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Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front Agric Chin    2010, Vol. 4 Issue (4) : 481-488     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-010-1037-3
Nutritional evaluation of tender pods of Canavalia maritima of coastal sand dunes
Bhaskar BHAGYA1, Kandikere R. SRIDHAR2(), Sahadevan SEENA3, Chiu-Chung YOUNG4, Ananthapadmanabha B. ARUN1
1. Research Centre, Yenepoya University, Derlakatte, Mangalore 575 018, Karnataka, India; 2. Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore 574 199, Karnataka, India; 3. Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology (CBMA), Department of Biology, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal; 4. College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Department of Soil Environmental Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Khang Road, Taichung, Taiwan 40227, China
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This study has been performed to evaluate the nutritional, antinutritional and protein qualities of tender pods of Canavalia maritima, the coastal sand dune wild legume of southwest India. The proximal features, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, antinutritional and protein qualities of fresh and pressure-cooked tender pods have been assessed. The crude protein was comparable to seeds of many edible legumes. Cooking significantly elevated the carbohydrates and calorific value of tender pods (P<0.05), while crude fiber was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Minerals of fresh pods did not drain too much on cooking and K, Mg, Zn and Mn in fresh as well as cooked pods were comparable or higher than the NRC-NAS recommended pattern. Although cooking decreased the essential amino acids, threonine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and lysine in cooked pods were equivalent or higher than the FAO-WHO-UNU recommended pattern. The palmitoleic acid in fresh pods and eicosenoic acid in cooked pods were relatively high. Similarly, the essential fatty acids, linolenic acid and linoleic acid were confined to fresh and cooked pods respectively. The fresh pods were devoid of tannins and trypsin inhibitors. The total phenolics and hemagglutinin activity decreased substantially in cooked pods. The diet of pressure-cooked pods showed improvement of in vivo protein quality, elevation of growth parameters and positive nitrogen balance in rats. Overall, the pressure-cooking of tender pods of C. maritima improved the nutritional qualities by lowering the hemagglutinin activity.

Keywords Canavalia maritima      wild legume      coastal sand dunes      nutrition      protein quality     
Corresponding Authors: SRIDHAR Kandikere R.,   
Issue Date: 05 December 2010
URL:     OR
Fig.1  Blooming of on the coastal sand dunes of Someshwara, southwest India (upper) and a bunch of tender pods (lower)
ingredient/(g·100g-1)basal dietcasein diettest diet
fresh podcooked pod
corn starch807026.5820.48
corn oil10101010
non-nutrition cellulose5555
fresh pod flour53.42
cooked pod flour59.52
salt mixture*4444
vitamin mixture**1111
Tab.1  Composition of basal diet, casein diet and pod diet used for rats
componenttender pod
crude protein/(g·100g-1)18.72±1.59a16.80±1.44a
crude lipid/(g·100g-1)2.50±0.1a2.10±0.12b**
crude fiber/(g·100g-1)16.72±0.11a10.53±1.69b*
total carbohydrates/(g·100g-1)57.99±1.3a67.58±2.95b*
calorific value/(kJ·100g-1)1379±17.3a1492±34.37b*
vitamin C/(mg·100 g-1)0.43±0.03a0.30±0.04b*
Tab.2  Proximate composition of tender pods of on dry weight basis ( = 5; mean±SD)
mineraltender podNRC-NAS pattern
Tab.3  Mineral composition of tender pods of on dry weight basis (mg·100 g) ( = 5; mean±SD)
protein fractiontender pod
true protein18.27±0.16 (100)a10.66±0.33 (100)b**
albumins6.65±0.14 (36.4)a2.34±0.14 (22)b**
globulins7.16±0.10 (39.2)a5.53±0.24 (51.9)b**
prolamins1.12±0.07 (6.13)a0.68±0.07 (6.38)b*
glutelins3.33±0.17 (18.2)a2.12±0.07 (19.89)b**
Tab.4  Protein fraction (g·100g) of tender pods of on dry weight basis ( = 5; mean±SD) (per cent in parenthesis)
amino acidtender podFAO-WHO-UNU pattern*
glutamic acid21.3910.46
aspartic acid14.3110.87
Tab.5  Amino acid composition of tender pods of (g·100 g protein) (=3, mean)
fatty acidtender pods
saturated fatty acids
tridecanoic acid (C13∶0)0.3060.268
myristic acid (C14∶0)0.0050.039
pentadecanoic acid (C15∶0)1.2580.279
palmitic acid (C16∶0)ND3.032
heptadeconoic acid (C17∶0)0.2855.508
stearic acid (C18∶0)ND0.031
nonadeconoic acid (C19∶0)1.9510.675
heneicosanoic acid (C21∶0)ND2.175
behenic acid (C22∶0)ND0.546
lignoceric acid (C24∶0)ND0.008
pentacosonoic acid (C25∶0)ND8.76
unsaturated fatty acids
myristoleic acid (C14∶1)0.496ND
palmitoleic acid (C16∶1)19.308ND
linoleic acid (C18∶2)ND2.653
linolenic acid (C18∶3)1.265ND
eicosenoic acid (C20∶1)ND10.691
eicosadienoic acid (C20∶2)1.252ND
sum of saturated fatty acids3.5321.3
sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids22.313.3
P/S ratio*6.310.626
Tab.6  Fatty acid composition of tender pods of (mg·g lipid) ( = 3, mean)
assaycaseintender pods
growth study
food intake/g (in 28 d)143.67±2.85a73.95±1.06bc80.44±0.68bd
protein intake/g (in 28 d)14.379±0.38a7.39±0.11bc8.04±0.07bd
gain in bodyweight/g (in 28 d)34.71±0.85a0.1bc1.74±0.23bd
corrected PER*2.5a0.014±0.0005bc0.23±0.02bd
gain in weight/g (in 28 d)9.96±0.25a0.02±0.008bc0.73±0.01bd
weight loss/g (in 10 d)2.92±0.122.92±0.122.92±0.12
protein consumed/g (in 10 d)4.74±0.16a2.67±0.06bc2.96±0.12bd
nitrogen balance study
Tab.7  Food intake, protein intake, gain in bodyweight, food efficiency ratio (FER), net protein retention (NPR), protein retention efficiency (PRE), true digestibility (TD), biologic value (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU) of casein, fresh and cooked tender pod diet of fed to rats ( = 5; mean±SD)
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