ISBN:978-7-04-051070-6
出版时间:2019-01-08
语种:英文
开本:16
页数:296
欧拉致德国公主的书信:关于自然哲学的不同学科(第II 卷)(英文版)
作 者:Leonhard Euler
定价:  99.00元 购买
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关键词 数学类
目录
内封   
PDF (67 KB) (
版权   
PDF (228 KB) (
目录   
PDF (60 KB) (
前辅文   
PDF (554 KB) (
LETTER I. Continuation of the Subject, and of Mistakes in the Knowledge of Truth.   
摘要   PDF (66 KB) ( ) P. 1-2
LETTER II. First Class of Known Truths. Conviction That Things Exist Externally, Corresponding to the Ideas Represented by the Senses, Objection of the Pyrrhonists Reply.   
摘要   PDF (58 KB) ( ) P. 3-4
LETTER III. Another Objection of the Pyrrhonists against the Certainty of Truths Perceived by the Senses. Reply; and Precautions for Attaining Assurance of Sensible Truths.   
摘要   PDF (58 KB) ( ) P. 5-6
LETTER IV. Of Demonstrative, Physical, and Particularly of Moral Certainty.   
摘要   PDF (59 KB) ( ) P. 7-8
LETTER V. Remarks that the Senses Contribute to the Increase of Knowledge; and Precautions for Acquiring the Certainty of Historical Truths.   
摘要   PDF (58 KB) ( ) P. 9-10
LETTER VI. Whether the Essence of Bodies be Known by Us.   
摘要   PDF (64 KB) ( ) P. 11-12
LETTER VII. The True Notion of Extension.   
摘要   PDF (58 KB) ( ) P. 13-13
LETTER VIII. Divisibility of Extension in Infinitum.   
摘要   PDF (99 KB) ( ) P. 14-16
LETTER IX. Whether This Divisibility in Infinitum Takes Place in Existing Bodies.   
摘要   PDF (58 KB) ( ) P. 17-17
LETTER X. Of Monads.   
摘要   PDF (64 KB) ( ) P. 18-19
LETTER XI. Reflections on Divisibility in Infinitum, and on Monads.   
摘要   PDF (74 KB) ( ) P. 20-21
LETTER XII. Reply to the Objections of the Monadists to Divisibility in Infinitum.   
摘要   PDF (63 KB) ( ) P. 22-23
LETTER XIII. Principle of the Sufficient Reason, the Strongest Support of the Monadists.   
摘要   PDF (63 KB) ( ) P. 24-25
LETTER XIV. Another Argument of the Monadists, Derived from the Principle of the Sufficient Reason. Absurdities Resulting from It.   
摘要   PDF (63 KB) ( ) P. 26-27
LETTER XV. Reflections on the System of Monads.   
摘要   PDF (63 KB) ( ) P. 28-29
LETTER XVI. Continuation.   
摘要   PDF (63 KB) ( ) P. 30-31
LETTER XVII. Conclusion of Reflections on This System.   
摘要   PDF (76 KB) ( ) P. 32-33
LETTER XVIII. Elucidation Respecting the Nature of Colours.   
摘要   PDF (76 KB) ( ) P. 34-35
LETTER XIX. Reflections on the Analogy between Colours and Sounds.   
摘要   PDF (74 KB) ( ) P. 36-37
LETTER XX. Continuation.   
摘要   PDF (58 KB) ( ) P. 38-39
LETTER XXI. How Opaque Bodies are Rendered Visible.   
摘要   PDF (58 KB) ( ) P. 40-41
LETTER XXII. The Wonders of the Human Voice.   
摘要   PDF (80 KB) ( ) P. 41-42
LETTER XXIII. A Summary of the Principal Phenomena of Electricity.   
摘要   PDF (80 KB) ( ) P. 43-44
LETTER XXIV. The True Principle of Nature on Which Are Founded All the Phenomena of Electricity.   
摘要   PDF (74 KB) ( ) P. 45-46
LETTER XXV. Continuation. Different Nature of Bodies Relatively to Electricity.   
摘要   PDF (63 KB) ( ) P. 47-48
LETTER XXVI. On the Same Subject.   
摘要   PDF (74 KB) ( ) P. 49-50
LETTER XXVII. Of Positive and Negative Electricity. Explanation of the Phenomenon of Attraction.   
摘要   PDF (90 KB) ( ) P. 51-52
LETTER XXVIII. On the Same Subject.   
摘要   PDF (81 KB) ( ) P. 53-54
LETTER XXIX. On the Electric Atmosphere.   
摘要   PDF (89 KB) ( ) P. 55-57
LETTER XXX. Communication of Electricity to a Bar of Iron, by Means of a Globe of Glass.   
摘要   PDF (230 KB) ( ) P. 58-59
LETTER XXXI. Electrization of Men and Animals.   
摘要   PDF (75 KB) ( ) P. 60-61
LETTER XXXII. Distinctive Character of the Two Species of Electricity.   
摘要   PDF (119 KB) ( ) P. 62-63
LETTER XXXIII. How the Same Globe of Glass May Furnish at Once the Two Species of Electricity.   
摘要   PDF (180 KB) ( ) P. 64-65
LETTER XXXIV. The Leyden Experiment.   
摘要   PDF (242 KB) ( ) P. 66-67
LETTER XXXV. Reflections on the Cause and Nature of Electricity, and on Other Means Proper to Produce It.   
摘要   PDF (82 KB) ( ) P. 68-70
LETTER XXXVI. Nature of Thunder: Explanations of the Ancient Philosophers, and of Descartes: Resemblance of the Phenomena of Thunder to Those of Electricity.   
摘要   PDF (71 KB) ( ) P. 71-72
LETTER XXXVII. Explanation of the Phenomena of Lightning and Thunder.   
摘要   PDF (59 KB) ( ) P. 73-74
LETTER XXXVIII. Continuation.   
摘要   PDF (58 KB) ( ) P. 75-76
LETTER XXXIX. The Possibility of Preventing, and of Averting, the Effects of Thunder.   
摘要   PDF (81 KB) ( ) P. 76-78
LETTER XL. On the Celebrated Problem of the Longitude: General Description of the Earth, of Its Axis, Its Two Poles, and the Equator.   
摘要   PDF (94 KB) ( ) P. 79-80
LETTER XLI. Of the Magnitude of the Earth; of Meridians, and the Shortest Road from Place to Place.   
摘要   PDF (93 KB) ( ) P. 81-83
LETTER XLII. Of Latitude, and Its Influence on the Seasons, and the Length of the Day.   
摘要   PDF (92 KB) ( ) P. 84-85
LETTER XLIII. Of Parallels, of the First Meridian, and of Longitude.   
摘要   PDF (98 KB) ( ) P. 86-87
LETTER XLIV. Choice of the First Meridian.   
摘要   PDF (80 KB) ( ) P. 88-89
LETTER XLV. Method of Determining the Latitude, or the Elevation of the Pole.   
摘要   PDF (85 KB) ( ) P. 90-92
LETTER XLVI. Knowledge of the Longitude, from a Calculation of the Direction, and of the Space Passed through.   
摘要   PDF (121 KB) ( ) P. 93-95
LETTER XLVII. Continuation. Defects of This Method.   
摘要   PDF (58 KB) ( ) P. 96-97
LETTER XLVIII. Second Method of Determining the Longitude, by Means of an Exact Timepiece.   
摘要   PDF (85 KB) ( ) P. 98-99
LETTER XLIX. Continuation, and Further Elucidations.   
摘要   PDF (78 KB) ( ) P. 100-101
LETTER L. Eclipses of the Moon, a Third Method of Finding the Longitude.   
摘要   PDF (86 KB) ( ) P. 102-103
LETTER LI. Observation of the Eclipses of the Satellites of Jupiter, a Fourth Method of Finding the Longitude.   
摘要   PDF (111 KB) ( ) P. 104-105
LETTER LII. The Motion of the Moon, a Fifth Method.   
摘要   PDF (75 KB) ( ) P. 106-107
LETTER LIII. Advantages of This Last Method; Its Degree of Precision.   
摘要   PDF (82 KB) ( ) P. 108-109
LETTER LIV. On the Mariner's Compass, and the Properties of the Magnetic Needle.   
摘要   PDF (98 KB) ( ) P. 110-112
LETTER LV. Declination of the Compass, and Manner of Observing It.   
摘要   PDF (99 KB) ( ) P. 113-114
LETTER LVI. Difference in the Declination of the Compass at the Same Place.   
摘要   PDF (83 KB) ( ) P. 115-116
LETTER LVII. Chart of Declinations; Method of Employing It for the Discovery of the Longitude.   
摘要   PDF (79 KB) ( ) P. 117-118
LETTER LVIII. Why Does the Magnetic Needle Affect, in Every Place of the Earth, a Certain Direction, Differing in Different Places; and for What Reason Does It Change, with Time, at the Same Place?   
摘要   PDF (89 KB) ( ) P. 119-121
LETTER LIX. Elucidations Respecting the Cause and Variation of the Declination of Magnetic Needles.   
摘要   PDF (94 KB) ( ) P. 122-123
LETTER LX. Inclination or Dip of Magnetic Needles.   
摘要   PDF (104 KB) ( ) P. 124-126
LETTER LXI. True Magnetic Direction; Subtile Matter Which Produces the Magnetic Power.   
摘要   PDF (78 KB) ( ) P. 127-128
LETTER LXII. Nature of the Magnetic Matter, and of Its Rapid Current. Magnetic Canals.   
摘要   PDF (94 KB) ( ) P. 129-130
LETTER LXIII. Magnetic Vortex. Action of Magnets upon Each Other.   
摘要   PDF (93 KB) ( ) P. 131-132
LETTER LXIV. Nature of Iron and Steel. Method of Communicating to Them the Magnetic Force.   
摘要   PDF (107 KB) ( ) P. 133-135
LETTER LXV. Action of Loadstones on Iron. Phenomena Observable on Placing Pieces of Iron near a Loadstone.   
摘要   PDF (83 KB) ( ) P. 136-139
LETTER LXVI. Arming of Loadstones.   
摘要   PDF (88 KB) ( ) P. 139-140
LETTER LXVII. Action and Force of Armed Loadstones.   
摘要   PDF (86 KB) ( ) P. 141-142
LETTER LXVIII. The Method of Communicating to Steel the Magnetic Force, and of Magnetizing Needles for the Compass: the Simple Touch, Its Defects; Means of Remedying These.   
摘要   PDF (80 KB) ( ) P. 143-145
LETTER LXIX. On the Double Touch. Means of Preserving the Magnetic Matter in Magnetized Bars.   
摘要   PDF (93 KB) ( ) P. 146-147
LETTER LXX. The Method of Communicating to Bars of Steel a Very Great Magnetic Force, by Means of Other Bars Which Have It in a Very Inferior Degree.   
摘要   PDF (92 KB) ( ) P. 148-150
LETTER LXXI. Construction of Artificial Magnets in the Form of a Horse-shoe.   
摘要   PDF (91 KB) ( ) P. 151-152
LETTER LXXII. On Dioptrics; Instruments Which That Science Supplies: of Telescopes and Microscopes. Different Figures Given to Glasses or Lenses.   
摘要   PDF (94 KB) ( ) P. 153-155
LETTER LXXIII. Difference of Lenses with Respect to the Curve of Their Surfaces. Distribution of Lenses into Three Classes.   
摘要   PDF (105 KB) ( ) P. 156-158
LETTER LXXIV. Effect of Convex Lenses.   
摘要   PDF (74 KB) ( ) P. 159-160
LETTER LXXV. The Same Subject: Distance of the Focus of Convex Lenses.   
摘要   PDF (86 KB) ( ) P. 161-162
LETTER LXXVI. Distance of the Image of Objects.   
摘要   PDF (82 KB) ( ) P. 163-164
LETTER LXXVII. Magnitude of Images.   
摘要   PDF (85 KB) ( ) P. 165-166
LETTER LXXVIII. Burning-glasses.   
摘要   PDF (128 KB) ( ) P. 167-169
LETTER LXXIX. The Camera Obscura.   
摘要   PDF (109 KB) ( ) P. 170-171
LETTER LXXX. Reflections on the Representation in the Camera Obscura.   
摘要   PDF (103 KB) ( ) P. 172-174
LETTER LXXXI. Of the Magic Lantern, and Solar Microscope.   
摘要   PDF (81 KB) ( ) P. 175-176
LETTER LXXXII. Use and Effect of a Simple Convex Lens.   
摘要   PDF (84 KB) ( ) P. 177-178
LETTER LXXXIII. Use and Effect of a Concave Lens.   
摘要   PDF (87 KB) ( ) P. 179-181
LETTER LXXXIV. Of Apparent Magnitude, of the Visual Angle, and of Microscopes in General.   
摘要   PDF (83 KB) ( ) P. 182-183
LETTER LXXXV. Estimation of the Magnitude of Objects Viewed through the Microscope.   
摘要   PDF (99 KB) ( ) P. 184-185
LETTER LXXXVI. Fundamental Proposition for the Construction of Simple Microscopes. Plan of Some Simple Microscopes.   
摘要   PDF (98 KB) ( ) P. 186-187
LETTER LXXXVII. Limits and Defects of the Simple Microscope.   
摘要   PDF (99 KB) ( ) P. 188-190
LETTER LXXXVIII. On Telescopes, and Their Effect.   
摘要   PDF (69 KB) ( ) P. 191-192
LETTER LXXXIX. Of Pocket-glasses.   
摘要   PDF (98 KB) ( ) P. 193-194
LETTER XC. On the Magnifying Power of Pocket-glasses.   
摘要   PDF (99 KB) ( ) P. 195-197
LETTER XCI. Defects of Pocket-glasses. Of the Apparent Field.   
摘要   PDF (80 KB) ( ) P. 198-199
LETTER XCII. Determination of the Apparent Field for Pocket-glasses.   
摘要   PDF (70 KB) ( ) P. 200-201
LETTER XCIII. Astronomical Telescopes, and Their Magnifying Power.   
摘要   PDF (88 KB) ( ) P. 202-203
LETTER XCIV. Of the Apparent Field, and the Place of the Eye.   
摘要   PDF (94 KB) ( ) P. 204-206
LETTER XCV. Determination of the Magnifying Power of Astronomical Telescopes, and the Construction of a Telescope Which Shall Magnify Objects a Given Number of Times.   
摘要   PDF (68 KB) ( ) P. 207-208
LETTER XCVI. Degree of Clearness.   
摘要   PDF (87 KB) ( ) P. 209-210
LETTER XCVII. Aperture of Object-glasses.   
摘要   PDF (91 KB) ( ) P. 211-212
LETTER XCVIII. On Distinctness in the Expression: On the Space of Diffusion Occasioned by the Aperture of Object-glasses, and Considered as the First Source of Want of Distinctness in the Representation.   
摘要   PDF (114 KB) ( ) P. 213-215
LETTER XCIX. Diminution of the Aperture of Lenses, and Other Means of Lessening the Space of Diffusion Till It Is Reduced to Nothing.   
摘要   PDF (448 KB) ( ) P. 216-260
GLOSSARY   
PDF (129 KB) ( ) P. 261-274