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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

ISSN 2095-2201

ISSN 2095-221X(Online)

CN 10-1013/X

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2018 Impact Factor: 3.883

Front Envir Sci Eng    2013, Vol. 7 Issue (2) : 281-293    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-013-0484-5
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Bioleaching of copper from pre and post thermally activated low grade chalcopyrite contained ball mill spillage
Sandeep PANDA1,2(), Nilotpala PRADHAN1, Umaballav MOHAPATRA2, Sandeep K. PANDA3, Swagat S. RATH1, Danda S. RAO1, Bansi D. NAYAK1, Lala B. SUKLA1, Barada K. MISHRA1
1. CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013, India; 2. Department of Botany, North Orissa University, Baripada 757003, India; 3. Regional Center of Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Bhubaneswar 751019, India
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Abstract

Bioleaching of a low grade chalcopyrite (ball mill spillage material) was tested for copper recovery in shake flasks. The original samples (as received) were thermally activated (600°C, 30 min) to notice the change in physico-chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the host rock and subsequently its effect on copper recovery. A mixed culture of acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacterial consortium predominantly entailing Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain was used for bioleaching studies and optimization of process parameters of both original and thermally activated samples. Mineralogical characterization studies indicated the presence of chalcopyrite, pyrite in the silicate matrix of the granitic rock. Field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with Energy dispersive spectroscopy (FESEM-EDS) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis indicated mostly SiO2. With pH 2, pulp density 10% w/v, inoculum 10% v/v, temperature 30°C, 150 r·min-1, 49% copper could be recovered in 30 days from the finest particle size (-1+ 0.75 mm) of the original spillage sample. Under similar conditions 95% copper could be recovered from the thermally activated sample with the same size fraction in 10 days. The study revealed that thermal activation leads to volume expansion in the rock with the development of cracks, micro and macro pores on its surface, thereby enabling bacterial solution to penetrate more easily into the body, facilitating enhanced copper dissolution.

Keywords ball mill spillage      thermal activation      bioleaching      copper     
Corresponding Authors: PANDA Sandeep,Email:panda.sandeep84@gmail.com   
Issue Date: 01 April 2013
 Cite this article:   
Sandeep PANDA,Nilotpala PRADHAN,Umaballav MOHAPATRA, et al. Bioleaching of copper from pre and post thermally activated low grade chalcopyrite contained ball mill spillage[J]. Front Envir Sci Eng, 2013, 7(2): 281-293.
 URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-013-0484-5
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2013/V7/I2/281
Fig.1  Plot of Fe (II) concentration
parametersoperational rangeoriginal spillagethermally activated spillage
operational conditionsoperational conditions
pH1-2.2510% (w/v) pulp density, 10% (v/v) inoculum in media, temperature 30°C, 150 r·min-1, duration 30 days10% (w/v) pulp density, 10% (v/v) inoculum in media, temperature 30°C, 150 r·min-1, duration 10 days
pulp density (w/v)10%-30%pH 2.0, 10% (v/v) inoculum in media, temperature – 30°C, 150 r·min-1, duration 30 dayspH 2.0, 10% (v/v) inoculum in media, temperature 30°C, 150 r·min-1, duration 10 days
inoculum conc. (v/v)10%-25%10% (w/v) pulp density, pH 2.0, temperature 30°C, 150 r·min-1, duration 30 days10% (w/v) pulp density, pH 2.0, temperature 30°C, 150 r·min-1, duration 10 days
particle size/mm(-) 15mm-(+) 0.75mm10% (w/v) pulp density, pH 2.0, temperature 30°C, 150 r·min-1, duration 30 days10% (w/v) pulp density, pH 2.0, temperature 30°C, 150 r·min-1, duration 10 days
Tab.1  Operational conditions for bioleaching of original and thermally activated ball mill spillage sample
Fig.2  Stereomicroscopic photographs of (a) Original sample from the ball mill of beneficiation unit at Malanjkhand Copper Project.; (b) after heat treatment of the original spillage sample. The particle sizes of both original and activated samples used in the experiment are (A) -15+ 10 mm (B) -10+ 5.6 mm (C) -5.6+ 3.3 mm (D) -3.3+ 1 mm (E) -1+ 0.75 mm
Fig.3  (a) FESEM elemental distribution pattern (elemental mapping) shown as white dots, indicating Cu, Fe and S in fewer amounts and Si, O as the major portions. The scale bar indicates 30 μm in the SEM image and.(b) EDS spectra of the ball mill spillage sample show major peaks of Si and O (SiO) along with a minor peak of Al (AlO)
analytecompound formulaconcentration/%
NaNa2O3.511
MgMgO1.253
AlAl2O38.685
SiSiO277.637
PP2O50.073
SSO30.117
KK2O1.986
CaCaO2.343
TiTiO20.270
MnMnO0.057
FeFe2O33.950
NiNiO0.007
CuCuO0.040
RbRb2O0.004
SrSrO0.018
ZrZrO20.010
BaBaO0.040
Tab.2  XRF analysis of ball mill spillage sample
Fig.4  Effect of pH on copper leaching (%) as a function of time (days) for bioleaching of (a) original spillage and (b) activated spillage; (c) comparisons of both original and thermally activated samples for copper recovery
Fig.5  Effect of pulp density on copper leaching (%) as a function of time (days) for bioleaching of (a) original spillage and (b) activated spillage; (c) comparison of both original and thermally activated samples for copper recovery
Fig.6  Effect of inoculum size on copper leaching (%) as a function of time (days) for bioleaching of (a) original spillage and (b) activated spillage; (c) comparisons of both original and thermally activated samples for copper recovery
Fig.7  Effect of particle size on copper leaching (%) as a function of time (days) for bioleaching of (a) original spillage and (b) activated spillage; (c) comparison of both original and thermally activated samples for copper recovery
particle size/mmchemical controlleddiffusion controlled
kcR2kpR2
-15+ 100.00230.750.00030.88
-10+ 5.60.00340.890.00040.91
-5.6+ 3.30.00380.720.00090.91
-3.3+ 1.00.00500.740.00120.90
-1.0+ 0.750.00550.850.00180.99
Tab.3  Determination of shrinking core chemical control (k) and diffusion control (k) constants
pHpulp density /% (w/v)inoculum conc. /% (v/v)particle size/mm
k/day-1nR2k/day-1nR2k/day-1nR2k/day-1nR2
10.0431.010.99100.0450.300.96100.0790.360.81-15+ 100.175-0.160.93
1.50.083150.049150.100-10+ 60.183
1.750.102200.056200.100-6+ 30.196
20.079300.048300.059-3+ 10.211
2.250.051-1+ 5000.277
Tab.4  Development of the rate equation
Fig.8  XRD phase analysis of pre and post thermally activated ball mill spillage. (a) Original spillage before bioleaching; (b) original after bioleaching; (c) thermally activated before bioleaching; (d) thermally activated after bioleaching (LQ: α-SiO (low quartz), HQ: β-SiO (high quartz),CS: Copper Sulphide (CuS), C: Chalcopyrite (CuFeS), P: Pyrite (FeS), J: Jarosite (KO·3FeO·4SO·6HO), AJ: Ammoniojarosite ((NH)Fe(OH)(SO)), NJ: Natrojarosite (NaFe(SO)(OH)), G: Goethite ((FeO(OH)), H: Hematite (FeO),O: Orthoclase (KAlSiO))
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