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Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front Agric Chin    2009, Vol. 3 Issue (3) : 332-336     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-009-0052-8
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (Clove) against fish systemic bacteria isolated from aquaculture sites
Seongwei LEE(), Musa NAJIAH, Wee WENDY, Musa NADIRAH
Department of Fisheries Science and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agrotechnology and Food Science, University Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 21030, Malaysia
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This paper describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum against Vibrio spp. (n=6), Edwardsiella spp. (n=21), Aeromonas spp. (n=2), Escherichia coli (n=2), Flavobacterium spp. (n=1), Salmonella spp. (n=2), Streptococcus spp. (n=1) and Pseudomonas spp. (n=1) isolated from aquaculture sites as well as seven reference strains of bacteria, namely, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Citrobacter freundii (ATCC 8090), Aeromonas hydrophila (ATCC 49140), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 35032), Streptococcus agalactiae (ATCC13813), Edwardsiella tarda (ATCC 15947) and Yersinia enterocolitica (ATCC 23715). Nowadays, most antibiotics are no longer effective in controlling diseases in aquaculture, especially fish systemic bacterial diseases, due to increasing incidences of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, many countries have banned antibiotics in aquaculture use due to public health concerns and environmental hazards. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of the essential oil of S. aromaticum as an alternate commercial antibiotic to antimicrobial agents against fish systemic bacteria in aquaculture. The essential oil of S. aromaticum was prepared using a steam distillation method, and the chemical composition was analysed using Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the essential oils against the tested bacteria were determined using the broth two fold micro dilution method, with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. The MIC values of the essential oil of S. aromaticum ranged from 0.015 μg·mL-1 to 0.062 μg·mL-1 against the tested bacterial isolates. A total of nine chemical compounds were detected in the essential oil, with eugenol (49.0%) and caryophyllene (7.5%) being the major compounds. The results of the present study indicate that the essential oil of S. aromaticum shows a huge potential to substitute commercial antibiotics as antimicrobial agents for aquaculture use.

Keywords essential oil      Syzygium aromaticum      fish systemic bacteria      aquaculture sites     
Corresponding Authors: LEE Seongwei,   
Issue Date: 05 September 2009
URL:     OR
types of bacterialsourceKanamycin/(μg·mL-1)Eugenol/(μg·mL-1)essential oil Syzygiumaromaticum/(μg·mL-1)
Vibrio spp.Penaeus vannamei31156250.015
Vibrio spp.Penaeus monodon31156250.015
Vibrio spp.Scylla sp.62156250.015
Edwardsiella spp.Rana catesbeiana152500000.031
Aeromonas spp.Rana catesbeiana151250000.031
Flavobacterium spp.Rana catesbeiana621250000.031
Vibrio spp.Rana catesbeiana31312500.015
Aeromonas spp.Macrobrachium rosenbergii31625000.031
Escherichia coliMacrobrachium rosenbergii31625000.031
Edwardsiella spp.Macrobrachium rosenbergii31625000.062
Salmonella spp.Macrobrachium rosenbergii31625000.062
Vibrio spp.Macrobrachium rosenbergii62312500.015
Streptococcus spp.Trachinotus blochii62625000.062
Escherichia coliTrachinotus blochii62625000.062
Edwardsiella spp.Trachinotus blochii31625000.062
Salmonella spp.Trachinotus blochii31156250.062
Pseudomonas spp.Trachinotus blochii31325000.062
Vibrio damselaTrachinotus blochii31325000.015
Edwardsiella tardaClarias gariepinus15625000.062
Edwardsiella tardaClarias gariepinus311250000.062
Edwardsiella tardaClarias gariepinus31625000.062
Edwardsiella tardaClarias gariepinus31625000.062
Edwardsiella tardaClarias gariepinus31625000.031
Edwardsiella tardaClarias gariepinus62625000.031
Edwardsiella tardaClarias gariepinus31625000.062
Edwardsiella tardaTilapia sp.125156250.015
Edwardsiella tardaTilapia sp.31325000.015
Edwardsiella tardaMonopterus albus31325000.015
Edwardsiella tardaMonopterus albus125325000.015
Edwardsiella tardaMonopterus albus62156250.062
Edwardsiella tardaMonopterus albus31156250.062
Edwardsiella tardaMonopterus albus31625000.015
Edwardsiella tardaTrichogaster pectoralis31625000.062
Edwardsiella tardaTrichogaster pectoralis31625000.031
Edwardsiella tardaTrichogaster pectoralis31325000.031
Edwardsiella tardaTrichogaster pectoralis31156250.015
Escherichia coliATCC 2592231325000.015
Citrobacter freundiiATCC 809031325000.015
Aeromonas hydrophilaATCC 4914031625000.015
Pseudomonas aeruginosaATCC 3503231325000.015
Streptococcus agalactiaeATCC1381331325000.015
Edwardsiella tardaATCC 1594731325000.031
Yersinia enterocoliticaATCC 2371531625000.031
Tab.1  Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of Kanamycin, Eugenol and against fish systemic bacteria isolated from aquaculture sites
furan, tetrahydro-3-methyl2.5
2-propanone, methylhydrazone5.6
cyclopentane, methyl4.0
pyrrolidine, 2-buthyl-1-methyl0.1
2H-Pyran-2-one, tetrahydro-6,6-dimethyl0.4
Tab.2  Composition compound in the essential oil of
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