Please wait a minute...
Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front Agric Chin    2010, Vol. 4 Issue (4) : 481-488     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-010-1037-3
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Nutritional evaluation of tender pods of Canavalia maritima of coastal sand dunes
Bhaskar BHAGYA1, Kandikere R. SRIDHAR2(), Sahadevan SEENA3, Chiu-Chung YOUNG4, Ananthapadmanabha B. ARUN1
1. Research Centre, Yenepoya University, Derlakatte, Mangalore 575 018, Karnataka, India; 2. Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore 574 199, Karnataka, India; 3. Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology (CBMA), Department of Biology, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal; 4. College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Department of Soil Environmental Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Khang Road, Taichung, Taiwan 40227, China
Download: PDF(243 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract  

This study has been performed to evaluate the nutritional, antinutritional and protein qualities of tender pods of Canavalia maritima, the coastal sand dune wild legume of southwest India. The proximal features, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, antinutritional and protein qualities of fresh and pressure-cooked tender pods have been assessed. The crude protein was comparable to seeds of many edible legumes. Cooking significantly elevated the carbohydrates and calorific value of tender pods (P<0.05), while crude fiber was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Minerals of fresh pods did not drain too much on cooking and K, Mg, Zn and Mn in fresh as well as cooked pods were comparable or higher than the NRC-NAS recommended pattern. Although cooking decreased the essential amino acids, threonine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and lysine in cooked pods were equivalent or higher than the FAO-WHO-UNU recommended pattern. The palmitoleic acid in fresh pods and eicosenoic acid in cooked pods were relatively high. Similarly, the essential fatty acids, linolenic acid and linoleic acid were confined to fresh and cooked pods respectively. The fresh pods were devoid of tannins and trypsin inhibitors. The total phenolics and hemagglutinin activity decreased substantially in cooked pods. The diet of pressure-cooked pods showed improvement of in vivo protein quality, elevation of growth parameters and positive nitrogen balance in rats. Overall, the pressure-cooking of tender pods of C. maritima improved the nutritional qualities by lowering the hemagglutinin activity.

Keywords Canavalia maritima      wild legume      coastal sand dunes      nutrition      protein quality     
Corresponding Authors: SRIDHAR Kandikere R.,Email:sirikr@yahoo.com   
Issue Date: 05 December 2010
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/10.1007/s11703-010-1037-3     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/Y2010/V4/I4/481
Fig.1  Blooming of on the coastal sand dunes of Someshwara, southwest India (upper) and a bunch of tender pods (lower)
ingredient/(g·100g-1)basal dietcasein diettest diet
fresh podcooked pod
corn starch807026.5820.48
corn oil10101010
non-nutrition cellulose5555
casein10
fresh pod flour53.42
cooked pod flour59.52
salt mixture*4444
vitamin mixture**1111
Tab.1  Composition of basal diet, casein diet and pod diet used for rats
componenttender pod
freshcooked
moisture/%9.18±1.04a6.14±1.26b*
crude protein/(g·100g-1)18.72±1.59a16.80±1.44a
crude lipid/(g·100g-1)2.50±0.1a2.10±0.12b**
crude fiber/(g·100g-1)16.72±0.11a10.53±1.69b*
ash/(g·100g-1)4.06±0.11a3.00±0.36b*
total carbohydrates/(g·100g-1)57.99±1.3a67.58±2.95b*
calorific value/(kJ·100g-1)1379±17.3a1492±34.37b*
vitamin C/(mg·100 g-1)0.43±0.03a0.30±0.04b*
Tab.2  Proximate composition of tender pods of on dry weight basis ( = 5; mean±SD)
mineraltender podNRC-NAS pattern
freshcooked
sodium54.43±1.88a39.92±0.60b**120-200
potassium1306.86±36.87a659.25±19.61b**500-700
calcium146.34±6.07a90.46±1.18b**600
phosphorus143.33±2.84a131.53±3.61b*500
magnesium191.05±3.60a91.72±3.52b**60
iron2.01±0.12a0.86±0.02b**10
copper0.37±0.03a0.23±0.02b**0.6-0.7
zinc12.44±0.58a4.87±0.45b**5
manganese2.38±0.08a0.50±0.04b**0.3-1
selenium11.08±0.49a9.70±0.13b*-
Tab.3  Mineral composition of tender pods of on dry weight basis (mg·100 g) ( = 5; mean±SD)
protein fractiontender pod
freshcooked
true protein18.27±0.16 (100)a10.66±0.33 (100)b**
albumins6.65±0.14 (36.4)a2.34±0.14 (22)b**
globulins7.16±0.10 (39.2)a5.53±0.24 (51.9)b**
prolamins1.12±0.07 (6.13)a0.68±0.07 (6.38)b*
glutelins3.33±0.17 (18.2)a2.12±0.07 (19.89)b**
Tab.4  Protein fraction (g·100g) of tender pods of on dry weight basis ( = 5; mean±SD) (per cent in parenthesis)
amino acidtender podFAO-WHO-UNU pattern*
freshcooked
glutamic acid21.3910.46
aspartic acid14.3110.87
serine3.151.64
threonine2.301.560.9
proline2.441.88
alanine3.192.22
glycine2.031.46
valine4.751.981.3
cystineNDND1.7**
methionine1.00.97
isoleucine4.281.531.3
leucine4.340.241.9
tyrosine2.710.171.9***
phenylalanine3.93.73
tryptophanNDND0.5
lysine4.263.671.6
histidineNDND1.6
arginineNDND
Tab.5  Amino acid composition of tender pods of (g·100 g protein) (=3, mean)
fatty acidtender pods
freshcooked
saturated fatty acids
tridecanoic acid (C13∶0)0.3060.268
myristic acid (C14∶0)0.0050.039
pentadecanoic acid (C15∶0)1.2580.279
palmitic acid (C16∶0)ND3.032
heptadeconoic acid (C17∶0)0.2855.508
stearic acid (C18∶0)ND0.031
nonadeconoic acid (C19∶0)1.9510.675
heneicosanoic acid (C21∶0)ND2.175
behenic acid (C22∶0)ND0.546
lignoceric acid (C24∶0)ND0.008
pentacosonoic acid (C25∶0)ND8.76
unsaturated fatty acids
myristoleic acid (C14∶1)0.496ND
palmitoleic acid (C16∶1)19.308ND
linoleic acid (C18∶2)ND2.653
linolenic acid (C18∶3)1.265ND
eicosenoic acid (C20∶1)ND10.691
eicosadienoic acid (C20∶2)1.252ND
sum of saturated fatty acids3.5321.3
sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids22.313.3
P/S ratio*6.310.626
Tab.6  Fatty acid composition of tender pods of (mg·g lipid) ( = 3, mean)
assaycaseintender pods
freshcooked
growth study
food intake/g (in 28 d)143.67±2.85a73.95±1.06bc80.44±0.68bd
protein intake/g (in 28 d)14.379±0.38a7.39±0.11bc8.04±0.07bd
gain in bodyweight/g (in 28 d)34.71±0.85a0.1bc1.74±0.23bd
FER0.25±0.01a0.001bc0.02±0.003bd
PER2.39±0.09a0.014±0.0004bc0.22±0.02bd
corrected PER*2.5a0.014±0.0005bc0.23±0.02bd
gain in weight/g (in 28 d)9.96±0.25a0.02±0.008bc0.73±0.01bd
weight loss/g (in 10 d)2.92±0.122.92±0.122.92±0.12
protein consumed/g (in 10 d)4.74±0.16a2.67±0.06bc2.96±0.12bd
NPR2.72±0.12a1.1±0.03bc1.24±0.04bd
PRE43.42±1.88a17.62±0.47bc19.75±0.67bd
nitrogen balance study
TD/%98.79±0.47a38.41±1.94bc44.36±1.71bd
BV/%87.63±0.31a28.94±3.06bc35.57±1.17bd
NPU/%86.7±0.37a11.16±1.74bc15.79±0.1bd
Tab.7  Food intake, protein intake, gain in bodyweight, food efficiency ratio (FER), net protein retention (NPR), protein retention efficiency (PRE), true digestibility (TD), biologic value (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU) of casein, fresh and cooked tender pod diet of fed to rats ( = 5; mean±SD)
1 Abbey B W, Ibeh G O (1987). Functional properties of raw and heat processed brown bean (Canavalia rosea DC.) flour. J Food Sci , 52: 406-408
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1987.tb06625.x
2 AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) (1995). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 16th ed. Arlington, VA, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists
3 APHA (1995). Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water. USA: American Public Health Association
4 Arinathan V, Mohan V R, John De Britto A (2003). Chemical composition of certain tribal pulses in South India. Int J Food Sci Nutr , 54: 209-217
doi: 10.1080/09637480120092026
5 Arora R K, Chandel K P S, Joshi B S, Pant K C (1980). Rice bean: tribal pulse of eastern India. Econ Bot , 34: 260-263
6 Arun A B, Sridhar K R, Raviraja N S, Schmidt E, Jung K (2003). Nutritional and antinutritional components of seeds of Canavalia spp. from the west coast sand dunes of India. Plant Foods Hum Nutr , 58: 1-13
doi: 10.1023/B:QUAL.0000040340.86158.61
7 Basha S M M, Cherry J P, Young C T (1976). Changes in free amino acid, carbohydrates and proteins of maturing seeds from various pea nut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars. Cereal Chemistry , 53: 586-597
8 Baudoin J P, Maquet A (1999). Improvement of protein and amino acid content in seeds of food legumes: a case study in Phaseolus. Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment , 3: 220-224
9 Bender A E, Doel B H (1957). Biological evaluation of proteins; a new aspect. Br J Nutr , 11: 140-148
doi: 10.1079/BJN19570029
10 Bhagya B, Sridhar K R, Arun A B (2005). Diversity of legumes and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the coastal sand dunes of southwest coast of India. International Journal of Forest Usufructs Management , 6: 1-18
11 Bhagya B, Sridhar K R, Raviraja N S, Young C C, Arun A B (2009). Nutritional and biological qualities of the ripened beans of Canavalia maritima from the coastal sand dunes of India. C R Biol , 332: 25-33
doi: 10.1016/j.crvi.2008.09.013
12 Bhat R, Karim A A (2009). Exploring the nutritional potential of wild and underutilized legumes. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety , 8: 305-331
doi: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2009.00084.x
13 Bhat R, Sridhar K R, Bhushan B (2007). Free radicals in velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens L. DC.) and their status after γ-irradiation and conventional processing. LWT- Food Science and Technology , 40: 1570-1577
14 Brand W A, Tegtmeyer A R, Hilkert A (1994). Compound-specific isotope analysis: extending towards 15N/14N and 13C/12C. Org Geochem , 21: 585-594
doi: 10.1016/0146-6380(94)90004-3
15 Burns R E (1971). Methods for estimation of tannins in grain, Sorghum. Agron J , 63: 511-512
doi: 10.2134/agronj1971.00021962006300030050x
16 Chan C W, Phillips R D (1994). Amino acid composition and subunit constitution of protein fractions from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) seeds. J Agric Food Chem , 42: 1857-1860
doi: 10.1021/jf00045a005
17 Chick H, Hutchinson J C D, Jackson H M (1935). The biological value of proteins: Further investigation of the balance sheet method. Biochem J , 29: 1702-1711
18 D’Cunha M, Sridhar K R, Bhat R (2009). Nutritional quality of germinated seeds of Canavalia maritima of coastal sand dunes. In: Bellinghouse V C, ed. Food Processing: Methods, Techniques and Trends . New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc., 363-384
19 De Oliveira J T A, Pusztai A, Grant G (1988). Changes in organs and tissues induced by feeding of purified kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lectin. Nutr Res , 8: 943-947
doi: 10.1016/S0271-5317(88)80133-7
20 Derbyshire E, Wright D J, Boulter D (1976). Legumin and vicilin, storage proteins of legume seeds. Phytochemistry , 15: 3-24
doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)89046-9
21 Eggum B D (1970). Improving Plant Protein by Nuclear Techniques. Vienna: IAEA
22 FAO-WHO-UNU (1985). Energy and Protein Requirements. Geneva: WHO Tech Rep Ser # 724
23 Garces R, Mancha M (1993). One-step lipid extraction and fatty acid methyl esters preparation from fresh plant tissue. Annals of Biochemistry , 211: 139-143
doi: 10.1006/abio.1993.1244
24 Gordon L K (1981). A reliable method for repetitively bleeding rabbits from the central artery of the ear. J Immunol Methods , 44: 241-245
doi: 10.1016/0022-1759(81)90352-5
25 Gunjatkar N, Vartak V D (1982). Enumeration of wild legumes from Pune District, Maharashtra. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany , 3: 1-9
26 Hankins C N, Kindinger J I, Shannon L M (1980). Legume alpha-galactosidases which have hemagglutinin properties. Plant Physiol , 65: 618-622
doi: 10.1104/pp.65.4.618
27 Hofmann D, Gehre M, Jung K (2003). Sample preparation techniques for the determination of natural 15N/14N variations in amino acids by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies , 39: 233-244
doi: 10.1080/1025601031000147630
28 Hofmann D, Jung K, Bender J, Gehre M, Schüürmann G (1997). Using natural isotope variations of nitrogen in plants as an early indicator of air pollution stress. J Mass Spectrom , 32: 855-863
doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9888(199708)32:8&lt;855::AID-JMS544&gt;3.0.CO;2-J
29 Humphries E C (1956). Mineral composition and ash analysis. In: Peach K, Tracey M V, eds. Modern Methods of Plant Analysis , Volume 1. Berlin: Springer, 468-502
30 Jain S K (2000). Human aspects of plant diversity. Economic Botany , 54: 459-470
31 Kakade M L, Rackis J J, McGhee J E, Puski G (1974). Determination of trypsin inhibitor activity of soy products: a collaborative analysis of an improved procedure. Cereal Chemistry , 51: 376-382
32 Laurena A C, Rodriguez F M, Sabino N G, Zamora A F, Mendoza E M (1991). Amino acid composition, relative nutritive value and in vitro protein digestibility of several Philippine indigenous legumes. Plant Foods Hum Nutr , 41: 59-68
doi: 10.1007/BF02196383
33 Liener I E (1958). Processed Plant Protein Foodstuffs. New York: Academic Press, 79-129
34 Livsmedelsverk S (1988). Energi och n?rings?mnen. Stockholm, Sweden: The Swedish Food Administration
35 Makkar H P S, Aderibige A O, Becker K (1998). Comparative evaluation of non-toxic and toxic varieties of Jatropha curcas for chemical composition, digestibility, protein degradability and toxic factors. Food Chem , 62: 207-215
doi: 10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00183-0
36 Morrison A B (1964). Some aspects of the nutritive value of protein. In: Sohults H W, Anglameir A F, eds. Symposium on Foods, Protein and Their Reaction . New York: The AVI. Publishing Co
37 Müller H G, Tobin G (1980). Nutrition and Food Processing. London: Croom Helm Ltd
38 Nielsen S S, Deshpande S S, Hermodson M A, Scott M P (1988). Comparative digestibility of legume storage proteins. J Agric Food Chem , 36: 896-902
39 NRC-NAS (1989). Recommended Dietary Allowances. Washington DC: National Academic Press
40 Nwokolo E (1987). Nutritional evaluation of pigeon pea meal. Plant Foods Hum Nutr , 37: 283-290
doi: 10.1007/BF01092203
41 Oliveira J T A, Vasconcelos I M, Gondim M J, L, Cavada B S, Moreira R A, Santos C F, Moreira L I M (1994). Canavalia brasiliensis seeds. Protein quality and nutritional implications of dietary lectin. J Sci Food Agric , 64: 417-424
doi: 10.1002/jsfa.2740640405
42 Osborne D R, Voogt P (1978). The Analysis of Nutrients in Food. New York: Academic Press, 239-240
43 Pellet P L, Young V R (1980). Nutritional evaluation of protein foods. Food and Nutrition Bulletin (Suppl 4), United Nations University
44 Platt B S, Miller D S, Payre P R (1961). Protein values of human foods. In: Brock J F, ed. Recent Advance in Human Nutrition . Boston: Brown and Co,351-358
45 Roe J H (1954). Chemical determination of ascorbic, dehydroascorbic and Diketogluconic acids. In: Glick D, ed. Methods of Biochemical Analysis . New York: InterScience Publishers, 115-139
doi: 10.1002/9780470110171.ch5
46 Rosset J, Baerlocher F, Oertli J J (1982). Decomposition of conifer needles and deciduous leaves in two Black Forest and two Swiss Jura streams. Int Rev Gesamten Hydrobiol , 67: 695-711
47 Salunkhe D K, Kadam S S, Chavan J K (1985). Post harvest Biotechnology of Food Legumes. Boca Raton: CRC Press
48 Seena S, Sridhar K R (2006). Nutritional and microbiological features of little known legumes, Canavalia cathartica Thouars and C. maritima Thouars of the southwest coast of India. Current Science , 90: 1638-1650
49 Sharma S K, Brahmi P, Rana M K (2010). India’s agri-horticultural diversity: conserving our biological heritage. Biotech News , 5: 78-82
50 Shemer M, Perkins E G (1975). Degradation of methionine in heated soybean protein and the formation of β-methyl mercaptopropionaldehyde. J Agric Food Chem , 23: 201-204
doi: 10.1021/jf60198a029
51 Siddhuraju P, Becker K, Makkar H P S (2000). Studies on the nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of three different germplasm seed materials of an under-utilized tropical legume, Mucuna pruriens var. utilis. J Agric Food Chem , 48: 6048-6060
doi: 10.1021/jf0006630
52 Siddhuraju P, Becker K, Makkar H P S (2002). Chemical composition, protein fractionation, essential amino acid potential and antimetabolic constituents of an unconventional legume, Gila bean (Entada phaseoloides Merrill) seed kernel. J Sci Food Agric , 82: 192-202
doi: 10.1002/jsfa.1025
53 Smartt J (1990). Grain Legumes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511525483
54 StatSoft (2008). Statistica, Version 8. Oklahoma: StatSoft
55 Talwar G P, Srivastava L M, Mudgil K D (1989). Textbook of Biochemistry and Human Biology. India: Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd
56 USDA (1999). Nutrient Data Base for Standard Reference Release # 13, Food Group 20: Cereal Grains and Pasta. USA
57 Vadivel V, Pugalenthi M (2007). Biological value and protein quality of raw and processed seeds of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis. Livestock Research for Rural Development 19: http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd19/7/vadi19097.htm
58 Vadivel V, Pugalenthi M, Megha S (2008). Biological evaluation of protein quality of raw and processed seeds of gila bean (Entada scandens Benth.). Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems , 8: 125-133
59 Viswanathan M B, Thangadurai D, Ramesh N (2001). Biochemical and nutritional evaluation of Neonotonia wightii (Wight &amp; Arn.) Lackey (Fabaceae). Food Chem , 75: 275-279
doi: 10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00217-5
60 Viswanathan M B, Thangadurai D, Tamil Vendan K, Ramesh N (1999). Chemical analysis and nutritional assessment of Teramnus labialis (L.) Spreng. (Fabaceae). Plant Foods Hum Nutr , 54: 345-352
doi: 10.1023/A:1008101805505
61 Walker A F, Kochhar N (1983). Effect of processing including domestic cooking on nutritional quality of legumes. Proc Nutr Soc , 21: 41-48
[1] Daiwen CHEN, . Nutrition and feed strategies for sustainable swine production in China[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2009, 3(4): 471-477.
[2] Yulin LIAO*, Xiangmin RONG*, Qiang LIU*, Meirong FAN, Jianwei PENG, Guixian XIE, Yulin LIAO, Shengxian ZHENG*, Meirong FAN*. Influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on radish yield, nutrition quality, and nitrogen recovery efficiency[J]. Front Agric Chin, 2009, 3(2): 122-129.
[3] YANG Zhuo, LI Bowen, WANG Wei, LI Guibao. Nutrient elements and heavy metals in the sediment of Baiyangdian and Taihu Lakes: A comparative analysis of pollution trends[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2007, 1(2): 203-209.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed