Frontiers of Philosophy in China

ISSN 1673-3436

ISSN 1673-355X(Online)

CN 11-5743/B

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The evolution of tianxia cosmology and its philosophical implications
Liu Junping
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (4): 517-538.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0023-6

Abstract   PDF (405KB)
The terminology tianxia has both historical evolution and cultural and philosophical connotations. This concept not only denotes a geographical and spatial meaning, but also implies the moral construct of metaphysics. A systematic study of its historical and cultural repercussions can show that the evolution of the meaning tianxia  not only embodies the cosmological construction, moral belief and self-identity of the Chinese nation, but also manifests the historical processes of modern China evolving from tianxia  to a modern nation-state. Meanwhile, the deconstruction of the tianxia cosmology has shattered the old Chinese concept of a single united tianxia, or the whole world under one Heaven. Also, Confucian China  has been increasingly losing its vitality and strong hold on the people, while the concept of nation-state has gained its way into people s consciousness, which has added more diversity and open-mindedness to the concept of tianxia.
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The debate on the yan–yi relation in Chinese philosophy: reconstruction and comments
Chen Bo
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (4): 539-560.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0024-5

Abstract   PDF (342KB)
The debate on the yan yi relation was carried out by Chinese philosophers collectively, and the principles and methods in the debate still belong to a living tradition of Chinese philosophy. From Yijing (Book of Changes), Lunyu (Analects), Laozi and Zhuangzi to Wang Bi, yi  which cannot be expressed fully by yan (language), is not only idea  or meaning  in the human mind, but is also some kind of ontological existence, which is beyond yan and emblematic symbols, and unspeakable. Thus, the debate on the yan yi relation refers firstly to metaphysics, secondly to moral philosophy, and then to epistemology and philosophy of language. Guided by this view, this paper recalls the source of the debate on the yan yi relation to Yijing and Lunyu, distinguishes four meanings of yi  in Chinese philosophy, and reconstructs three arguments. These arguments are the yan cannot express yi fully  argument, forget yan once you get yi  argument, and yan can express yi fully  argument. Finally, this paper exposes and comments on those principles, methods and the general tendency shown in the debate from the following five aspects: starting point, value-preference, methodology, texts (papers and books), and influences.
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On the Dao in the Commentary of the Book of Change
Yang Qingzhong
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (4): 572-593.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0026-3

Abstract   PDF (352KB)
The existence of the Dao 怱(the Way), according to the Yizhuan fO (the Commentary) 1, is something intangible. The connotation of the Dao is the law of change caused by the interaction between yin and yang. The main functions of the Dao are to change  and to generate . The intangible refers to the law of change caused by the interaction between yin and yang, and the law is expressed by the divinatory symbolic system (Sfr;{&S?, the trigrams or hexagrams). It is through the unique permutation of yin and yang lines of a trigram or hexagram that the law of change is explained as a universal model uniting celestial, terrestrial and human laws. The symbolic system is used to express the universal nature of continual generation of life.
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Scientific analysis of Buddhism and a comparative study of Buddhism and science
Ma Tianxiang
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (4): 594-629.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0027-2

Abstract   PDF (465KB)
As Buddhism spread into China, the Mahayana (Dacheng) and Hinayana (Xiaocheng) schools, as well as the kong zz (empty) or you g (being) schools, each developed separately, with all sorts of competing theories emerging. While Chinese Buddhism saw a revival in modern times, Western science also gained ground all over the country, and many scholars, technologists and monks sought to interpret the meaning of kong according the achievements and method of the natural sciences. They used science to interpret the content and methods of Buddhist teachings, ontology, and outlook on life. Of the scholars who did so, Wang Jitong (s媅cT ) and You Zhibiao (\"fz坔) are the most excellent.
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The concept of nature and historicism in Marx
Zhang Wenxi
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (4): 630-642.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0028-1

Abstract   PDF (301KB)
Scholars of Marx often spend much effort to emphasize the socio-historical characteristics of Marx s concept of nature. At the same time, from this concept of nature, one seems to be able to deduce a strong sense of historical anthropocentricism and relativism. But through an exploration of the results of Rorty s discarding the distinction between natural  and man-made  and Strauss  clearing up value relativism in terms of the concept of nature, people will find that historicism is a world outlook that brought its historical circumstances on itself. It neglects the fundamental role of nature in the structure of the relationships between nature and history. A modern result of it is that it fails to offer any universal norms.
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Instability, Modus ponens and uncertainty of deduction
Liu Huajie
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (4): 658-674.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0030-7

Abstract   PDF (352KB)
Considering the instability of nonlinear dynamics, the deductive inference rule Modus ponens itself is not enough to guarantee the validity of reasoning sequences in the real physical world, and similar results cannot necessarily be obtained from similar causes. Some kind of stability hypothesis should be added in order to draw meaningful conclusions. Hence, the uncertainty of deductive inference appears to be like that of inductive inference, and the asymmetry between deduction and induction becomes unrecognizable such as to undermine the basis for the fundamental cleavage between analytic truth and synthetic truth, as W. V. O. Quine pointed out. Induction is not inferior to deduction from a pragmatic point of view.
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A critique to the significance of Gettier counter-examples
Cao Jianbo
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (4): 675-687.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0031-6

Abstract   PDF (296KB)
Usually, people think that Gettier counter-examples challenged the traditional tripartite definition of knowledge and fundamentally changed the characteristic of the contemporary epistemology. This paper argues that regard for Gettier counter-examples is exaggerated, because (i) the JTB definition is neither an important nor a comprehensive one that covers all knowledge. Moreover, the significance of Gettier counter-examples is limited. (ii) The source of Gettier counter-examples lies in one arbitrary judgment, two mix-ups, three false assumptions, and a misunderstanding about the JTB definition.
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Logic of primary-conditionals and secondaryconditionals
Liu Zhuanghu, Li Xiaowu
Front. Philos. China. 2006, 1 (4): 710-725.  
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11466-006-0033-4

Abstract   PDF (423KB)
Firstly, the authors analyzed the properties of primary-onditionals and secondary-conditionals, establish the minimum system C2Lm of primary-conditionals and secondary-conditionals, and then prove some of the formal theorems of the system which have important intuitive meanings. Secondly, the authors constructed the neighborhood semantics, prove the soundness of C2Lm, introduce a general concept of canonical model by the neighborhood semantics, and then prove the completeness of C2Lm by the canonical model. Finally, according to the technical results of the minimum system C2Lm, the authors discuss some of the important problems concerning primary-conditionals and secondary-conditionals.
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