Please wait a minute...
Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front Agric Chin    2009, Vol. 3 Issue (3) : 332-336     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-009-0052-8
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (Clove) against fish systemic bacteria isolated from aquaculture sites
Seongwei LEE(), Musa NAJIAH, Wee WENDY, Musa NADIRAH
Department of Fisheries Science and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agrotechnology and Food Science, University Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 21030, Malaysia
Download: PDF(89 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract  

This paper describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum against Vibrio spp. (n=6), Edwardsiella spp. (n=21), Aeromonas spp. (n=2), Escherichia coli (n=2), Flavobacterium spp. (n=1), Salmonella spp. (n=2), Streptococcus spp. (n=1) and Pseudomonas spp. (n=1) isolated from aquaculture sites as well as seven reference strains of bacteria, namely, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Citrobacter freundii (ATCC 8090), Aeromonas hydrophila (ATCC 49140), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 35032), Streptococcus agalactiae (ATCC13813), Edwardsiella tarda (ATCC 15947) and Yersinia enterocolitica (ATCC 23715). Nowadays, most antibiotics are no longer effective in controlling diseases in aquaculture, especially fish systemic bacterial diseases, due to increasing incidences of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, many countries have banned antibiotics in aquaculture use due to public health concerns and environmental hazards. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of the essential oil of S. aromaticum as an alternate commercial antibiotic to antimicrobial agents against fish systemic bacteria in aquaculture. The essential oil of S. aromaticum was prepared using a steam distillation method, and the chemical composition was analysed using Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the essential oils against the tested bacteria were determined using the broth two fold micro dilution method, with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. The MIC values of the essential oil of S. aromaticum ranged from 0.015 μg·mL-1 to 0.062 μg·mL-1 against the tested bacterial isolates. A total of nine chemical compounds were detected in the essential oil, with eugenol (49.0%) and caryophyllene (7.5%) being the major compounds. The results of the present study indicate that the essential oil of S. aromaticum shows a huge potential to substitute commercial antibiotics as antimicrobial agents for aquaculture use.

Keywords essential oil      Syzygium aromaticum      fish systemic bacteria      aquaculture sites     
Corresponding Authors: LEE Seongwei,Email:leeseongwei@yahoo.com   
Issue Date: 05 September 2009
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/10.1007/s11703-009-0052-8     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/Y2009/V3/I3/332
types of bacterialsourceKanamycin/(μg·mL-1)Eugenol/(μg·mL-1)essential oil Syzygiumaromaticum/(μg·mL-1)
Vibrio spp.Penaeus vannamei31156250.015
Vibrio spp.Penaeus monodon31156250.015
Vibrio spp.Scylla sp.62156250.015
Edwardsiella spp.Rana catesbeiana152500000.031
Aeromonas spp.Rana catesbeiana151250000.031
Flavobacterium spp.Rana catesbeiana621250000.031
Vibrio spp.Rana catesbeiana31312500.015
Aeromonas spp.Macrobrachium rosenbergii31625000.031
Escherichia coliMacrobrachium rosenbergii31625000.031
Edwardsiella spp.Macrobrachium rosenbergii31625000.062
Salmonella spp.Macrobrachium rosenbergii31625000.062
Vibrio spp.Macrobrachium rosenbergii62312500.015
Streptococcus spp.Trachinotus blochii62625000.062
Escherichia coliTrachinotus blochii62625000.062
Edwardsiella spp.Trachinotus blochii31625000.062
Salmonella spp.Trachinotus blochii31156250.062
Pseudomonas spp.Trachinotus blochii31325000.062
Vibrio damselaTrachinotus blochii31325000.015
Edwardsiella tardaClarias gariepinus15625000.062
Edwardsiella tardaClarias gariepinus311250000.062
Edwardsiella tardaClarias gariepinus31625000.062
Edwardsiella tardaClarias gariepinus31625000.062
Edwardsiella tardaClarias gariepinus31625000.031
Edwardsiella tardaClarias gariepinus62625000.031
Edwardsiella tardaClarias gariepinus31625000.062
Edwardsiella tardaTilapia sp.125156250.015
Edwardsiella tardaTilapia sp.31325000.015
Edwardsiella tardaMonopterus albus31325000.015
Edwardsiella tardaMonopterus albus125325000.015
Edwardsiella tardaMonopterus albus62156250.062
Edwardsiella tardaMonopterus albus31156250.062
Edwardsiella tardaMonopterus albus31625000.015
Edwardsiella tardaTrichogaster pectoralis31625000.062
Edwardsiella tardaTrichogaster pectoralis31625000.031
Edwardsiella tardaTrichogaster pectoralis31325000.031
Edwardsiella tardaTrichogaster pectoralis31156250.015
Escherichia coliATCC 2592231325000.015
Citrobacter freundiiATCC 809031325000.015
Aeromonas hydrophilaATCC 4914031625000.015
Pseudomonas aeruginosaATCC 3503231325000.015
Streptococcus agalactiaeATCC1381331325000.015
Edwardsiella tardaATCC 1594731325000.031
Yersinia enterocoliticaATCC 2371531625000.031
Tab.1  Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of Kanamycin, Eugenol and against fish systemic bacteria isolated from aquaculture sites
compoundpercentage/%
furan, tetrahydro-3-methyl2.5
2-propanone, methylhydrazone5.6
cyclopentane, methyl4.0
pyrrolidine, 2-buthyl-1-methyl0.1
2H-Pyran-2-one, tetrahydro-6,6-dimethyl0.4
eugenol49.0
copaene0.5
caryophyllene7.5
α-caryophyllene1.4
Tab.2  Composition compound in the essential oil of
1 Alderman D J, Hastings T S (1998). Antibiotic use in aquaculture: development of antibiotic resistance – potential for consumer health risks. International Journal Food Science Technology , 33: 139-155
doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2621.1998.3320139.x
2 Banerjee S, Panda C K, Das S (2006). Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), a potential chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. Carcinogenesis , 27(8): 1645-1654
doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgi372
3 Bauer K, Garbe D, Surburg H (2001). Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation, Properties and Uses. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 293
doi: 10.1002/3527600205
4 Baytop T (1999). Therapy with medicinal plants in Turkey (Past and Present). 2nd ed. Istanbul: Publications of the Istanbul University, 244-245
5 Betoni J E, Mantovani R P, Barbosa L N, Di Stasi L C, Fernandes Junior A (2006). Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 101(4): 387-390
6 Cabello F C (2006). Heavy use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture: a growing problem for human and animal health and for the environment. Environmental Microbiology , 8: 1137-1144
doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2006.01054.x
7 Cai L, Wu C D (1996). Compounds from Syzygium aromaticum possessing growth inhibitory activity against oral pathogens. Journal of Natural Products , 59: 987-990
doi: 10.1021/np960451q
8 Chaieb K, Hajlaoui H, Zamantar T, Kahla-Nakbi A B, Rouabhia M, Mahdouani K, Bakhrouf F (2007). The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzygium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): a short review. Phytotherapy Research , 21: 501-506
doi: 10.1002/ptr.2124
9 Daud A, Gallo A, Sanchez Riera A (2005). Antimicrobial properties of Phrygilanthus acutifolius. Journal of Ethnopharmacology , 99: 193-197
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.01.043
10 Domarack M, Rehak P, Juhas S, Koppel J (2007). Effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth and development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vivo. Physiological Research , 56: 97-104
11 Farag R S, Daw Z Y, Hewedi F M, El-Baroty G S A (1989). Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian spice essential oils. Journal of Food Protection , 52 (9): 665-667
12 Fu Y J, Zu Y G, Chen L Y, Shi X G, Wang Z, Sun S, Efferth T (2007). Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination. Phytotherapy Research , 21(10): 989-994
doi: 10.1002/ptr.2179
13 Kim H M, Lee E H, Hong S H, Song H J, Shin M K, Kim S H, Shin T Y (1998). Effect of Syzygium aromaticum extract on immediate hypersensitivity in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology , 60: 125-131
doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00143-8
14 Kim J, Marshall M R, Wei C I (1995). Antibacterial activity of some essential oil components against five foodborne pathogens. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 43: 2839-2845
doi: 10.1021/jf00059a013
15 Kong Q L, Song Y Z, Zhang L L, Chen L Y, Li Q F (2004). Natural antifungal compounds from Syzyqium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai , 20(3): 68-72
16 Lopez P, Snchez C, Batle R, Nern C (2005). Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 53(17): 6939-6946
doi: 10.1021/jf050709v
17 Moreira M R, Ponce A G, del Valle C E, Roura S I (2005). Inhibitory parameters of essential oils to reduce a foodborne pathogen. LWT- Food Science and Technology , 38: 565-570
doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2004.07.012
18 Thoroski J, Blank G, Biliaderis C (1989). Eugenol induced inhibition of extracellular enzyme production by Bacillus cereus. Journal of Food Protection , 52(6): 399-403
19 Wendakoon C N, Sakaguchi M (1993). Combined effect of sodium chloride and clove on growth and biogenic amine formation of Enterobacter aerogenes in mackerel muscle extract. Journal of Food Protection , 56(5): 410-413
20 Yano Y, Satomi M, Oikawa H (2006). Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on Vibrio parahaemolyticus. International Journal of Food Microbiology , 111: 6-11
doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.04.031
21 Zheng G Q, Kenny P M, Lam K T (1992). Sesquiterpenes from clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) as potential anticarcinogenic agents. Journal of Natural Products , 55: 999-1003
doi: 10.1021/np50085a029
[1] Jingwei LI, Jian LIU, Hai LAN, Mingmin ZHENG, Tingzhao RONG. GC-MS analysis of the chemical constituents of the essential oil from the leaves of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolia)[J]. Front Agric Chin, 2009, 3(1): 40-42.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed