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Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

Front. Med.    2018, Vol. 12 Issue (6) : 688-696    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-018-0662-8
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Xiao Ke Qing improves glycometabolism and ameliorates insulin resistance by regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway in KKAy mice
Xiaoqing Li, Xinxin Li(), Genbei Wang, Yan Xu, Yuanyuan Wang, Ruijia Hao, Xiaohui Ma
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tasly Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tianjin 300410, China
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Abstract

Xiao Ke Qing (XKQ) granule has been clinically used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for 10 years in Chinese traditional medication. However, its mechanisms against hyperglycemia remain poorly understood. This study aims to investigate XKQ mechanisms on diabetes and diabetic liver disease by using the KKAy mice model. Our results indicate that XKQ can significantly reduce food and water intake. XKQ treatment also remarkably decreases both the fasting blood glucose and blood glucose in the oral glucose tolerance test. Additionally, XKQ can significantly decrease the serum alanine aminotransferase level and liver index and can alleviate the fat degeneration in liver tissues. Moreover, XKQ can ameliorate insulin resistance and upregulate the expression of IRS-1, PI3K (p85), p-Akt, and GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle of KKAy mice. XKQ is an effective drug for T2DM by ameliorating insulin resistance and regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the skeletal muscle.

Keywords XKQ      type 2 diabetes mellitus      KKAy mice      PI3K/Akt pathway      diabetic liver disease     
Corresponding Authors: Xinxin Li   
Just Accepted Date: 24 October 2018   Online First Date: 13 November 2018    Issue Date: 03 December 2018
 Cite this article:   
Xiaoqing Li,Xinxin Li,Genbei Wang, et al. Xiao Ke Qing improves glycometabolism and ameliorates insulin resistance by regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway in KKAy mice[J]. Front. Med., 2018, 12(6): 688-696.
 URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/10.1007/s11684-018-0662-8
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/Y2018/V12/I6/688
Fig.1  Effect on the BWs and food and water intake levels of the diabetic model mice. (A) BW of mice during treatment in each group; (B) Daily food intake levels of the mice during treatment in each group; (C) Daily water intake levels of the mice during treatment in each group. The data are expressed as mean±SD (n=10). ## P<0.01 vs. control group. *P<0.05 vs. model group.
Fig.2  Effect on the FBG of the diabetic model mice. Data are expressed as mean±SD (n=10). *P<0.05 vs. model group.
Fig.3  Effect on the OGTT of the diabetic model mice. (A) Results of OGTT in each group in the 8th week; (B) AUC of the OGTT for the groups in the 8th week. Data are expressed as mean±SD (n=10). ## P<0.01 vs. control group. *P<0.05, **P<0.01 vs. model group.
Fig.4  Changes in the IR for each group. (A–C) represents the level of serum FIN, FBG, and HOMA–IR index for each group. The data are expressed as mean±SD (n=10). ## P<0.01 vs. control group. *P<0.05, **P<0.01 vs. model group.
Fig.5  Effect on the serum AST &ALT of the diabetic model mice (A) and liver index (B). Data are expressed as mean±SD (n=10). ## P<0.01 vs. control group. *P<0.05 vs. model group.
Fig.6  Pathological observation of the liver tissues of diabetic model mice. H&E staining of the liver (original magnification 100×). White arrows: normal liver cells. Black arrows: steatotic vacuole. n=6.
Fig.7  Effect on the expression of the PI3K/Akt pathway-related proteins in the skeletal muscle. (A) Representative image of Western blot; M, model; Con, control; X-L, XKQ low; X-M, XKQ medium; X-H, XKQ high. (B−E) Protein expression levels of IRS-1, PI3K, p-Akt, and GLUT4. Data are expressed as mean±SD (n=3). ## P<0.01 vs. control group. *P<0.05, **P<0.01 vs. model group.
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