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0001-z

Abstract   PDF (428KB)
In ancient Chinese thoughts, de is a comparatively complicated idea. Most of the researchers translated it directly into virtue , but this translation is not accurate for our understanding of the idea of de  in pre-Qin times. Generally speaking, in Pre-Qin times, the idea of de  underwent three developmental periods. The first is the de of Heaven, the de of ancestors; the second the de of system; and the third the de of spirit and moral conducts. In a long period of history, the idea of de  never cast off the influence of tian Dao (the way of Heaven). It was in Western Zhou Dynasty that the idea of de  shook off the dense fog of the mandate of Heaven. However, it was the thinkers in Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States who made contributions to bring it deep into people s mind. The ancient Chinese thoughts were mainly concerned with people s recognition and development of their own abilities, with people s seeking harmony and balance between human-beings and nature, and with people s seeking harmonious and balanced human relations. The development of the idea of de  played a very important role in this context.
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An exposition of Zhou Yi studies in modern Neo-Confucianism
Guo Qiyong
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (2): 185-203.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0002-y

Abstract   PDF (370KB)
The representatives of modern Neo-Confucianism all greatly value Yi Zhuan and regard it as one of their spiritual resources, and give their own creative interpretations and transformations. Xiong Shili s ontological-cosmological theory takes qian yuan  as its center; Ma Yifu has a theory of ontology-cultivation centered on nature-principle ; Fang Dongmei has a metaphysics of production and reproduction; Mou Zongsan takes the view of completely knowing the fathomless and understanding transformation  as a moral metaphysics; and in Tang Junyi there is a theory of the harmony of doctrines on Heaven and man in which the knowledge of divine understanding  is its key concept. They employ modern philosophical concepts and thinking to illustrate the cosmology, ontology, theory of life, theory of human nature, theory of spiritual worlds, axiology and their connections in Zhou Yi. They affirm that the characteristics of Chinese philosophy that are different from Western philosophy consist in a naturalist view of vital life, a harmonious view of totality, an axiological view that values exist in natural universe and the world of fact, the pursuit of Good and Beauty, and intuitive experience of inner world.
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The ontologicalization of the Confucian concept of Xin Xing: Zhou Lianxi’s founding contribution to the Song-Ming Neo-Confucianism
Li Jinglin
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (2): 204-221.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0003-x

Abstract   PDF (424KB)
The Confucian concept of cheng  (integrity) emphasizes logical priority of value realization over zhen shi  (reality or truth). Through value realization and the completion of being, zhenshi can be achieved. Cheng demonstrates the original unity of value and reality. Taking the concept of cheng as the core, Zhou Lianxi s philosophy interpreted yi Da (the Dao of change), and integrated Yi Jing (The Book of Changes) and Zhong Yong (The Doctrine of the Mean). On the one hand?it ontologicalized the Confucian concept of xin xing (mind nature), and proved and established the significance of Dao ti(the ontological Dao) as the principle and origin of the utmost goodness. On the other hand, it also extended the significance of value realization to the process of qi hua (transformation of qi) and transformation of myriad things. He proved li yi (the One Principle) of Dao ti from its many manifestations and established his own metaphysical system. Zhou Lianxi s philosophy sets up a new theoretical direction for the Song-Ming Confucians to reconstruct Confucian Metaphysics.
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From life state to ecological consciousness: on Wang Yangming’s “natural principles of order within the realm of liang zhi ”
Zhang Xuezhi
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (2): 222-236.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0004-9

Abstract   PDF (344KB)
Wang Yangming argues that the life state of a virtuous person is forming one body with Heaven, Earth and the myriad things.  For instance, in watching a child fall into a well, he cannot help feeling alarmed and commiserate; In observing the pitiful cries and frightened appearance of animals, he cannot help feeling unable to bear  their suffering; In seeing plants destroyed or tiles shattered, he cannot help but feel pity and regret and so forth. At the same time, he also stresses that there is a natural order of values with the help of which a human being deals with the myriad things, namely the natural principles of order within the realm of liang zhi. From a practical perspective, Yangming integrated these two aspects into a spontaneously psychological self-consciousness and an intuition of judgment and choice. Under its direction and instruction, human beings cannot only generally care for the myriad things, but also make reasonable use of them. Therefore, the significant reference to the natural principles of order within the realm of liang zhi  involves the harmony between nature and human beings from life state to ecological consciousness.
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On value and culture
Yuan Guiren
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (2): 237-244.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0005-8

Abstract   PDF (346KB)
Value stands for the significance of things, and concepts of value are ideas, opinions and attitudes about what kind of things are significant. Studies on the concept of value cannot be separated from culture. Every society has its own distinct culture and concept of value shared by its people. The relationship between concept of value and culture shows that the building of the concept of value must be based on culture. Developing culture, providing excellent products of culture and better humanitarian environment are the premise for people s possession of the correct concept of value.
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Dialectics and practical wisdom
Wang Nanshi
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (2): 245-253.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0006-7

Abstract   PDF (300KB)
Dialectics is essentially the method or logos in which categories of forms are combined to explain things. Dialectics was developed because reason faces difficulties in grasping the sensible world. Practical wisdom is knowledge about some things or certain person or persons because of its variable objects. But it is not entirely specific or only about a particular thing and without universality in any sense. As one kind of dialectics, it combines various elements to accord with the right logos, similar to the way in which various forms are combined in theory. Therefore practical wisdom as a combination or polymerization of elements can be regarded as another kind of logic, namely practical logic or dialectics.
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A contemporary interpretation of Marx’s thoughts on modernity
Feng Ziyi
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (2): 254-268.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0007-6

Abstract   PDF (332KB)
Unlike some western scholars who limit their interpretation of modernity and its source to conceptual, cultural, value, and psychological dimensions, Marx pointed out that modernity came mainly from modern production system. Starting from the historical context of his time, Marx explored various aspects of modernity and pointed out that modernity was inherent in the logic of capital, resided in the process of historical evolution, arose in social conflicts and segmentation, and presented itself in a global horizon. The logic of capital, the historical viewpoint, the theory of contradiction and a global perspective are fundamental in Marx s analysis of the problems of modernity. Marx s ideas of modernity are methodologically significant to the construction of modernity in contemporary Chinese society.
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Critique of metaphysics, capital logic and totality, and social critique theory: the three critical dimensions of Marx’s philosophy
Yang Haifeng
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (2): 269-278.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0008-5

Abstract   PDF (392KB)
Karl Marx s philosophy includes three dimensions of critique. The first is the critique of metaphysics, which is also the major premise on the basis of which Marx turns his philosophical viewpoint to the analysis of social life and its cultural logic. The second is the capital logic and totality, the core of Marx s philosophy, according to which Marx exposes the totality and contradictions inherent in the capital logic. The third is the theory of social critique that is the realistic end of his philosophy.
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The essence, characteristics and limitation of post-colonialism: from Karl Marx’s point of view
Yang Geng, Zhang Qixue
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (2): 279-294.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0009-4

Abstract   PDF (392KB)
Following postmodernism, post-colonialism reflects modernity from a new perspective  the cultural perspective. Post-colonialism interprets colonialism contained in modernity, deconstructs orientalism and cultural hegemonism, and turns western reflection of modernity into an inquiry about the global relationship between the East and the West. Post-colonialism brings forward a new theoretical domain, that is, the colonizational relationship between the East and the West in the process of modernization. This interpretation expresses a strong tendency of anti-western centrality and shares some ideas with Marxism. This article discusses the essence, characteristics, and limitation of post-colonialism from the viewpoint of Marxism, expecting to further the study of post-colonialism and its relationship with Marxism.
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“Critique” immanent in “practice”: New Frankfurt School and American pragmatism
Tong Shijun
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (2): 295-316.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0010-y

Abstract   PDF (378KB)
As a result of a new understanding of the relation between theory and practice, the New Frankfurt School,  with J?rgen Habermas as its major representative, highly values the philosophical tradition of American pragmatism, in contrast to the first generation Critical Theorists represented by Max Horkheimer. In Habermas, the idea of critique  is, both substantially and methodologically, closely connected with the idea of praxis  in the following senses: communicative action, rational argumentation, public discussion and political culture. Critique  is thus found to be immanent in praxis ; or, a la Horkheimer, pragmatism turns out to be a critical philosophical analysis  without falling back upon objective reason and mythology. 
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On the study of foreign philosophy in Chinese cultural construction and its future
Wang Xiaochao
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (2): 317-323.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0011-x

Abstract   PDF (293KB)
Since the Conference on Foreign Philosophy  held in Wuhu in October 1978, the study of foreign philosophy in China has undergone a prosperous stage. This article discusses the significance of the study of foreign philosophy in the c
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11 articles