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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

ISSN 2095-2201

ISSN 2095-221X(Online)

CN 10-1013/X

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2018 Impact Factor: 3.883

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (6) : 87    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-019-1171-y
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Rapid control of black and odorous substances from heavily-polluted sediment by oxidation: Efficiency and effects
Kun Li1,2, Min Yang1,2, Jianfeng Peng3, Ruiping Liu1,2, Tista Prasai Joshi4, Yaohui Bai1,2(), Huijuan Liu3
1. Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
3. Center for Water and Ecology, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
4. Nepal Academy of Science and Technology, Khumaltar, Lalitpur 44700, Nepal
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Abstract

Oxidants were proposed to rapidly control black and odorous substances in sediments.

NaClO and KMnO4 had excellent efficiency to remove black and odorous substances.

NaClO dramatically accelerated the release of organics, NH4+-N, P, and heavy-metals.

Moderate oxidation had a limited effect on microbial communities.

NaClO of 0.2 mmol/g was viewed to be the optimum option.

The control of black and odorous substances in sediments is of crucial importance to improve the urban ecological landscape and to restore water environments accordingly. In this study, chemical oxidation by the oxidants NaClO, H2O2, and KMnO4 was proposed to achieve rapid control of black and odorous substances in heavily-polluted sediments. Results indicate that NaClO and KMnO4 are effective at removing Fe(II) and acid volatile sulfides. The removal efficiencies of Fe(II) and AVS were determined to be 45.2%, 94.1%, and 93.7%, 89.5% after 24-h exposure to NaClO and KMnO4 at 0.2 mmol/g, respectively. Additionally, rapid oxidation might accelerate the release of pollutants from sediment. The release of organic matters and phosphorus with the maximum ratios of 22.1% and 51.2% was observed upon NaClO oxidation at 0.4 mmol/g. Moreover, the introduction of oxidants contributed to changes in the microbial community composition in sediment. After oxidation by NaClO and KMnO4 at 0.4 mmol/g, the Shannon index decreased from 6.72 to 5.19 and 4.95, whereas the OTU numbers decreased from 2904 to 1677 and 1553, respectively. Comparatively, H2O2 showed a lower effect on the removal of black and odorous substances, pollutant release, and changes in sediment microorganisms. This study illustrates the effects of oxidant addition on the characteristics of heavily polluted sediments and shows that chemical oxidants may be an option to achieve rapid control of black and odorous substances prior to remediation of water environments.

Keywords Oxidants      Heavily polluted sediment      Black and odorous substances      Release behaviors      Microorganism     
Corresponding Authors: Yaohui Bai   
Issue Date: 26 November 2019
 Cite this article:   
Kun Li,Min Yang,Jianfeng Peng, et al. Rapid control of black and odorous substances from heavily-polluted sediment by oxidation: Efficiency and effects[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2019, 13(6): 87.
 URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-019-1171-y
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2019/V13/I6/87
Parameters Mean±standard deviation (n = 3)
Water (%) 54.16±0.50
pH 7.44±0.06
Organic matters (mg/g) 77.50±6.90
Total phosphorus (mg/g) 1.29±0.03
Total nitrogen (mg/g) 2.50±0.15
AVS (mg/g) 0.56±0.03
Fe (mg/g) 29.15±0.21
Mn (mg/g) 0.37±0.01
Cu (mg/kg) 43.26±2.31
Zn (mg/kg) 31.68±0.28
Ni (mg/kg) 33.54±0.20
Cr (mg/kg) 211.09±0.04
Pb (mg/kg) 27.91±0.77
Tab.1  The main characteristics of the sediment
Fig.1  The content of various B&O substance after exposure to the different oxidants NaClO, H2O2, and KMnO4. (a) the content of Fe(II); (b) the content of Mn(II) and Mn(IV); (c) the content of various reduced sulfur species; and (d) the content of DMDS and DMTs. Error bars indicate standard deviation (n = 3).
Fig.2  The amount and composition of organic matters released from sediments under different doses of NaClO, H2O2, and KMnO4. Error bars indicate standard deviation (n = 3).
Fig.3  The leaching rate of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb under different doses of (a) NaClO, (b) H2O2, (c) KMnO4. Error bars indicate standard deviation (n = 3).
Fig.4  The amount of NH4+-N released from sediment for different doses of NaClO, H2O2, and KMnO4. Error bars indicate standard deviation (n = 3).
Fig.5  The fractional distributions of phosphorus in sediment for different doses of NaClO, H2O2, and KMnO4. Error bars indicate standard deviation (n = 3).
Fig.6  Microorganisms in sediment for different doses of NaClO, H2O2, and KMnO4. (a) The rarefaction curves of microorganisms. (b) Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) of pairwise normalized, weighted UniFrac distances between the samples of all OTUs. (c) Microbial community composition under different oxidants and dosages.
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