Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

ISSN 2095-2201

ISSN 2095-221X(Online)

CN 10-1013/X

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Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 1-1.

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Challenge of global climate change: Prospects for a new energy paradigm
Michael B. MCELROY
Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 2-11.

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Perspectives on the challenge posed by potential future climate change are presented including a discussion of prospects for carbon capture followed either by sequestration or reuse including opportunities for alternatives to the use of oil in the transportation sector. The potential for wind energy as an alternative to fossil fuel energy as a source of electricity is outlined including the related opportunities for cost effective curtailment of future growth in emissions of CO2.
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Review on the applications of Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer to air-quality research: Perspectives for China
Yuxuan WANG, Yuqiang ZHANG, Jiming HAO,
Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 12-19.

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The Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Aura satellite launched in July 2004 is the first satellite instrument to provide simultaneous retrievals of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) throughout the Earth’s lower atmosphere. This paper briefly reviews the TES instrument, the retrieval of O3 and CO profiles, and the validation of the retrievals. The applications of TES O3 and CO products include mapping the vertical and horizontal distribution of tropospheric O3 and CO and their correlations, examining the regional and continental outflow, and analyzing the variability of the two species associated with certain weather and climatic conditions, such as El Niño and the Asian monsoon. TES retrievals of O3 and CO offer an important new source of satellite data over China with good spatial and temporal coverage that can provide evaluation and constraints on the performance of chemical transport models in simulating the general features of ozone pollution over China. Special observations have been conducted and requests may be submitted to the TES team to make geographically focused observations of O3 and CO over China.
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Intercontinental transport of air pollution
Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 20-29.

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There is an increasing interest on the intercontinental transport of air pollution among the three main emission regions at northern mid-latitudes: North America, Europe, and East Asia. Air pollutants with sufficient long lifetime can be transported from one continent to another. Observations from ground sites, aircraft and satellites have demonstrated this intercontinental-scale transport of air pollutants in the free troposphere. Numerical models have been applied to understand the pathways of the transport and the impact of intercontinental pollution transport. This paper reviews current observational evidence and modeling studies of intercontinental transport of ozone and its precursors, and the resulting impacts on air quality.
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A comparative study of particle size distribution from two oxygenated fuels and diesel fuel
Xiaoyan SHI, Kebin HE, Jie ZHANG, Yongliang MA, Yunshan GE, Jianwei TAN,
Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 30-34.

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Oxygenated fuels are known to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines. In this study, 100% soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel fuel (B100) and a blend of 10% acetal denoted by A-diesel with diesel fuel were tested as oxygenated fuels. Particle size and number distributions from a diesel engine fueled with oxygenated fuels and base diesel fuel were measured using an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). Measurements were made at ten steady-state operational modes of various loads at two engine speeds. It was found that the geometric mean diameters of particles from SME and A-diesel were lower than that from base diesel fuel. Compared to diesel fuel, SME emitted more ultra-fine particles at rated speed while emitting less ultra-fine particles at maximum speed. Ultra-fine particle number concentrations of A-diesel were much higher than those of base diesel fuel at most test modes.
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Particulate matter and metals partitioning in highway rainfall-runoff
Gaoxiang YING, John J. SANSALONE,
Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 35-46.

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This study investigated the particulate matter (PM) and metals in highway dry deposition and rainfall-runoff as a function of hydrologic transport and settling on an event basis. Events were differentiated as mass-limited (ML) and flow-limited (FL). Results indicate that unique and separate suspended sediment concentration (SSC) relationships with turbidity occurred for ML and FL events. Sixty minutes of quiescent settling produced a single SSC-turbidity relationship for all events. ML events transport higher proportions of settleable and sediment PM while FL events transported relatively higher suspended PM. For batch clarification with one hour of settling, ML events had generally higher treatment efficiencies compared to FL events for the same settling conditions. Highway dry deposition PM was hetero-disperse and coarse (d50m = 304 µm). Results indicate that the acidic rainfall is not a significant contributor to metals in runoff but is capable of leaching metals from dry deposition PM into runoff. Partitioning in retained runoff resulted in a particulate-bound €predominance €for €most €metals €except Ca and Mg. While the finer fraction of dry deposition PM (<75µm) generates the highest metal concentrations, the highest metal mass is associated with the coarser fraction (>75µm).
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Unified methodology for site-characterization and sampling of highway runoff
Jy S. WU, Craig J. ALLAN,
Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 47-58.

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Hydrology, roadway traffic conditions, and atmospheric deposition are three essential data categories for the planning and implementation of highway-runoff monitoring and characterization programs. Causal variables pertaining to each data category could be site specific but have been shown to correlate with runoff pollutant loads. These data categories were combined to derive statistical relationships for characterization and prioritization of the respective pollutant loads at highway runoff sites. Storm runoff data of total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solid (TDS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphorus (TP) collected from three highway sites in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, were used to illustrate the development of site-specific highway-runoff pollutant loading models. This unified methodology provides a basis for initial assessment of the pollutant-constituent loads from highway runoff using hydrologic component variables. Improved reliability is achievable when additional traffic and/or atmospheric component variables are incorporated into the basic hydrologic regression model. In addition, operational guidance is suggested for implementing highway-runoff monitoring programs that are subject to sampling and resources constraints.
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Pyrolysis behaviors of oil sludge based on TG/FTIR and PY-GC/MS
Wei SONG, Jianguo LIU, Yongfeng NIE,
Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 59-64.

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Pyrolysis is an alternative technology for oil sludge treatment. Thermogravimetric Analysis-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry were employed to investigate the pyrolysis process and products of oil sludge. The pyrolysis process was divided into five stages: drying and gas desorption, oil volatilization, main pyrolysis, semi-coke charring, and mineral decomposition. The main reaction temperatures ranged from 497.6 K to 753.2 K. The products were mainly composed of pairs of alkane and alkene (carbon number ranges from 1 to 27). The mechanisms consisted of random chain scission followed by end chain scission at high temperatures with volatilization occurring during the whole process. This study is useful not only for the proper design of a pyrolysis system, but also for improving the utilization of liquid oil products.
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Modeling and verifying chlorine decay and chloroacetic acid formation in drinking water chlorination
Wenjun LIU, Shaoying QI,
Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 65-72.

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This study presents a phenomenological model that can be used by the water professionals to quantify chlorine decay and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in water. The kinetic model was developed by introducing the concept of limiting chlorine demand and extending an established reactive species approach. The limiting chlorine demand, which quantifies chlorine reactive natural organic matter (NOM) on an equivalent basis, was mathematically defined by the relation between ultimate chlorine residue and initial chlorine dose. It was found experimentally that NOM in water has limiting chlorine demand that increases with chlorine dose once the ultimate residue is established. These results indicated that the complex NOM has a unique ability to adjust chemically to the change in redox condition caused by the free chlorine. It is attributed mainly to the redundant functional groups that persist in heterogeneous NOM molecules. The results also demonstrated that the effect of chlorine dose on the rate of chlorine decay can be quantitatively interpreted with the limiting chlorine demand. The kinetic model developed was validated for chlorine decay and chloroacetic acid formation in finished drinking water.
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Perception of people for the risk of Tianwan nuclear power plant
Lei HUANG, Jun BI, Bing ZHANG, Fengying LI, Changsheng QU,
Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 73-81.

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A questionnaire survey of residents’ risk perceptions related to Taiwan nuclear power plant in China was carried out to explore the determining factors that affect individual risk perception. This study proposed to pursue a more comprehensive understanding of factors that affected individual risk perception to nuclear power plants. Covariance structure analysis was conducted using risk perceptions of nuclear power as dependent variable and including interest and knowledge levels of nuclear power, acceptability, benefit perception, trust in nuclear power operation, and trust in government as independent variables. The use of the hypothesis of Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) was also proposed. The results showed that persons with higher levels of interest and knowledge of nuclear power had their own perceptions of risk closely associated with acceptability and potential benefits of nuclear power. In contrast, persons with no interest in and knowledge of nuclear power would have risk perceptions related to their trust in nuclear operation and the government, which partially supported the ELM hypothesis. All these results indicated that the government in China plays an important role in rational risk perceptions, and well-designed communication of risks will help the public to be involved in risk management and improve people’s rational acceptance of risk.
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Hierarchical methodological framework to improve Policy Environmental Assessment: Based on policy layer research
Yinglie ZHOU, Cunkuan BAO,
Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 82-90.

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This study explores the current implementation challenges of the Policy Environmental Assessment (PEA), including the implementation of a far richer, more diverse (at macro level), and better understanding of PEA and integration with decision making. The results contribute to the analysis of PEA through different hierarchies of assessment. Stemming from the theory and practice of policy, a concept of PEA hierarchies is proposed including the uppermost PEA, upper-lower PEA, and lowermost PEA. Afterward, the differences of the three hierarchies are interpreted, in terms of aims, principles, processes, and methods. The evaluation of the policy environmental impacts from different lens helps solve the complexities of policies and identify opportunities for improvement of PEA.
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Modeling and simulation of industrial water demand of Beijing municipality in China
Shouke WEI, Shafi Noor ISLAM, Alin LEI,
Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 91-101.

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Statistic and econometric regression models were established in this study to analyze and predict industrial water demand, water deficits, and their future uncertainty in Beijing—a Chinese city with a severe water stress problem. A forecasting model was selected based on a modeling evaluation by comparing predictions with observations. Four scenarios were designed to simulate and analyze the future uncertainty of industrial water demand and the water deficit of Beijing. The modeling results for industrial water demand suggested that Beijing industry would face a water deficit between 3.06 × 108 m3 in 2008 and 2.77 × 108 m3 in 2015, though its industrial water demand would decrease from 6.31× 108 m3 to 4.84 × 108 m3 during this period of time. Results from simulated scenario illustrated that, due to the extreme water scarcity situation, industry in Beijing would still face a serious water deficit problem even with a very optimistic scenario for the future.
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Possible solutions for sludge dewatering in China
Wei WANG, Yuxiang LUO, Wei QIAO,
Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 102-107.

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In China, over 1.43×107 tons of dewatered sewage sludge, with 80% water content, were generated from wastewater treatment plants in 2007. About 60% of the COD removed during the wastewater treatment process becomes concentrated as sludge. Traditional disposal methods used by municipal solid waste treatment facilities, such as landfills, composting, or incineration, are unsuitable for sludge disposal because of its high water content. Disposal of sludge has therefore become a major focus of current environmental protection policies. The present status of sludge treatment and disposal methodology is introduced in this paper. Decreasing the energy consumption of sludge dewatering from 80% to 50% has been a key issue for safe and economic sludge disposal. In an analysis of sludge water distribution, thermal drying and hydrothermal conditioning processes are compared. Although thermal drying could result in an almost dry sludge, the energy consumption needed for this process is extremely high. In comparison, hydrothermal technology could achieve dewatered sewage sludge with a 50%–60% water content, which is suitable for composting, incineration, or landfill. The energy consumption of hydrothermal technology is lower than that required for thermal drying.
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Hydrothermal treatment of MSWI fly ash for simultaneous dioxins decomposition and heavy metal stabilization
Jinlong XIE, Yuyan HU, Dezhen CHEN, Bin ZHOU,
Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 108-115.

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Researches on the hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash were conducted to eliminate dioxins and stabilize heavy metals. In order to enhance decomposing polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) during hydrothermal process, a strong reductant carbohydrazide (CHZ) is introduced. A hydrothermal reactor was set up by mixing raw MSWI fly ash or the pre-treated fly ash with water and then heated to a pre-set temperature; CHZ was spiked into solution according to specially defined dosage. Experimental results showed that under the temperatures of 518K and 533K, the decomposition rates of PCDDs/PCDFs were over 80% and 90%, respectively, by total concentration. However, their toxic equivalent (TEQ) decreased only slightly or even increased due to the rising in concentration of congeners 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD/TCDF, which might be resulted from the highly chlorinated congeners losing their chlorine atoms and being degraded during the hydrothermal process. Better results of TEQ reduction were also obtained under the higher tested temperature of 533K and reactor with addition of 0.1%wt CHZ was corresponded to the best results. Good stabilization of heavy metals was also obtained in the same hydrothermal process especially when ferrous sulphate was added as auxiliary agent.
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Brown marine algae turbinaria conoides as biosorbent for Malachite green removal: Equilibrium and kinetic modeling
Front.Environ.Sci.Eng.. 2010, 4 (1): 116-122.

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In this study, the biosorption of Malachite green (MG) onto Turbinaria conoides, brown marine algae, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration, and sorbent dosage. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for MG removal were found to be 8.0 and 30°C, respectively. Sorbent dosage was found to strongly influence the removal of MG. Equilibrium studies were carried out to test the validity of the Langmuir (qmax = 66.6 mg/g and b = 0.526 mL mol/L) and the Freundlich (n = 1.826 and K = 3.751 mg/g) isotherms. The kinetic studies indicated the validity of the pseudo first-order and second-order equation.
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15 articles