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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

ISSN 2095-2201

ISSN 2095-221X(Online)

CN 10-1013/X

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2018 Impact Factor: 3.883

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2018, Vol. 12 Issue (1) : 3    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-017-0972-0
REVIEW ARTICLE |
Catalytic reduction for water treatment
Maocong Hu1, Yin Liu2, Zhenhua Yao1, Liping Ma3, Xianqin Wang1()
1. Department of Chemical, Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
2. Primus Green Energy, Hillsborough, NJ 08844, USA
3. Oil & Gas Technology Research Institute of Changqing Oilfield Company, Xi’an 710018, China
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Abstract

• Catalytic reduction technology for water treatment was reviewed.

• Hydrodehalogenation for wastewater treatment was covered.

• Hydrogenation of nitrate for groundwater remediation was introduced.

• Combination of water splitting with catalytic reduction was illustrated.

Treating water contaminants via heterogeneously catalyzed reduction reaction is a subject of growing interest due to its good activity and superior selectivity compared to conventional technology, yielding products that are non-toxic or substantially less toxic. This article reviews the application of catalytic reduction as a progressive approach to treat different types of contaminants in water, which covers hydrodehalogenation for wastewater treatment and hydrogenation of nitrate/nitrite for groundwater remediation. For hydrodehalogenation, an overview of the existing treatment technologies is provided with an assessment of the advantages of catalytic reduction over the conventional methodologies. Catalyst design for feasible catalytic reactions is considered with a critical analysis of the pertinent literature. For hydrogenation, hydrogenation of nitrate/nitrite contaminants in water is mainly focused. Several important nitrate reduction catalysts are discussed relating to their preparation method and catalytic performance. In addition, novel approach of catalytic reduction using in situ synthesized H2 evolved from water splitting reaction is illustrated. Finally, the challenges and perspective for the extensive application of catalytic reduction technology in water treatment are discussed. This review provides key information to our community to apply catalytic reduction approach for water treatment.

Keywords Halogenated compounds      Nitrate/nitrite contaminants      Hydrodechloriantion      Hydrogenation      Wastewater treatment      Groundwater remediation     
Corresponding Authors: Xianqin Wang   
Issue Date: 27 June 2017
 Cite this article:   
Maocong Hu,Yin Liu,Zhenhua Yao, et al. Catalytic reduction for water treatment[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2018, 12(1): 3.
 URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-017-0972-0
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2018/V12/I1/3
Fig.1  Illustration of the coverage of this review
Fig.2  General reaction mechanism for hydrodehalogenation (chlorinated compounds as example): (a) Chlorinated compounds adsorption; (b) H2 dissociative adsorption; (c) Catalytic reaction on the surface
target compound a)catalyst a)condition b)removal efficiencymain products/activityRef.
TCEPd/CNF80℃~100%105 L·mol-1 Pd·min[30]
MCPAPd-Pt/ACRT60%NA[31]
4-CPPd/resinRT91.8%1608 mmol·gPd-1·h-1[32]
BromatePd/ CNF/SMFRT~45%NA[33]
TCE/MCBPd/ MagnetiteRT≥90%22500/3700 L·g-1·min-1[34]
2,5-DBAPd2+/FHCRT100%Aniline/0.0412 min-1[35]
TBBPAPd/NGRT100%0.166 mmol·L-1·min-1[36]
2,4-DCPPd-Fe/SiO2RT97%Phenol[37]
p-CPB/Fe/PdRT98.7%Phenol[38]
TCEPd-Fe/BNPsRTNA c)NA c)[39]
1,2,3,4-TCDDAg/FeRT>90%0.0421 L·h-1·m-2[40]
4-CPNi-FeRT100%0.00214 L·min-1·m-2[41]
MCANi-Fe45℃>88%2.18 L·g-1·h-1[17]
Tab.1  Summary of catalytic hydrodehalogenation for wastewater treatment
Fig.3  Catalytic removal of bromates in wastewater over Pd supported CNF/SMF [33]
Fig.4  Deactivation mechanisms of Pd-Fe bimetallic nanoparticles in different media [39]: (a) Mechanism of TCE HDC over fresh Pd-Fe catalyst; (b) Four deactivation modes of Pd-Fe catalyst
Fig.5  PdAg alloy nanoparticles supported on amine-functionalized SiO2 for catalytic reduction of nitrate in water [73]
Fig.6  Illustration of sequential transport of H2 in a three-phase catalytic reaction
Fig.7  Comparison of multifunctional catalyst approach (left) with mixture-of-catalysts method (right) for catalytic reduction (white: photocatalyst, blue: NiO nanoparticles, dark gray: metal catalyst, light gray: hydrogenation catalyst support) [96]
TCEtrichloroethylene
CNFcarbon nanofibers
Ptplatinum
4-CP4-chlorophenol
MCBmonochlorobenzene
FHCferrous hydroxy complex
NGnitrogen doped graphene
Feiron
Bbentonite
Agsilver
Ninickle
Pdpalladium
MCPA4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid
ACactivated carbon
SMFsintered metal fibers
2,5-DBA2,5-dibromoaniline
TBBPAtetrabromobisphenol A
2,4-DCP2,4-dichlorophenol
p-CPp-chlorophenol
BNPsbimetallic nanoparticles
1,2,3,4-TCDD1,2,3,4-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin
MCAmonochloroacetic acid
  
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