Please wait a minute...
Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front Agric Chin    2010, Vol. 4 Issue (4) : 406-415     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-010-1043-5
Long-term effect of fertilizer application on rice yield, potassium uptake in plants, and potassium balance in double rice cropping system
Yulin LIAO1,2,3, Shengxian ZHENG1,2(), Yanhong LU1,2,3, Zengping YANG1,2,3, Jun NIE1,2, Jian XIE1,2
1. Soil and Fertilizer Institute of Hunan Province, Changsha 410125, China; 2. Key Field Monitoring Experimental Station for Reddish Paddy Soil Co-Environment in Wangcheng, Ministry of Agriculture, Hunan, Changsha 410125, China; 3. College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
Download: PDF(175 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks

A 27 years field experiment was conducted on a Fe-Accumli Stagnic Anthrosol to evaluate the effects of long-term application of fertilizer, pig manure (PM), and rice straw (RS) on rice yield, uptake, and usage efficiency of potassium, soil K pools, and the nonexchangeable K release under the double rice cropping system in South Central China. Common cropping pattern in the study was early rice-late rice-fallow (winter). The field treatments included CK (no fertilizer applied), NP, NK, NPK, and NK+ PM, NP+ RS, NPK+ RS. The pig manure and rice straw was applied in both the early rice and late rice cropping season. The ranking order of 27 years average annual grain yield were the CK<NK<NP<NK+ PM<NP+ RS<NPK<NPK+ RS treatments. The negative yield change trends were observed in the CK and NP and NK treatments of unbalanced nutrient application in the case of omitted-K and P-omitted. The positive yield change trends were observed in balanced applications of NPK and combined application of fertilizer (NPK) with pig manure (NK+ PM) or rice straw (NP+ RS and NPK+ RS). The application of K fertilizer (NPK) increased grain yield by 56.7 kg·hm-2·a-1 over that obtained with no K application (NP). The combined application of pig manure with fertilizer (NK+ PM) increased by 82.2 kg·hm-2 per year compared with fertilizer application alone (NK). The combined application of rice straw with fertilizer (NP+ RS and NPK+ RS) increased on the average of 34.4 kg·hm-2 per year compared with fertilizer application alone (NP and NPK). In all fertilizer, pig manure and rice straw combinations, K uptake change trends in rice plants of the early rice was positive except for CK and NP treatments. The results showed that the total removal of K by the rice plants exceeded the amounts of total K applied to the soil in all treatments, which showed a negative K balance. This ranged from 106.3 kg·hm-2·a-1 in CK treatment to 289.6 kg·hm-2·a-1 in the NPK+ RS treatment. Continuous annual application of 199.2 K kg·hm-2 to rice resulted in an accumulation (58 kg·hm-2) of exchangeable K (1 mol NH4OAc extractable K) in 0– 45 cm soil depth over the study period, despite the higher average annual uptake of K by the system (225.7 kg·hm-2). However, nonexchangeable K increased substantially from 1090 kg·hm-2 to 1113 kg·hm-2 and 1140 kg·hm-2 in the 0–45 cm soil layer in NPK+ RS and NPK treatments after 27 years of the continuous double rice cropping system, respectively. Thus, long-term rational application of K fertilizer may increase sustainable K fertility of the continuous double rice cropped system.

Keywords fertilizer      pig manure      rice straw      rice yield      potassium balance      double rice cropping system     
Corresponding Authors: ZHENG Shengxian,   
Issue Date: 05 December 2010
URL:     OR
treatmentchemicalnutrient added/(kg·hm-2)
early ricelate rice
NK+ PMchemical150099.6180099.6
pig manure2730.317.42730.317.4
NP+ RSchemical15038.7018038.70
rice straw21.42.854.621.42.854.6
NPK+ RSchemical15038.799.618038.799.6
rice straw21.42.854.621.42.854.6
Tab.1  Amount of N, P, and K added through fertilizer, pig manure, and rice straw each year
treatment*early ricelate rice
average yield # /(t·hm-2)change trend, slope§ /(kg·hm-2·a-1)t-statP- valueaverage yield /(t·hm-2)change trend, slope /(kg·hm-2·a-1)t-statP- value
NK+ PM5.14d0.0030.1180.9065.34c0.0090.4080.686
NP+ RS5.25c0.0060.3110.7585.36c0.0130.6580.516
NPK+ RS5.82a0.0030.1580.8755.85a0.0090.4710.641
grain yieldgrain yield
Y × T18219.250.000Y × T1828.410.000
Tab.2  Grain yield, yield change trends, -statistic, significance of yield change () over year, and analysis of variation (ANOVA) in long-term fertilizer, pig manure, and rice straw application experiment in Wangcheng, Hunan Province, China
treatment*early ricelate rice
average K, uptake # /(kg·hm-2)change trend, slope§ /(kg·hm-2·a-1)t-statP- valueaverage K, uptake /(kg·hm-2)change trend, slope /(kg·hm-2·a-1)t-satP- value
NK+ PM130.39c-0.262-0.2980.768117.76c1.1852.1630.399
NP+ RS92.19d-1.765-3.1160.00477.09e-1.897-3.9560.001
NPK+ RS147.27a0.3300.5740.571142.28a0.4040.7690.448
K uptakeK uptake
Y × T18243.340.000Y × T18239.670.000
Tab.3  Potassium uptake, change trends, -statistic significance of K uptake change () over year, and analysis of variation (ANOVA) in long-term fertilizer and straw application experiment in Wangcheng, Hunan Province, China
treatment*early ricelate rice
recovery efficiency (range mean)/%agronomic efficiency (range mean) /(kg grain·kg-1 K)recovery efficiency (range mean)/%agronomic efficiency (range mean) /(kg grain·kg-1 K)
NK12–60 29.7d4.7–27.7 1.1d33–68 59.8c-7.4–13.4 3.4d
NPK23–92 74.0a3.5–15.6 7.4b23–92 75.8a6.3–14.3 8.4b
NK+ PM15–84 56.2bc3.0–14 45.7c15–84 65.1b2.7–13.3 6.2c
NP+ RS35–83 55.4c3.8–15.2 11.1a35–83 54.7d5.3–21.8 13.3a
NPK+ RS42–67 58.2b2.8–11.4 7.6b42–67 67.6 b2.8–13.8 7.5b
Tab.4  Potassium use (recovery and agronomic) efficiency of fertilizer K, PM-K, and RS-K applied in double rice cropping system (1981–2007)
treatment*potassium added/(kg·hm-2·a-1)potassium/(kg·hm-2·a-1)
fertilizerpig manurestrawirrigationraintotaluptakerecycledaapparent balance
NK+ PM199.234.8012.24.8251.0248.25.48.2
NP+ RS00109.212.24.8126.2169.34.5-38.6
NPK+ RS199.20109.212.24.8325.4289.66.442.2
Tab.5  Apparent balance of K in double rice cropping system with different nutrient management over the period of 1981–2007 in Wangcheng, Hunan Province, China
form of Ktreatment*
soil depth, 0–15 cm
depletion/build up of NH4OAc-K-11-101655450-28105
nonexchangeable K292272282319311282267281
depletion/build up of non exchangeable K-20-102719-10-25-11
total K2368822600231362279622641228472154122315
depletion/build up of total K-1089-552-892-1047-841-2147-1373
soil depth, 15–30 cm
depletion/build up of NH4OAc-K-25-2893215-2756
nonexchangeable K365352342365364375340371
depletion/build up of non exchangeable K-13-230–110-266
total K2829628122274782829728311285082747828297
depletion/build up of total K-174-818115212-8181
soil depth, 30–45 cm
depletion/build up of NH4OAc-K-4-362128-2621
non–exchangeable K433408392440465442420461
depletion/build up of nonexchangeable K-25-417329-1328
total K3237631929314623239632446325313147032396
depletion/build up of total K-447-9142070155-90620
Tab.6  Distribution of different forms of K (kg·hm soil) in the three soil depths as influenced by the use of fertilizer, pig manure, and straw in different combinations after 27 years (1981–2007) of double rice cropping system
Fig.1  Cumulative K release from non-exchangeable K as influenced by different nutrient management and cropping in the 0–15 cm soil layer after 27 years (1981–2007) of double rice cropping system.
1 Blake L, Mercik S, Koerschens M, Goulding K W T, Stempen S, Weigel A, Poulton P R, Powlson D S (1999). Potassium content in soil, uptake in plants and the potassium balance in three European long-term field experiments. Plant and Soil , 216: 1–14
doi: 10.1023/A:1004730023746
2 Chen F, Lu J W, Wan Y F, Liu D B, Xu Y S (2000). Effect of long-term potassium application on soil potassium content and forms. Acta Pedologica Sinica , 37(2): 233–241 (in Chinese)
3 Cui J Y, Wang J G, Zheng F S (2002). Effect of organic acids on mobilization of K from K-bearing minerals and stochastic simulation of dynamic K release. Acta Pedologica Sinica , 39(3): 341–350 (in Chinese)
4 Fan Q Z, Xie J C (2005). Variation of potassium fertility in soil in the long-term stationary experiment. Acta Pedologica Sinica , 42(4): 591–599 (in Chinese)
5 Flinn J, Dedatta S (1984). Trends in irrigated-rice yield under intensive cropping at Phippine research station. Field Crops Res , 9: 1–15
doi: 10.1016/0378-4290(84)90002-9
6 Ji X H, Zheng S X, Shi L H, Liao Y L (2008). Effect of soil and fertilizer sources on nutrient leaching loss from different paddy soils in Dongting Lake area. Acta Pedologica Sinica , 45(4): 663–671 (in Chinese)
7 Liao Y L, Zheng S X, Huang J Y, Nie J, Xie J, Xiang Y W (2007). Effect of potassium on its efficiency and balance in double rice regions in Hunan Province. Journal of Hunan Agricultural University , 33(6): 754–759 (in Chinese)
8 Liao Y L, Zheng S X, Nie J, Dai P A (2008a). Potassium efficiency and balance of the rice-rice cropping system in different type of ecosystems. Chinese Journal of Soil Science , 39(3): 612–618 (in Chinese)
9 Liao Y L, Zheng S X, Huang J Y, Nie J, Xie J, Xiang Y W (2008b). Effect of application of K fertilizer on potassium efficiency and soil K status in deficit K of paddy soil. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin , 24(2): 255–260 (in Chinese)
10 Liao Y L, Zheng S X, Lu Y H, Xie J, Nie J, Xiang Y W (2009a). Effects of long-term K fertilization on rice yield and soil K Status in reddish paddy soil. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science , 15(6): 1372–1379 (in Chinese)
11 Liao Y L, Zheng S X, Nie J, Lu Y H, Xie J, Yang Z P (2009b). Effects of long-term application of fertilizer and rice straw on soil fertility and sustainability of a reddish paddy soil productivity. Scientia Agricultura Sinica , 42(10): 3541–3550 (in Chinese)
12 Lu Y K (2000). Analysis Methods of Soil Agricultural Chemistry. Beijing: Chinese Agricultural Science Technology Press (in Chinese)
13 Luo C X, Zheng S X (1988). Nutrient requirement and fertilizer management in hybrid Rice. Hybrid rice, IRRI, Philippins
14 Martin H W, Sparks D L (1983). Kinetics of non-exchangeable potassium release from two coastal plain soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J , 47: 883–887
doi: 10.2136/sssaj1983.03615995004700050008x
15 Poonia S R, Mehta S C, Pal R (1986). Exchange equilibrium of potassium in soils. 1. Effect of farmyard manure on K and Ca exchange. Soil Sci , 141(1): 77–83
doi: 10.1097/00010694-198601000-00012
16 Ranjan B, Ved S, Kundu B N, Ghosh A K, Srivastva H S (2006). Potaassium balance as influenced by farmard mamure application under continuous soybean-wheat cropping system in a Typic Haplaquept. Geoderma , 9: 112–125
17 Saleque M A, Abedin M J, Bhuiyan N I, Zaman S K, Panaullah G M (2004). Long - term effects of inorganic and organic fertilizer sources on yield and nutrient accumulation of lowland rice. Field Crops Res , 86(1): 53–65
doi: 10.1016/S0378-4290(03)00119-9
18 Shen J, Li R, Zheng F, Fan J, Tang C, Rensel Z (2004). Crop yield, soil fertility and phosphorus fractions in response to long-term fertilization under the rice monoculture system on a calcreous soil. Field Crops Res , 86(2–3): 225–238
doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2003.08.013
19 Shi J W, Bao S D, Shi R H (1994). Release of soil interlayer potassium under depletion condition and soil potassium fixation after depletion. Acta Pedologica Sinica , 31(1): 42–49 (in Chinese)
20 Singh B, Goulding K W T (1997). Changes of with time in potassium content and phyllosillicates in the soil of the Broadbalk Continuous Wheat Experiment at Rothamsted. Eur J Soil Sci , 48(4): 651–659
doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2389.1997.00115.x
21 Singh M, Singh V P, Raddy D D (2002). Potassium balance and release kinetics under continuous rice-wheat cropping system in Vertisol. Field Crops Res , 77(2–3): 81–91
doi: 10.1016/S0378-4290(01)00206-4
22 Subba R A, Bhonsle N S, Singh M, Mishra M K (1993). Optimum and high rate of fertilizer and farmyard manure application on wheat and sorghum (fodder) yields and dynamics of potassium in a alluvial soil. Journal of Potassium Research , 9: 22–30
23 Xie J C, Du C L (1988). Studies on availability of potassium in soil and its evaluating methods. Acta Pedologica Sinica , 25(3): 269–280 (in Chinese)
24 Yadav R L, Yadav D S, Singh R M, Kumar A (1998). Long- term effects of inorganic fertilizer inputs on crop productivity in a rice-wheat cropping system. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst , 51(3): 193–200
doi: 10.1023/A:1009744719420
25 Yuan L P, Virnani S S (1988). Status of hybrid rice research and development. Hybrid Rice, IRRI, Philippines (in Chinese)
26 Zhang X F, Wang D Y, Fu G F, Li H (2006). Research progress and developing strategy in paddy-soil conservation tillage in the south of China. Chinese Journal of Soil Science , 37: 246–351 (in Chinese)
27 Zheng S X, Luo C X (1989). Potassium-supplying power of representative double rice cropping field of soutern China. In: Study on Chemical Fertilizer Use in China . Beijing: Beijing Science and Technology Press (in Chinese)
28 Zheng S X, Xiao Q Y (1992). Nutritional characteristics and fertilizing technique in high-yielding hybrid rice. In: Proceeding of the third international symposium on maximum yield research , Beijing: China Agricultural Scientech Press (in Chinese)
29 Zheng S X, Luo C X, Dai P A (1989). Potassium supplying capacity of main paddy soil in Hunan province. Scientia Agricultural Sinica , 22(1): 75–82 (in Chinese)
[1] Jian XIE, Xue WU, Jianjun TANG, Jiaen ZHANG, Xin CHEN. Chemical fertilizer reduction and soil fertility maintenance in rice–fish coculture system[J]. Front Agric Chin, 2010, 4(4): 422-429.
[2] Arnab BANERJEE, Jayanta Kumar DATTA, Naba Kumar MONDAL, . Impact of different combined doses of fertilizers with plant growth regulators on growth, yield attributes and yield of mustard ( Brassica campestris cv. B 9 ) under old alluvial soil of Burdwan, West Bengal, India[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2010, 4(3): 341-351.
[3] Yulin LIAO*, Xiangmin RONG*, Qiang LIU*, Meirong FAN, Jianwei PENG, Guixian XIE, Yulin LIAO, Shengxian ZHENG*, Meirong FAN*. Influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on radish yield, nutrition quality, and nitrogen recovery efficiency[J]. Front Agric Chin, 2009, 3(2): 122-129.
[4] LIAO Wenhua, LIU Jianling, Wang Xinjun, JIA Ke, MENG Na. Effects of phosphate fertilizer and manure on Chinese cabbage yield and soil phosphorus accumulation[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2008, 2(3): 301-306.
[5] SHI Yu, YU Zhenwen. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer rates and ratios of base and topdressing on wheat yield, soil nitrate content and nitrogen balance[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2008, 2(2): 181-189.
[6] YI Zhenxie, WANG Pu, TAO Hongbin, ZHANG Hongfang, SHEN Lixia. Effects of types and application rates of nitrogen fertilizer on the development and nitrogen utilization of summer maize[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2008, 2(1): 44-49.
[7] SHI Yu, YU Zhenwen, WANG Dong, LI Yanqi, WANG Xue. Effects of nitrogen rate and ratio of base fertilizer and topdressing on uptake, translocation of nitrogen and yield in wheat[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2007, 1(2): 142-148.
[8] Quanbao YE,Hongcheng ZHANG,Haiyan WEI,Ying ZHANG,Benfu WANG,Ke XIA,Zhongyang HUO,Qigen DAI,Ke XU. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on nitrogen use efficiency and yield of rice under different soil conditions[J]. Front. Agric. China, 2007, 1(1): 30-36.
Full text