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Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front Agric Chin    2010, Vol. 4 Issue (4) : 406-415     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-010-1043-5
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Long-term effect of fertilizer application on rice yield, potassium uptake in plants, and potassium balance in double rice cropping system
Yulin LIAO1,2,3, Shengxian ZHENG1,2(), Yanhong LU1,2,3, Zengping YANG1,2,3, Jun NIE1,2, Jian XIE1,2
1. Soil and Fertilizer Institute of Hunan Province, Changsha 410125, China; 2. Key Field Monitoring Experimental Station for Reddish Paddy Soil Co-Environment in Wangcheng, Ministry of Agriculture, Hunan, Changsha 410125, China; 3. College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
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Abstract  

A 27 years field experiment was conducted on a Fe-Accumli Stagnic Anthrosol to evaluate the effects of long-term application of fertilizer, pig manure (PM), and rice straw (RS) on rice yield, uptake, and usage efficiency of potassium, soil K pools, and the nonexchangeable K release under the double rice cropping system in South Central China. Common cropping pattern in the study was early rice-late rice-fallow (winter). The field treatments included CK (no fertilizer applied), NP, NK, NPK, and NK+ PM, NP+ RS, NPK+ RS. The pig manure and rice straw was applied in both the early rice and late rice cropping season. The ranking order of 27 years average annual grain yield were the CK<NK<NP<NK+ PM<NP+ RS<NPK<NPK+ RS treatments. The negative yield change trends were observed in the CK and NP and NK treatments of unbalanced nutrient application in the case of omitted-K and P-omitted. The positive yield change trends were observed in balanced applications of NPK and combined application of fertilizer (NPK) with pig manure (NK+ PM) or rice straw (NP+ RS and NPK+ RS). The application of K fertilizer (NPK) increased grain yield by 56.7 kg·hm-2·a-1 over that obtained with no K application (NP). The combined application of pig manure with fertilizer (NK+ PM) increased by 82.2 kg·hm-2 per year compared with fertilizer application alone (NK). The combined application of rice straw with fertilizer (NP+ RS and NPK+ RS) increased on the average of 34.4 kg·hm-2 per year compared with fertilizer application alone (NP and NPK). In all fertilizer, pig manure and rice straw combinations, K uptake change trends in rice plants of the early rice was positive except for CK and NP treatments. The results showed that the total removal of K by the rice plants exceeded the amounts of total K applied to the soil in all treatments, which showed a negative K balance. This ranged from 106.3 kg·hm-2·a-1 in CK treatment to 289.6 kg·hm-2·a-1 in the NPK+ RS treatment. Continuous annual application of 199.2 K kg·hm-2 to rice resulted in an accumulation (58 kg·hm-2) of exchangeable K (1 mol NH4OAc extractable K) in 0– 45 cm soil depth over the study period, despite the higher average annual uptake of K by the system (225.7 kg·hm-2). However, nonexchangeable K increased substantially from 1090 kg·hm-2 to 1113 kg·hm-2 and 1140 kg·hm-2 in the 0–45 cm soil layer in NPK+ RS and NPK treatments after 27 years of the continuous double rice cropping system, respectively. Thus, long-term rational application of K fertilizer may increase sustainable K fertility of the continuous double rice cropped system.

Keywords fertilizer      pig manure      rice straw      rice yield      potassium balance      double rice cropping system     
Corresponding Authors: ZHENG Shengxian,Email:shengxianzheng@foxmail.com   
Issue Date: 05 December 2010
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/10.1007/s11703-010-1043-5     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fag/EN/Y2010/V4/I4/406
treatmentchemicalnutrient added/(kg·hm-2)
early ricelate rice
NPKNPK
CKchemical000000
NPchemical15038.7018038.70
NKchemical150099.6180099.6
NPKchemical15038.799.618038.799.6
NK+ PMchemical150099.6180099.6
pig manure2730.317.42730.317.4
NP+ RSchemical15038.7018038.70
rice straw21.42.854.621.42.854.6
NPK+ RSchemical15038.799.618038.799.6
rice straw21.42.854.621.42.854.6
Tab.1  Amount of N, P, and K added through fertilizer, pig manure, and rice straw each year
treatment*early ricelate rice
average yield # /(t·hm-2)change trend, slope§ /(kg·hm-2·a-1)t-statP- valueaverage yield /(t·hm-2)change trend, slope /(kg·hm-2·a-1)t-statP- value
CK2.84g-0.022-1.3110.2013.37e-0.014-1.2380.227
NP4.74e-0.009-0.4360.6664.70d-0.032-2.4410.022
NK3.57f-0.093-2.9190.0074.69d-0.016-0.6820.051
NPK5.46b0.0010.0360.9725.51b0.0170.9410.356
NK+ PM5.14d0.0030.1180.9065.34c0.0090.4080.686
NP+ RS5.25c0.0060.3110.7585.36c0.0130.6580.516
NPK+ RS5.82a0.0030.1580.8755.85a0.0090.4710.641
grain yieldgrain yield
ANOVA+d.f.FPANOVAd.f.FP
year2628.890.000year2624.850.000
T7106.330.000T7115.980.000
Y × T18219.250.000Y × T1828.410.000
Tab.2  Grain yield, yield change trends, -statistic, significance of yield change () over year, and analysis of variation (ANOVA) in long-term fertilizer, pig manure, and rice straw application experiment in Wangcheng, Hunan Province, China
treatment*early ricelate rice
average K, uptake # /(kg·hm-2)change trend, slope§ /(kg·hm-2·a-1)t-statP- valueaverage K, uptake /(kg·hm-2)change trend, slope /(kg·hm-2·a-1)t-satP- value
CK54.52g-0.889-3.4180.00251.74g0.3541.3690.182
NP60.04f-1.032-2.2060.03661.38f-0.158-0.7050.487
NK89.09c-3.247-5.5400.00198.60d0.2070.4440.661
NPK136.06b-0.434-0.6670.510119.66b0.7611.3610.185
NK+ PM130.39c-0.262-0.2980.768117.76c1.1852.1630.399
NP+ RS92.19d-1.765-3.1160.00477.09e-1.897-3.9560.001
NPK+ RS147.27a0.3300.5740.571142.28a0.4040.7690.448
K uptakeK uptake
ANOVA+d.f.FPANOVAd.f.FP
year268.970.000year265.330.000
T7101.180.000T7147.570.000
Y × T18243.340.000Y × T18239.670.000
Tab.3  Potassium uptake, change trends, -statistic significance of K uptake change () over year, and analysis of variation (ANOVA) in long-term fertilizer and straw application experiment in Wangcheng, Hunan Province, China
treatment*early ricelate rice
recovery efficiency (range mean)/%agronomic efficiency (range mean) /(kg grain·kg-1 K)recovery efficiency (range mean)/%agronomic efficiency (range mean) /(kg grain·kg-1 K)
NK12–60 29.7d4.7–27.7 1.1d33–68 59.8c-7.4–13.4 3.4d
NPK23–92 74.0a3.5–15.6 7.4b23–92 75.8a6.3–14.3 8.4b
NK+ PM15–84 56.2bc3.0–14 45.7c15–84 65.1b2.7–13.3 6.2c
NP+ RS35–83 55.4c3.8–15.2 11.1a35–83 54.7d5.3–21.8 13.3a
NPK+ RS42–67 58.2b2.8–11.4 7.6b42–67 67.6 b2.8–13.8 7.5b
Tab.4  Potassium use (recovery and agronomic) efficiency of fertilizer K, PM-K, and RS-K applied in double rice cropping system (1981–2007)
treatment*potassium added/(kg·hm-2·a-1)potassium/(kg·hm-2·a-1)
fertilizerpig manurestrawirrigationraintotaluptakerecycledaapparent balance
CK00012.24.817.0106.32.2-87.1
NP00012.24.817.0121.41.9-102.5
NK199.20012.24.8216.2187.74.833.3
NPK199.20012.24.8216.2255.75.5-34.0
NK+ PM199.234.8012.24.8251.0248.25.48.2
NP+ RS00109.212.24.8126.2169.34.5-38.6
NPK+ RS199.20109.212.24.8325.4289.66.442.2
Tab.5  Apparent balance of K in double rice cropping system with different nutrient management over the period of 1981–2007 in Wangcheng, Hunan Province, China
form of Ktreatment*
initial soilCKNPNKNPKNK+ PMNP+ RSNPK+ RS
soil depth, 0–15 cm
NH4OAc-K105949527015915477210
depletion/build up of NH4OAc-K-11-101655450-28105
nonexchangeable K292272282319311282267281
depletion/build up of non exchangeable K-20-102719-10-25-11
total K2368822600231362279622641228472154122315
depletion/build up of total K-1089-552-892-1047-841-2147-1373
soil depth, 15–30 cm
NH4OAc-K114898620711612988170
depletion/build up of NH4OAc-K-25-2893215-2756
nonexchangeable K365352342365364375340371
depletion/build up of non exchangeable K-13-230–110-266
total K2829628122274782829728311285082747828297
depletion/build up of total K-174-818115212-8181
soil depth, 30–45 cm
NH4Oac-K142138106163122128116163
depletion/build up of NH4OAc-K-4-362128-2621
non–exchangeable K433408392440465442420461
depletion/build up of nonexchangeable K-25-417329-1328
total K3237631929314623239632446325313147032396
depletion/build up of total K-447-9142070155-90620
Tab.6  Distribution of different forms of K (kg·hm soil) in the three soil depths as influenced by the use of fertilizer, pig manure, and straw in different combinations after 27 years (1981–2007) of double rice cropping system
Fig.1  Cumulative K release from non-exchangeable K as influenced by different nutrient management and cropping in the 0–15 cm soil layer after 27 years (1981–2007) of double rice cropping system.
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