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Frontiers of Agriculture in China

ISSN 1673-7334

ISSN 1673-744X(Online)

CN 11-5729/S

Front Agric Chin    2011, Vol. 5 Issue (3) : 393-399     DOI: 10.1007/s11703-011-1108-0
Investigation on pistachio distribution in the mountain regions of northeast Iran by ALOS
Hadi FADAEI(), Tetsuro SAKAI, Kiyoshi TORII
Department of Social Informatics, Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
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Iran supports five different vegetation zones. One of those is the Irano-Touranian zone that is located in the northeast of Iran. This vegetation zone includes arid and semi-arid lands, and its area is about 3.5 million hm2. It supports growth of pistachio (Pistacia vera), a deciduous-broadleaved species, which is one of the ecologically and economically most important native species. In this study, we analyzed three images acquired by ALOS satellite, including 10 m resolution multispectral band (AVNIR-2), 2.5 m resolution “Backward” PRISM image, and 2.5 m resolution “Nadir” PRISM image, based on a provided rational polynomial coefficient (RPC). Using the “Backward” and “Nadir” images, a 2.5 m resolution digital elevation model (DEM) was produced. Four methods with AVNIR-2 and PRISM data were used to produce pan-sharpening images and conduct an object-based feature extraction process. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to determine the maximum distribution of pistachio in related elevation. The accuracy of the DEM was tested on 28 ground control points in the pair image as tie points, with the value of parallax error of 0.9027 m. The created elevation map indicated that pistachio trees grow up at 650 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The result from NDVI in the related elevation showed the maximum density of pistachio at 800 m a.s.l. In addition, the result of feature extraction in the forest showed the area of each target element calculated. The results of this research will improve decision-making and lead to sustainable management in general.

Keywords Irano-Touranian      pistachio      ALOS      digital elevation model (DEM) and NDVI     
Corresponding Authors: FADAEI Hadi,   
Issue Date: 05 September 2011
URL:     OR
Fig.1  Location of Khajeh-Kalatpistachio forest.
Fig.2  ALOS images of the study area.
DataAcquired dateSummary
AVNIR-22007/07/0341 N UTM zone, 0-2% cloud coverage, good quality
PRISMBackward2008/06/0641 N UTM zone, 0-2% cloud coverage, good quality
Nadir2008/06/0641 N UTM zone, 0-2% cloud coverage, good quality
Rational polynomial coefficient (RPC)2010/08/1841 N UTM zone, 500control points, JAXA-EORC Producer
Tab.1  AVNIR-2 and PRISM data
Fig.3  Workflow of DEM extraction.
Fig.4  Workflow of features extraction.
ClassesArea (hm2)Percentage of total area
500-600 m1130.2015.05
600-700 m1323.2717.63
700-800 m1845.0424.58
800-900 m2727.1336.3
900-1000 m389.945.19
1000-1100 m89.501.19
Tab.2  Landscape of elevation classes on based of specific high-resolution DEM
Fig.5  Different of pan-sharpening image.
Fig.6  Feature extraction map.
ClassesArea (hm2)Length (km)
Pistachio forest3204
Access road116.78
Tab.3  Land-cover areas per classes in the study area
Fig.7  NDVI map.
Fig.8  The relationship between NDVI and elevation (a.s.l.).
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